Index I

Iacobici, Iosif (b. Dec. 8, 1884, Gyulafehérvár [Alba Iulia], Transylvania, Hungary [now in Romania] - d. March 11, 1952, Aiud, Romania), war minister of Romania (1941). He was also chief of the General Staff (1941-42).

Iakovidis, Andreas (I.), English Andreas (J.) Jacovides (b. Dec. 19, 1936, Nicosia, Cyprus), Cypriot diplomat. He was ambassador to the United States (1979-89, 1993-96) and Germany, Austria, and Denmark (1990-92) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-93).

Iakovos, original name Dimitrios (Athanasiou) Koukouzis (b. July 29, 1911, Imroz island, Turkey - d. April 10, 2005, Stamford, Conn.), Greek Orthodox archbishop of America (1959-96). Arriving in the United States in 1939, he was ordained to the priesthood in Lowell, Mass., in 1940 and became a U.S. citizen in 1950. He met with Pope John XXIII after his 1959 enthronement, becoming the first Greek Orthodox archbishop in 350 years to meet with a Roman Catholic prelate, and spent nine years as a president of the World Council of Churches. He marched with the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., in Selma, Ala., in 1965 and received the Medal of Freedom from Pres. Jimmy Carter in 1980. During his long tenure as archbishop, Iakovos led the U.S. Greek Orthodox church out of immigrant isolation and into the mainstream of American religious life, playing a leading role in bringing English into the liturgy. He was instrumental in setting up dialogues between Orthodox churches and Anglicans, Lutherans, Southern Baptists, and other denominations. He opposed the Vietnam War, supported Soviet Jews, and sought to aid the cause of Middle East peace. He met every U.S. president from Dwight D. Eisenhower through Bill Clinton. In September 1987, he took part when U.S. Christian leaders of many denominations met with Pope John Paul II in South Carolina. He sought to maintain Orthodox traditions such as opposing the ordination of women, while at the same time championing human rights and improved race relations. He was apparently forced out over his support for the idea of uniting the various Eastern Orthodox branches in a single American church.

Iakovou, Georgios (Kyriakou), English George Iacovou (b. July 19, 1938, Peristeronopigi village, northern Cyprus), foreign minister of Cyprus (1983-93, 2003-06). He was the runner-up in the 1998 presidential election and was also ambassador to West Germany, Austria, and Switzerland (1979-83) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2006-07).

Ialá, Kumba, Ialá also spelled Yala, also called (after conversion to Islam in July 2008) Mohamed Ialá Embaló (b. March 15, 1953, Pkon village, near Bula, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau] - d. April 4, 2014, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau), president of Guinea-Bissau (2000-03). He was expelled from the ruling African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) in 1989 for demanding greater democratic reform, at a time when Africa was ringing to the sound of calls for pluralist politics. Ialá ran against military ruler João Bernardo Vieira in 1994, winning 49% of the vote in a very close race. He rejected the result as rigged but opted to sit in parliament. He won the presidency at his second attempt in a rare alternation of power in Africa. The Jan. 16, 2000, runoff and the first round on Nov. 28, 1999, when his Party for Social Renewal emerged from legislative elections as the largest group in parliament, were part of a transition agreed after a 1999 army revolt against Vieira. Ialá won a landslide victory, taking 72% of votes cast. It marked the end of the domination of power by the PAIGC, whose candidate, Malam Bacai Sanhá, won only 28%. But with victory came the problem of how to deal with the army, which had toppled Vieira. Both Vieira and Ansumane Mané, the sacked army chief who led the revolt against him and then headed a military junta, were heroes of the independence war. Ialá represented a new generation of politicians. Before the first round of the election, the army made clear that it wanted a special pact giving the outgoing junta special consultative status after the election. Ialá, as a candidate, rejected the idea out of hand. As president Ialá was initially well-liked and when Mané tried to snatch power in November 2000 he was killed by loyalist troops. But in 2002 Ialá became increasingly autocratic and unpopular, and in 2003 he was overthrown in a remarkably smooth military coup which most Bissauans welcomed. He was placed under house arrest after the coup, but his party designated him on March 26, 2005, as its presidential candidate for the June 19 election. On May 15 he announced that he was reclaiming his position as president with immediate effect. He finished third in the elections and, after initially rejecting the results, eventually gave his support to Vieira, who then won the runoff against Sanhá. In the 2009 elections Ialá placed second and then lost the runoff to Sanhá.

Ialomitianu, Gheorghe (b. Sept. 14, 1959, Simon, Bran municipality, Brasov county, Romania), finance minister of Romania (2010-12).

Iauko, Anthony, or Anthony Iaris Harry, interior minister of Vanuatu (2023); son of Harry Iauko.

Iauko, Harry (Iarris) (d. Dec. 10, 2012, Luganville, Vanuatu), Vanuatu politician. He was minister of lands and natural resources (2010-11) and infrastructure and public utilities (2011, 2011-12).

Ibad (Khan), Ishratul, also spelled Ishrat-ul-Ibad, Ibad also spelled Ebad (b. March 3, 1962, Karachi, Pakistan), governor of Sindh (2002-16).

Ibanescu, Nicolae (b. June 2, 1931, Stâncaseni, Vaslui county, Romania), a deputy prime minister of Romania (1987-89). He was also first secretary of the party committee and chairman of the executive committee of Iasi county (1986-87).

Ibáñez (Gutiérrez), Adolfo (b. Nov. 28, 1827, Santiago, Chile - d. Aug. 12, 1898, Santiago), foreign minister (1871-75) and interior minister (1890) of Chile. He was also minister to Peru (1871) and the United States (1875) and minister of justice and education (1896).

Ibáñez (Ibáñez), Maximiliano (b. April 2, 1868, Linares, Chile - d. Dec. 27, 1933, Santiago, Chile), finance minister (1904) and interior minister (1910-11, 1916, 1925-26) of Chile. He was also minister to France (1918-21).

Ibáñez (Nariño), Wenceslao (b. Sept. 28, 1834, Bogotá, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. Oct. 16, 1916, Bogotá), war minister of Colombia (1875, 1879) and president of Cundinamarca (1880-82).

Ibáñez Águila, Bernardo (b. July 12, 1902, Antuco, Bío-Bío, Chile - d. Aug. 19, 1983), Chilean politician. He was secretary-general of the Socialist Party (1945-46) and a minor presidential candidate (1946).

C. Ibáñez
Ibáñez del Campo, Carlos (b. Nov. 3, 1877, Linares, Chile - d. April 28, 1960, Santiago), president of Chile (1927-31, 1952-58). In 1896 he entered the military. He participated in a revolt in 1924 against the government of Arturo Alessandri Palma and took a prominent part in the coup that recalled Alessandri to office in 1925. Ibáñez in effect controlled Chile in 1925-27 as minister of war and then as minister of the interior under Pres. Emiliano Figueroa Larraín. In 1927 he forced the resignation of Figueroa and took over as president. Backed by the army, he exiled or jailed all opposition. He was able to give the nation a semblance of prosperity, as long as foreign credit was available. He sought to rescue the ailing nitrate industry through the creation of a monopoly corporation, Compañía de Salitre de Chile (Cosach), heavily dependent upon U.S. capital. When Cosach failed and the world depression put an end to the influx of foreign capital, the economy crumbled. His administration was brought to an end by what amounted to a national sit-down strike; in July 1931 he fled across the Andes into exile in Argentina. He returned in May 1937 and in September 1938, with the support of Chilean Nazis, attempted an armed revolt that promptly failed. In August 1939 he led another uprising that was again quickly crushed. He ran unsuccessfully for the presidency in 1942. In 1948 he was elected senator for Santiago. In 1952, he again ran for the presidency and won the election through an appeal directed to the depressed urban elements and the rural workers. In marked contrast to his earlier dictatorship, he now demonstrated an ability to conciliate opposition, reorganized government departments to promote efficiency, and encouraged industrial growth.

Ibáñez Freire, Antonio (b. Sept. 25, 1913, Vitoria, Spain - d. May 9, 2003, Madrid, Spain), interior minister of Spain (1979-80). He was also civil governor of Santander (1960-61), Vizcaya (1961-63), and Barcelona (1963-66), director-general of the Guardia Civil (1976-78), and captain-general of Catalonia (1978-79).

Ibáñez Martín, José, conde de Marín (b. Dec. 18, 1896, Valbona, Teruel province, Spain - d. Dec. 21, 1969, Madrid, Spain), Spanish politician. He was education minister (1939-51) and ambassador to Portugal (1958-69).

Ibaragi, Ryuta (b. July 29, 1966), governor of Okayama (2012- ).

Ibarra (Lozano), Aníbal (b. March 1, 1958, Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), chief of government of Buenos Aires city (2000-06). He was suspended and ultimately removed from office over allegations that poor government safety regulation contributed to the death of 194 people in a December 2004 nightclub fire.

Ibarra, Juan, prime minister of Peru (1892). He was also minister of war and navy (1883 [insurrectionary government of Lizardo Montero], 1891-92, 1895-96) and interior and police (1892).

Ibarra Muñoz, Rogelio (b. Aug. 15, 1888, Asunción, Paraguay - d. July 8, 1936, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Paraguay (1923-24). He was also minister to Brazil (1924-28, 1933-34), Bolivia (1930-31), Peru (1931-33), and Chile (1934-36).

Ibarretxe (Markuartu), Juan José (b. May 15, 1957, Llodio, Spain), president of the government of País Vasco (1999-2009).

Ibárruri (Gómez), (Isidora) Dolores, pseudonym La Pasionaria (Spanish: "The Passionflower") (b. Dec. 9, 1895, Gallarta, near Bilbao, Spain - d. Nov. 12, 1989, Madrid), Spanish Communist leader. She was aware of the disparity between her life and that of wealthy mine owners. Becoming radicalized, she published in 1918 an article in a newspaper called El Minero Vizcaino, using for the first time the pseudonym La Pasionaria. Two years later she joined the local Communist Party and served as a delegate (1921) to the national congress that founded the Spanish Communist Party (PCE). She became a member (1930) of PCE's Central Committee. After a turbulent career, in which she was jailed several times for political activities, she emerged as one of the Communist deputies in the Republican parliament and, by the outbreak of the Civil War in 1936, had become a national figure. She earned a legendary reputation as an impassioned orator, coining the Republican battle cry, No pasarán! ("They shall not pass!") and making such famous exhortations as "It is better to die on your feet than to live on your knees" (July 19, 1936). With Francisco Franco's victory in 1939 she escaped by plane to the Soviet Union, where she became an ardent supporter of most Soviet policies and over the years represented her party at Kremlin congresses, until Santiago Carrillo succeeded her as secretary-general in 1960; she then became the party's president, a largely honorary post. She returned to Spain on May 13, 1977, 34 days after the Spanish government again legalized the Communist Party. She was reelected to her deputy seat in the Spanish parliament that year but resigned in 1979 because of ill health. She remained honorary president of the PCE until her death.

Ibbetson, Sir Denzil Charles Jelf (b. Aug. 30, 1847, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England - d. Feb. 21, 1908, London, England), chief commissioner of the Central Provinces (1898-99) and lieutenant governor of Punjab (1907-08); knighted 1903.

Ibbetson, Robert (b. May 4, 1789 - d. Nov. 4, 1880, Hampshire, England), governor of the Straits Settlements (1830-33).

Ibekwe, Dan (Onwura) (b. June 23, 1919, Onitsha [now in Anambra state], Nigeria - d. March 23, 1978), attorney-general and justice minister of Nigeria (1975-76). He was also president of the Federal Court of Appeal (1976-78).

Iberville (et d'Ardillières), Pierre Le Moyne, sieur d' (baptized July 20, 1661, Ville-Marie de Montréal [now Montreal] - d. July 9, 1706, Havana, Cuba), governor of Louisiana (1699). As a young man he took part in raids against English trading posts on Hudson Bay. In 1686 he joined Pierre de Troyes' expedition to the James Bay region, capturing three forts over which he was made commander. Subsequently he distinguished himself in numerous actions against the English, notably at Schenectady, N.Y. (1690), Pemaquid, Maine (1696), and St. John, Newfoundland (1696). His most brilliant foray, the Hudson Bay campaign of 1697, made him, at age 36, New France's most celebrated hero. After the Treaty of Rijswijk (1697) temporarily settled the dispute between the English and the French over Hudson Bay, he was commissioned to fortify the mouth of the Mississippi in order to secure the claim made on Louisiana by René Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle. In January 1699 he explored the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, rediscovering the mouth of the Mississippi. Later he established a temporary fort, Fort Maurepas, on Biloxi Bay (now Ocean Springs, Miss.) and then sailed for France. The following year he returned and established a second fort, Fort La Boulaye, just below present-day New Orleans and in 1702 constructed a new post, Fort Louis, on the Mobile River. In subsequent years the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14) turned Iberville's attention toward the English, hampering his plans to develop Louisiana. In early 1706, commanding a French fleet in the West Indies, he sacked the islands of Nevis and St. Christopher. On the eve of a major expedition against the English in Carolina, he died suddenly.

Ibiam, Akanu, also known as (Sir) Francis Ibiam (b. Nov. 29, 1906, Unwana [now in Ebonyi state], Nigeria - d. July 1, 1995), governor of Eastern region, Nigeria (1960-66). He was baptized in 1919 and given the name Francis. In 1951 he was knighted. In 1967 he dropped his English name and renounced the knighthood, protesting against Britain's supply of military equipment to Nigeria during the Biafra secession.

Ibiapaba, Joaquim da Cunha Freire, barão de (b. Oct. 18, 1827, Caucaia, Ceará, Brazil - d. Oct. 13, 1907, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Ceará (1869, 1870-71, 1871, 1872, 1872, 1873, 1874). He was made baron in 1874.

Ibingira, Grace (Stuart K.) (b. May 23, 1932, Uganda - d. December 1995), Ugandan politician. He was justice minister (1962-64), minister of state (1964-66), permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-74), and information minister (1979-80).

Ibituruna, João Baptista dos Santos, barão e visconde de (b. June 14, 1828, São João del Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Jan. 11, 1911, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Minas Gerais (1889). He was made baron in 1887 and viscount in 1889.

Ibn Auf
Ibn Auf, Awad (Muhammad Ahmad) (b. c. 1954), defense minister (2015-19), first vice president (2019), and chairman of the Transitional Military Council (2019) of The Sudan. He was also ambassador to Oman (2012-15).

Ibn Oumar (Said), Acheikh (b. July 13, 1951, Fort-Lamy [now N'Djamena], Chad), defense minister (1982) and foreign minister (1989-90) of Chad. He has also been minister of education (1981-82), permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States (1992-93), and minister of state in charge of national reconciliation and dialogue (2021- ).

Ibongo Iyanga, Saturnino (b. Jan. 18, 1936, Ngonanmanga, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea] - d. March 6?, 1969, Bata, Equatorial Guinea), Equatorial Guinean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1968-69). Following his alleged involvement in a coup attempt on March 5, 1969, he was arrested and later reported to have committed suicide in prison, though it is widely believed he was killed.

Ibori, James (Onanefu) (b. Aug. 4, 1958, Oghara [now in Delta state], Nigeria), governor of Delta (1999-2007).

Ibragimov, Ali (Ismail ogly) (b. Oct. 1 [Sept. 18, O.S.], 1913, Ust-Kara [now in Zabaikalsky kray], Russia - d. 1990), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1970-81). He was also chairman of the State Planning Committee (1950-53, 1954-63), a deputy premier (1957-58), and first deputy premier (1965-70).

Ibragimov, Bakhtiyor (b. 1966, Tashkent, Uzbek S.S.R.), Uzbek diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2017-23). In 2023 he was appointed ambassador to Austria.

Ibragimov, Gadzhi (Aga Khalil ogly) (b. 1923 - d. 1992), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R. (1961-70).

Ibragimov, Mirza (Azhdar ogly) (b. Oct. 28 [Oct. 15, O.S.], 1911, Sarab province, Azarbaijan region, Iran - d. Dec. 17, 1993), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1954-58). Known as a writer, he was also people's commissar/minister of education (1942-47) and chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1958-59).

Ibragimov, Mirzolim (Ibragimovich) (b. 1928, Fergana, Uzbek S.S.R. - d. Sept. 20/21, 2014), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1989-90). He was also chairman of the Executive Committee of Fergana oblast (1964-68), minister of the cotton industry (1968-73), first secretary of the party committee of Namangan oblast (1973-76), and chairman of the State Committee for Physical Culture and Sports (1976-88).

Ibragimov, Rakhim (Kireyevich) (b. Aug. 15 [Aug. 2, O.S.], 1904, Itkul, Orenburg province, Russia - d. Dec. 20, 1971, Ufa, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now Bashkortostan, Russia]), acting chairman of the Central Executive Committee (1937-38) and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1938-46) of the Bashkir A.S.S.R. He was also minister of food industry (1946-53).

Abdallah Ibrahim
Ibrahim, (Moulay) Abdallah, Arabic Mawlay `Abd Allah Ibrahim (b. Aug. 24, 1918, Tamesloht village, near Marrakech, Morocco - d. Sept. 11, 2005, Casablanca, Morocco), prime minister and foreign minister of Morocco (1958-60). He was also labour and social affairs minister (1956-58).

Ibrahim, Abu al-Qasim Muhammad (b. 1937, Omdurman, Sudan), interior minister (1970-71) and first vice president (1977-79) of The Sudan. He was also minister of local government (1969-70), health (1971-74, 2000-01), agriculture, food, and natural resources (1974-76), and relations with the National Assembly (1996-2000).

Ibrahim, (Alhaji) Bukar Abba, early childhood name Bukar Fulata (b. October 1950, Goniri [now in Yobe state], Nigeria - d. Feb. 4, 2024, Makkah, Saudi Arabia), governor of Yobe (1992-93, 1999-2007).

Ibrahim, Fahmi Said (b. Nov. 1, 1963, Moroni, Comoros), foreign minister of the Comoros (2010-11).

Ibrahim, Hafiz Mohammad (b. 1889, Bijnor district, North-Western Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Jan. 24, 1968), governor of Punjab (1964-65). He was also Indian minister of irrigation and power (1958-63).

Ibrahim (al-Douri), Izzat, Arabic `Izzat Ibrahim al-Dawri (b. 1942, al-Dour, Iraq - d. Oct. 26, 2020), interior minister of Iraq (1974-79). He was also minister of agrarian reform (1969-74) and agriculture (1972-74) and vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council (1979-2003). Reports that he died on Nov. 11, 2005, were later contradicted. By that time he was the "single most significant regime figure" still at large after the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq and overthrow of the Saddam Hussein regime in 2003. He was blamed for coordinating some of the attacks on U.S.-led forces and a $10 million reward was offered for his capture. In an audio message broadcast on al-Jazeera in March 2006, he urged the Arab League summit meeting in Khartoum to recognize "the Iraqi resistance as the sole legitimate representative of the Iraqi people" and to "boycott the regime of agents and traitors." He was reportedly killed in an operation by Iraqi security forces and Shia militia members on April 17, 2015, but this was apparently contradicted by the release of a new audiotape in May in which he commented on recent events.

Ibrahim, Alhaji Sir (Shettima) Kashim (b. June 10, 1910, Maiduguri [now in Borno state], Nigeria - d. July 25, 1990, Maiduguri), governor of Northern region, Nigeria (1962-66); knighted 1962. He was also Nigerian minister of social services (1952-53) and education (1953-55).

Ibrahim, (Alhaji Mohammed) Malam Awwal (b. 1941), governor of Niger state (1979-83) and emir of Suleja (1993-94, 2000- ).

Ibrahim, Qasim, also spelled Gasim Ibrahim (b. Aug. 30, 1951, Maamigili island, Alif Dhaal atoll, Maldives), finance minister (2005-08) and home affairs minister (2008) of Maldives. He was also a presidential candidate (2008, 2013) and speaker of the People's Special Majlis (2007-08) and the People's Majlis (2018-19).

Ibrahim Dervis Pasha, Lofçali (b. 1817, Lofça, Ottoman Empire [now Lovech, Bulgaria] - d. June 21, 1896, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]), war minister of the Ottoman Empire (1875-76, 1876). He was also governor of Ioannina (1858-63), Diyarbakir (1867-68), Aleppo (1869-72), Bosnia (1874-75), Monastir (1875, 1876), and Salonika (1880-82) and navy minister (1876).

Ibrahim Edib Efendi (b. 1832, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. April 11, 1889), finance minister of the Ottoman Empire (1879-80, 1882).

Ibrahim Halil Pasha (d. 1878), war minister of the Ottoman Empire (1863). He was also minister of navy (1865-66) and commerce and public works (1866-67) and governor of Trebizond (1877) and Salonika (1877-78).

Ibrahim Halil Pasha, Morali (b. 1818 - d. 1889), Ottoman official. He was navy minister (1872, 1878) and governor of the Archipelago (1874-77).

Ibrahim Hayrullah Bey, Pirizade (b. 1859, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. 1934), justice minister of the Ottoman Empire (1913-17). He was also governor of Salonika (1909-12) and Constantinople (1912), head of the Council of State (1914-18), and minister of waqfs (1916-17).

Ibrahim Hilmi Pasha, (Keçiboynuzu) (b. 1747, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. June 17, 1825, Kos island, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece]), grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1806-07). He was also governor of Salonika (1807-08), Bosnia (1808-13), Crete (1819-20), and Adana (1821-23).

Ibrahim Ismail ibni al-Marhum Sultan Iskandar, Tuanku (b. Nov. 22, 1958, Johor Bahru, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), regent (1984-89) and sultan (2010- ) of Johor and yang di-pertuan agong of Malaysia (2024- ); son of Tuanku Mahmud Iskandar ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ismail.

Ibrahim Pasha (b. 1789, Kavala, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. Nov. 10, 1848, Cairo, Egypt), governor of Egypt (1848); son of Muhammad Ali Pasha.

Ibrahim Saib Pasha (d. Dec. 9, 1848), finance minister of the Ottoman Empire (1839-41). He was also governor of Silistra (1845-47).

Ibrahimaj, Delina (b. Dec. 23, 1983, Tiranë, Albania), finance minister of Albania (2021-23).

Ibrahimi, Ahmed Taleb, Arabic Ahmad Talib al-Ibrahimi (b. Jan. 5, 1932, Sétif, Algeria), Algerian politician. He was minister of education (1965-70) and information and culture (1970-77) and then a presidential adviser before becoming foreign minister (1982-88). Moderate and Islamist-minded, he was widely respected by Islamists as the son of Bachir Ibrahimi who founded the Muslim Scholars Association between 1932 and 1964 to promote moderate political Islam and the Arabic language. As presidential candidate in 1999, he favoured dialogue with the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), pledging an amnesty for jailed FIS members if he won the presidency.

Ibrahimovic, Hajrudin (b. April 15, 1957), acting premier of Sarajevo canton (2008-09).

J. Ibraimov
Ibraimov, Jumabek (Ibraimovich) (b. Jan. 1, 1944, Kemin district, Kirgiz S.S.R. - d. April 4, 1999), prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (1998-99). A member of the Central Committee of the Kirgiz S.S.R. Communist Party from 1988 to 1991, Ibraimov became the mayor of the capital, Bishkek, in 1993, but retired in 1995 when his health became a concern. He continued to act as a state secretary and an advisor to Pres. Askar Akayev until December 1997 when he was unexpectedly appointed chairman of the State Property Fund. One year later he was a surprise choice to replace Kubanychbek Jumaliyev as prime minister when the latter was sacked by Akayev after less than one year in the post. Jumaliyev was dismissed for his government's failure in dealing with the growing fallout from the Russian financial crisis. Ibraimov was never seen as more than a transitional figure. During his short period in office, Kyrgyzstan's economy continued to suffer from the effects of the Russian financial crisis. The national currency, which had rebounded from a low of 35 som to one dollar in November 1998 to just under 30 to one dollar at year's end began to fall again in late February 1999. Other complications were caused by Kyrgyzstan's neighbours, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Kazakhstan's decision in February to raise by 200% tariff rates on some goods from Kyrgyzstan had a heavy impact on the Kyrgyz economy. Equally distressing for Kyrgyzstan were interruptions in supplies of natural gas from Uzbekistan which occurred in February and March. Additionally, a dispute over borders has arisen between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan since mid-February. Some deputies in the Kyrgyz parliament claimed Uzbekistan had moved its border into Kyrgyz territory and established new fortified border posts is these areas. He died in office.

Ibraimov, Memet (Ibraimovich), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Crimean A.S.S.R. (1937-42).

Ibraimov, Sultan (Ibraimovich) (b. Sept. 20, 1927, Alchalu, Kirgiz A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Chuy oblast, Kyrgyzstan] - d. [assassinated] Dec. 4, 1980, Cholpon-Ata, Issyk-Kul oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1978) and chairman of the Council of Ministers (1978-80) of the Kirgiz S.S.R. He was also minister of irrigation and water management (1961-66) and first secretary of the party committee of Osh oblast (1968-78).

Ibraimov, Vely (b. 1889, Simferopol, Tavrida province, Russia [now in Crimea republic] - d. [executed] May 9, 1928, Simferopol), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Crimean A.S.S.R. (1924-28).

Ibraimova, Elmira (Sultanovna) (b. April 13, 1962, Frunze, Kirgiz S.S.R. [now Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan]), Kyrgyz politician; daughter of Sultan Ibraimov. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2001), a deputy prime minister (2008-09), and chairman of the Audit Chamber (2012-16).

Ibrahimpasic, Muhamed (b. May 2, 1947, Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina - d. Oct. 15, 2020, Bihac), premier of Una-Sana (2001-02).

Ibru, Alex(ander Uruemu) (b. March 1, 1945, Agbarha-Otor village, near Ughelli [now in Delta state], Nigeria - d. Nov. 20, 2011), interior minister of Nigeria (1993-95); brother of Felix Ibru.

Ibru, (Olorogun) Felix (Ovuodoroye) (b. Dec. 7, 1935, Agbarha-Otor village, near Ughelli [now in Delta state], Nigeria - d. March 12, 2016), governor of Delta (1992-93).

Ibuki, Bunmei (b. Jan. 9, 1938, Kyoto, Japan), finance minister of Japan (2008). He was also minister of labour (1997-98) and education, culture, sports, science, and technology (2006-07) and speaker of the House of Representatives (2012-14).

Icazuriaga (Medice), Héctor, byname Chango (b. Jan. 9, 1955, Chivilcoy, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), governor of Santa Cruz (2003). In 2003-14 he was head of the Intelligence Secretariat in the national government.

Ichikawa, Yasuo (b. Feb. 6, 1942, Ishikawa prefecture, Japan), defense minister of Japan (2011-12).

Ichiki, Kitokuro, in full (from 1933) Danshaku (Baron) Kitokuro Ichiki (b. May 7 [April 4, lunar calendar], 1867, in present Shizuoka prefecture, Japan - d. Dec. 17, 1944), home affairs minister of Japan (1915-16). He was also minister of education (1914-15), minister of the imperial household (1925-33), and president of the Privy Council (1934-36).

Ichiki, Otohiko (b. May 19 [April 13, lunar calendar], 1872, Kagoshima prefecture, Japan - d. Feb. 19, 1954), finance minister of Japan (1922-23). He was also governor of the Bank of Japan (1923-27) and mayor of Tokyo (1928-29).

Ichimada, Hisato (b. Aug. 12, 1893, Oita prefecture, Japan - d. Jan. 22, 1984), finance minister of Japan (1954-56, 1957-58). He was also governor of the Bank of Japan (1946-54).

Ichimi, Katsuyuki (b. Jan. 30, 1963), governor of Mie (2021- ).

Ickes, Harold L(eClair) (b. March 15, 1874, Frankstown Township, Pa. - d. Feb. 3, 1952, Washington, D.C.), U.S. interior secretary (1933-46); nephew-in-law of John Cudahy. In 1916 he took a prominent part in Charles Evans Hughes' presidential campaign. A progressive Republican, Ickes supported Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt's campaign in 1932 and after Roosevelt's election was made secretary of the interior. He became one of the most energetic and dedicated New Dealers in Washington and a lifelong supporter of the president. In his new post he fought for the preservation of natural resources against exploitation by private interests. Ickes won a wider reputation as head (1933-39) of the Public Works Administration (PWA). He spent money so carefully that many of his projects were slow getting under way, thereby failing to stimulate the depressed national economy as early as desired, but his numerous PWA contracts were virtually graft-proof. One of his most valuable services to consumers was in establishing "yardsticks" for electric-power rates through federal and municipal power projects. With the entrance of the U.S. into World War II, his duties were further increased; he became, for instance, petroleum administrator in 1942. During presidential campaigns, he became known as "Roosevelt's hatchet man" because of his colourful attacks upon Republican candidates; between campaigns he feuded with almost equal vigour with several of his Democratic colleagues, and his trenchant opinions of many others were recorded in his lively diary, published posthumously (The Secret Diary of Harold L. Ickes, 3 vol., 1953-54). He resigned in 1946 on the ground that he could not support certain men selected by Pres. Harry S. Truman for inclusion in the administration.

Ickonga, Auxence (b. July 27, 1937, Makoua, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. Dec. 22, 1989, Brazzaville), foreign minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1970-71); nephew of Charles Assemekang. He was also ambassador to Egypt (1966-69), France (1972-74), and the United Kingdom (1973-74) and agriculture minister (1969-70).

Idabaye (Ngarbaye), Daba, until 1973 Jacques Morbaye, defense minister of Chad (1973-75); nephew of N'Garta Tombalbaye.

Iddesleigh, Stafford Henry Northcote, (1st) Earl of, (1st) Viscount St. Cyres (b. Oct. 27, 1818, London, England - d. Jan. 12, 1887, London), British politician. He was president of the Board of Trade (1866-67), secretary of state for India (1867-68), chancellor of the exchequer (1874-80), and foreign secretary (1886-87). He succeeded his grandfather as (8th) baronet in 1851 and was created earl (and viscount) in 1885.

Iddrisu, Mahama, defense minister (1985-99) and interior minister (1996-97) of Ghana. He was also minister of local government (1978-79) and transport and communications (1982-85).

Ide, Henry Clay (b. Sept. 18, 1844, Barnet, Vt. - d. June 13, 1921, St. Johnsbury, Vt.), chief justice of Samoa (1893-97) and governor-general of the Philippines (1905-06). He served in the Vermont Senate from 1882 to 1885. In March 1891 he was appointed U.S. land commissioner in Samoa, where he won the praise of Robert Louis Stevenson for his "capacity, moderation, tact, and temper" before leaving Samoa in November of that year. Under the joint appointment of the U.S., Britain, and Germany, he became chief justice. From 1900 to 1906 he served in various official capacities in the Philippines, including as secretary of finance and justice (1901-08), vice governor, and governor-general. He played an important role in framing new laws on civil procedure and internal revenue and in reforming of the currency of the Philippines. In 1909 he was appointed U.S. envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Spain, where he remained until August 1913.

Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung (b. July 21, 1921, Gianyar, Bali, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia] - d. April 22, 1999), ruler of Gianyar (1943-45, 1960-99), prime minister of Indonesia Timur (1947-49), and interior minister (1949-50) and foreign minister (1955-56) of Indonesia. He also served as ambassador to Belgium (1951-53) and France (1953-55). He was imprisoned by Sukarno from 1962 to 1966, then under Suharto served as ambassador to Austria (1969-74).

Idenburg, Alexander Willem Frederik (b. July 23, 1861, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. Feb. 28, 1935, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1905-08) and of the Netherlands East Indies (1909-16). He was also Dutch minister of colonies (1902-05, 1908-09, 1918-19).

Idiagbon, Tunde, in full Babatunde Baku Abdul Idiagbon (b. Sept. 14, 1943, Ilorin, central Nigeria - d. March 24, 1999, Ilorin), Nigerian politician. Major General Idiagbon, who was administrator of Borno in 1978-79, was deputy to Gen. Muhammadu Buhari who seized power from Nigeria's last elected civilian government on the eve of 1984. The feared military number two exerted a strong influence on the government and became the public face of the draconian regime which enacted the dreaded Decree Two, allowing indefinite detention without trial, and applied the death penalty on drug traffickers. After their regime was overthrown by Gen. Ibrahim Babangida in August 1985, Idiagbon retired to his hometown following his release from detention. He never gave interviews and made very rare public appearances.

Idiáquez (Cruz), Ismael de (b. 1858, Lima, Peru - d. 19...), finance minister of Peru (1919).

Idiarte Borda (Soumastre), Juan (Bautista) (b. April 20, 1844, Mercedes, Uruguay - d. [assassinated] Aug. 25, 1897, Montevideo, Uruguay), president of Uruguay (1894-97).

Idiatullin, Revo (Ramazanovich) (b. Oct. 2, 1938, Kazan, Tatar A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Tatar A.S.S.R. (1990-91). He was also mayor of Kazan (1985-88).

Idigov, Akhyad (b. 1948, Kazakh S.S.R.), foreign minister of Chechnya (1998-99).

Idman, Karl Gustaf (b. Dec. 1, 1885, Tampere, Finland - d. April 13, 1961, Helsinki, Finland), foreign minister of Finland (1925). He was also minister to Denmark (1919-27), Hungary (1922-27), Latvia and Lithuania (1927-28), Czechoslovakia (1927-35), Poland and Romania (1928-38), Japan (1939-45), and Manchukuo (1941-45).

Ido, Toshizo (b. Aug. 10, 1945), governor of Hyogo (2001-21).

Idohou, Bodéhoussè Simon (b. May 23, 1950, Porto-Novo, Dahomey [now Benin]), Beninese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-06).

Idris I
Idris I, in full Sidi Muhammad Idris al-Mahdi al-Sanusi (b. March 13, 1890, Jarabub, Cyrenaica, Libya - d. May 25, 1983, Cairo, Egypt), king of Libya (1951-69). The grandson of the founder of the Sanusiya, an Islamic tariqa, or brotherhood, centred in Cyrenaica, Idris was destined to succeed his father as its leader. But because he was a minor when his father died in 1902, leadership first passed to his cousin, Ahmad al-Sharif. Replacing Ahmad in 1916, his first problem was to deal with the Italians, who in 1911 had invaded Libya. Idris ultimately went into exile in Egypt, where he remained until British forces occupied Libya in 1942 during World War II. He continued to direct his followers from Egypt, not returning permanently until 1947, when he could head an official government. Conservative tribesmen thought in terms of a Sanusi government ruling over Cyrenaica, but younger and more urbanized elements looked to a union of the Libyan provinces. The issue was finally determined by the United Nations in November 1949, when the General Assembly resolved that the future of Cyrenaica, Fezzan, and Tripolitania should be decided upon by representatives of the three areas meeting in a national assembly. This assembly established a constitutional monarchy and offered the throne to Idris. Libya declared its independence in December 1951. Many of the younger army officers and members of the growing urban middle class resented his socially conservative policies and his aloofness from the growing currents of Arab nationalism. In September 1969, while Idris was in Turkey for medical treatment, the army, led by Col. Muammar al-Qaddafi, overthrew his government. He went first to Greece and then was given political asylum in Egypt. In 1974 he was tried in absentia on charges of corruption and found guilty. He remained in exile in Cairo until his death.

Idris, (Alhaji) Ibrahim (b. April 6, 1949, Onitsha, Nigeria), governor of Kogi (2003-08, 2008-12).

N. Idris
Idris, (Mohammed) Nasir (b. June 8, 1965, Birnin Kebbi [now in Kebbi state], Nigeria), governor of Kebbi (2023- ).

Idris (bin Haji) Haron, Datuk Seri (b. May 13, 1966, Jasin, Malacca, Malaysia), chief minister of Malacca (2013-18).

Idris ibn `Uthman, Shaykh, or Shehu Idris (b. Feb. 20, 1936, Zaria [now in Kaduna state], Nigeria - d. Sept. 20, 2020, Kaduna, Nigeria), emir of Zaria (1975-2020).

Idris Jusoh

Idris Shah
Idris (bin) Jusoh, Dato' Seri (Haji) (b. Nov. 15, 1955, Besut, Terengganu, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Terengganu (2004-08). He was also Malaysian second education minister (2013-15) and minister of higher education (2015-18). He received the titles of Datuk (April 28, 1988) and Dato' Seri (July 20, 2004).

Idris Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Salehuddin Abdul Aziz Shah, Sharafuddin (b. Dec. 24, 1945, Klang, Selangor), sultan of Selangor (2001- ).

Idrisov, Yerlan (Abilfaizovich) (b. April 28, 1959, Karkaralinsk, Karaganda oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), foreign minister of Kazakhstan (1999-2002, 2012-16). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (2002-07, 2017-22) and the United States (2007-12).

Idrus (bin Azizan) Harun, Tan Sri (b. 1955, Sanglang, Kedah, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), attorney general of Malaysia (2020- ). He was awarded the titles Dato' (1997), Datuk (2007), Dato' Sri (2013), and Tan Sri (2014).

Idsinga, Willem Hendrik Johan van (b. June 25, 1822, Baardwijk, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. Nov. 16, 1896, The Hague, Netherlands), administrator of Sint Eustatius (1854-60) and Sint Maarten (1860-65) and governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1867-73); son-in-law of Reinier Frederik baron van Raders.

Idzumbuir Bolumbu Asal, originally Théodore Idzumbuir (b. Nov. 9, 1930, Lusanga, Belgian Congo [now in Kwilu province, Congo (Kinshasa)]), Zairian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1963-71), ambassador to the United Kingdom (1972), Brazil (1973-76), and the United States (1976-77), and state commissioner without portfolio (1981-82).

Ie, Sadali (b. Aug. 28, 1968), acting governor of Maluku (2024- ).



Iehsi, Ieske K(iesi) (b. Jan. 4, 1955, Pingelap Atoll, Pohnpei, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), foreign minister of the Federated States of Micronesia (2000-03).

Ielemia, Apisai (b. Aug. 19, 1955 - d. Nov. 19, 2018, Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu), prime minister (2006-10) and foreign minister (2006-10, 2010-13) of Tuvalu. He was also minister of environment, trade, labour, and tourism (2010-13).

Iemma, Morris (b. July 21, 1961, Sydney, N.S.W.), premier of New South Wales (2005-08).

Ieng Sary
Ieng Sary, original name Kim Trang (b. Oct. 24, 1925, Vinh Binh, Tra Vinh province, Vietnam - d. March 14, 2013, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), deputy prime minister (1975-79) and foreign minister (1976-79) of Cambodia. He was sentenced to death in absentia in August 1979, eight months after the overthrow of the Khmer Rouge regime. The Khmer Rouge carried on fighting a guerrilla war from the jungle after their ouster; when they were confined to a dwindling number of strongholds, mostly in border areas, Ieng Sary became the first member of the inner circle to defect. In August 1996, he seized control of thousands of Khmer Rouge guerrillas and the gem-rich area they controlled along the Thai border. A month later, at the request of Prime Minister Hun Sen, King Norodom Sihanouk rewarded Ieng Sary with an amnesty for breaking away from his comrades-in-arms. The amnesty lifted the death sentence against Ieng Sary and granted him immunity from prosecution under a 1994 law outlawing the Khmer Rouge. He was, however, arrested in November 2007 to be tried before a UN-backed genocide tribunal. The trial started in June 2011 but he died during its course.

Ieng Thirith, née Khieu Thirith (b. March 10, 1932 - d. Aug. 22, 2015), Cambodian politician; wife of Ieng Sary; sister-in-law of Pol Pot. She was minister of education (1975-76) and social affairs (1976-79).

Ierofei (b. 1727, Chernigov province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Sept. 13 [Sept. 2, O.S.], 1799), metropolitan of Kiev (1796-99). He was also bishop of Chernigov (1788-96).

Iese, Irani name `Ali Qoli Khan, Ottoman name Mostafa Pasha (b. c. 1680 - d. 1727), king of K`art`li (1714-16, 1724-27).

Ieu Koeus (b. 1905, Sangkè district, Battambang province, Cambodia - d. [assassinated] Jan. 14, 1950, Phnom Penh), prime minister of Cambodia (1949). He was also interior minister (1949).

Iezekiel (b. 1913 - d. July 1, 1987, Athens, Greece), archbishop of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia (1959-74). He resigned on Feb. 24, 1968, but was reelected on Aug. 12, 1969.

Ifoku (Mputa Mpunga), Marie-Josée (b. Feb. 6, 1965, Léopoldville [now Kinshasa], Congo [Léopoldville]), acting governor of Tshuapa (2016-17). She was a minor presidential candidate in Congo (Kinshasa) in 2018 and 2023.

Iftodi, Victoria (b. Jan. 13, 1969, Lalova, Rezina district, Moldavian S.S.R.), justice minister of Moldova (2004-06, 2018-19). She was also ambassador to France (2006-09) and Algeria (2007-09).

Igas, Traian (Constantin) (b. Sept. 29, 1968, Cristian, Sibiu county, Romania), interior minister of Romania (2010-12).

Igbinedion, Lucky (Nosakhare) (b. May 13, 1957, Oredo, Nigeria), governor of Edo (1999-2007).

Ige, Bola (b. Sept. 13, 1930, Esa-Oke village [now in Osun state], Nigeria - d. [assassinated] Dec. 23, 2001, Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo state), governor of Oyo (1979-83) and justice minister of Nigeria (2000-01). He was also minister of power and steel (1999-2000).

Ige, David (Yutaka) (b. Jan. 15, 1957, Pearl City, Hawaii), governor of Hawaii (2014-22).

Igic, Ljubisa (b. May 31, 1941, Nis, Serbia), acting president of the Presidency of Serbia (1989).

Iglesias (García), Enrique (Valentín) (b. March 29, 1930, Arancedo parish, El Franco municipality, Asturias, Spain), foreign minister of Uruguay (1985-88), president of the Inter-American Development Bank (1988-2005), and secretary-general of the Ibero-American Secretariat (2005-14). An Uruguayan-Spanish dual citizen, he was president of Uruguay's central bank in 1966-68.

Iglesias (Argüelles), Gerardo (b. June 29, 1945, near Mieres, Asturias, Spain), general secretary of the Spanish Communist Party (1982-88).

Iglesias (Pino de Arce), Joaquín (b. 1822, Cajamarca, Peru - d. Feb. 27, 1888, Lima, Peru), prime minister and interior minister of Peru (1885); brother of Miguel Iglesias.

Iglesias (Pino de Arce), Lorenzo (b. July 24, 1841, Cajamarca, Peru - d. Oct. 15, 1885, near Canta, Peru), prime minister of Peru (1883); brother of Miguel Iglesias. He was also acting foreign and finance minister (1883).

Iglesias (Pino de Arce), Miguel (b. June 11, 1830, Cajamarca, Peru - d. Nov. 7, 1909, Madrid, Spain), president of Peru (1882-85). He was also prefect of Cajamarca (1865-68, 1872-73).

Iglesias, Pablo, byname of Paulino Iglesias Posse (b. Oct. 18, 1850, El Ferrol, Spain - d. Dec. 9, 1925, Madrid, Spain), Spanish political leader. President of the printers' union from 1874, he founded the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) in May 1879 and became its secretary and, from 1888, president. In 1882 he organized the first strike in Spain after the 1875 restoration of the monarchy. In 1886 El Socialista, the Socialist newspaper, was founded, with Iglesias as editor. He also headed the Socialist-affiliated General Union of Workers (UGT), organized in 1888. He guided the PSOE on a disciplined, austere, and evolutionary course, building up the organizations and educating the working class. He suffered imprisonment for his activity on several occasions between 1882 and 1909. Although for many years he scorned alliance with non-working-class parties, he believed in parliamentary and municipal political action. He was one of the first Socialists elected to the Madrid Municipal Council (1905) and to the Cortes, the Spanish parliament (1910), though the PSOE never surpassed 7 seats before his death. He opposed the more radical practice of pro-Bolshevik forces; in 1921 he helped prevent the PSOE from joining the Third International.

Iglesias (Turrión), Pablo (Manuel) (b. Oct. 17, 1978, Madrid, Spain), Spanish politician. In 2011 the ponytailed political science professor (not coincidentally named like the 19th-century father of Spanish socialism) became a key member of the 15-M movement, which took to the streets of 58 Spanish cities on May 15, 2011, to demand an end to rising unemployment, spending cuts, and home repossessions. By the end of that year, the right-wing Popular Party replaced a hopelessly adrift Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) in government. Rather than listen to the demands of the estimated 6.5 million people who had taken part in 15-M demonstrations, the PP did the opposite, making savage cuts to health and education as well as other public services. Home repossession soared, a particular sore point since the Spanish banks that were calling in loans had been bailed out to the tune of €41.3 billion of European taxpayers' money. Unemployment rose to more than 26%. It was in this atmosphere that Iglesias founded Podemos ("We Can") at the start of 2014. It had no money and no big financial backers - but it did have the brilliantly organized Iglesias. Within months, the party won almost 8% of the national vote in European elections. Iglesias and four of his colleagues were elected to the European Parliament. Iglesias eschewed traditional politics; his party made announcements using the WhatsApp messaging app, and his rallies started with the theme from Ghostbusters, followed by the chant of "Sí, se puede" - "yes, we can." In 2015 Podemos took a fifth of the vote in parliamentary elections, blowing apart the cosy arrangement that had existed in Spain since the return to democracy in the late 1970s, which had allowed the PP and PSOE to alternate in power. In 2020 he joined a PSOE-led coalition government as second deputy prime minister and minister of social rights. He resigned in 2021 to run in Madrid regional elections; after a disappointing result, he left politics.

Roberto Iglesias
Iglesias (Gil), Roberto (Raúl) (b. 1951), governor of Mendoza (1999-2003).

Iglesias (Rodríguez), Teófilo (A.) (b. 1888? - d. April 29, 1942, Washington, D.C.), finance minister (1936-37) and war minister (1939-40) of Peru.

Iglesias Castro, Rafael: see Yglesias Castro, Rafael.

Iglésias Navarri, Ramon (Catalan), Castilian Ramón Iglesias Navarri (b. Jan. 28, 1889, Durro, Spain - d. March 31, 1972, La Seu d'Urgel, Spain), co-prince of Andorra (1943-69).

M. Iglesias
Iglesias Ricou, Marcelino (b. April 16, 1951, Bonansa, Huesca, Aragón), president of the Diputación General of Aragón (1999-2011).

Ignacio-Pinto, Louis (b. June 21, 1903, Porto-Novo, Dahomey [now Benin] - d. May 24, 1984, Dourdan, Essonne, France), Dahomey politician. He was minister of economy and industry (1957-58) and justice (1958-59), permanent representative to the United Nations (1960-67), ambassador to the United States (1961-67), president of the Supreme Court (1967-70), and a judge on the International Court of Justice (1970-79).

Ignar, Stefan (b. Feb. 17, 1908, Baldrzychów, Poland - d. Jan. 23, 1992, Warsaw, Poland), a deputy premier of Poland (1956-69). He was chairman of the United Peasants' Party (1956-62, 1981).

Ignatenko, Vitaly (Nikitich) (b. April 19, 1941, Sochi, Russian S.F.S.R.), a deputy prime minister of Russia (1995-97). He was also director-general of the TASS (from 1992 ITAR-TASS) news agency (1991-2012).

Ignatieff, George, originally Georgy (Pavlovich) Ignatyev (b. Dec. 16, 1913, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Aug. 10, 1989, Sherbrooke, Que.), Canadian diplomat; son of Graf Pavel Ignatyev (1870-1945). He was ambassador to Yugoslavia (1956-58) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1966-69).

Ignatieff, Michael (Grant) (b. May 12, 1947, Toronto, Ont.), Canadian politician; son of George Ignatieff. Also known as a writer, he was leader of the Liberal Party (2008-11).

Ignatius, Gustaf (b. June 8, 1873, Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland - d. Dec. 21, 1949, Helsinki), governor of Kuopio (1918-40) and interior minister of Finland (1925-26).

Ignatov, Nikolay (Grigoryevich) (b. May 16 [May 3, O.S.], 1901, Tishanskaya village, near Tsaritsyn [now Volgograd], Russia - d. Nov. 14, 1966, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1959, 1962-66). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Kuybyshev (1938-40), Oryol (1944-48), Voronezh (1954-55), and Gorky (1955-57) oblasti, Krasnodar kray (1949-52), and Leningrad city (1953) and Soviet minister of food reserves (1952-53), a deputy premier (1960-62), and chairman of the State Committee for Procurement (1961-62).

Ignatyev, Graf (Count) Aleksey (Pavlovich) (b. June 3 [May 22, O.S.], 1842, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Dec. 22 [Dec. 9, O.S.], 1906, Tver, Russia), governor-general of East Siberia (1885-89, from 1887 Irkutsk) and Kiev, Podolia, and Volyn (1889-97); brother of Graf Nikolay Ignatyev; son of Graf Pavel Ignatyev (1797-1880).

Ignatyev, Leonid (Filippovich), acting first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Udmurt A.S.S.R. (1959). He was second secretary in 1952-63.

M. Ignatyev
Ignatyev, Mikhail (Vasilyevich) (b. Jan. 8, 1962, Malyye Torkhany, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. - d. June 18, 2020, St. Petersburg, Russia), president (2010-12) and head of the republic (2012-20) of Chuvashia.

Ignatyev, Graf (Count) Nikolay (Pavlovich) (b. Jan. 29 [Jan. 17, O.S.], 1832, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. July 3 [June 20, O.S.], 1908, Krupodernitsy estate, Kiev province, Russia [now in Ukraine]), interior minister of Russia (1881-82); son of Graf Pavel Ignatyev (1797-1880). He was also envoy to China (1859-60), minister (1864-67) and ambassador (1867-77) to the Ottoman Empire, governor-general of Nizhny Novgorod (1879-80), and minister of state properties (1881).

Ignatyev, Graf (Count) Pavel (Nikolayevich) (b. June 18 [June 7, O.S.], 1797 - d. Jan. 1, 1880 [Dec. 20, 1879, O.S.]), chairman of the Committee of Ministers of Russia (1872-80). He was also governor-general of Vitebsk, Mogilyov, and Smolensk (1853-54) and Saint Petersburg (1854-61). He was made a count on Dec. 24, 1877.

Ignatyev, Graf (Count) Pavel (Nikolayevich) (b. July 12 [June 30, O.S.], 1870, Büyükdere, near Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Aug. 12, 1945, Upper Melbourne, Que.), Russian politician; son of Graf Nikolay Ignatyev. He was governor of Kiev (1907-09) and education minister (1915-17), later emigrating to Canada.

Ignatyev, Semyon (Denisovich) (b. Sept. 14 [Sept. 1, O.S.], 1904, Karlovka, Kherson province, Russia - d. Nov. 27, 1983, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet politician. He held regional posts in the secret police in the 1920s and in the party in the next two decades (first secretary of the party committees of Buryat-Mongol A.S.S.R. [1937-43] and Bashkir A.S.S.R. [1943-46]) before becoming minister of state security in 1951. As such he was responsible for investigating the so-called "Doctors' Plot." As Nikita Khrushchev revealed at the 20th Communist Party Congress in 1956, Ignatyev had been ordered to obtain confessions from a group of Kremlin doctors, most of whom were Jews, under threats from Stalin that his own life would be taken if he failed. The doctors were alleged to have murdered Stalin's henchman Andrey Zhdanov in 1948 and to have tried to destroy the health of other leading figures. Two of the doctors died during interrogation and the others were released soon after Stalin's death when, as Khrushchev later confirmed, it was accepted that the case had been "fabricated from beginning to end." Ignatyev himself, who was reported to have suffered a heart attack, lost his post immediately after Stalin's death (March 1953) when Lavrenty Beria became head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, with which the Ministry of State Security was merged. He was made a secretary of the Central Committee, but was removed already in April 1953 for having shown "political blindness and gullibility" in the doctors case. Rehabilitated by Khrushchev, he became party chief in the Bashkir republic again in 1953 and was shifted to the adjoining Tatar republic in 1957, which he led until his retirement in 1960. In 1974, on his 70th birthday, he was awarded the Order of the October Revolution.

V. Ignatyev
Ignatyev, Vitaly (Viktorovich) (b. July 5, 1980, Kotovsk, Odessa oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Transnistria (2015- ).

Igumnov, Gennady (Vyacheslavovich) (b. Oct. 27, 1936, Gubakha, Perm oblast [now in Perm kray], Russia - d. May 20, 2021, Perm, Russia), head of the administration of Perm oblast (1996-2000).

Ihlen, Alfred (b. Oct. 31, 1877, Haugsund [now Hokksund, Øvre Eiker municipality], Buskerud, Norway - d. Jan. 27, 1961), governor of Opland (1933-47).

Ihlen, Nils Claus (b. July 24, 1855, Skedsmo, Akershus, Norway - d. March 22, 1925, Skedsmo), foreign minister of Norway (1913-20). He was also minister of labour (1908-10) and industrial provisioning (1918).

Ihre, Albrecht Elof friherre (b. Oct. 6, 1797, Ekerö socken, Stockholm county, Sweden - d. Aug. 9, 1877, Ekerö socken), prime minister for foreign affairs of Sweden (1842-48). He was also chargé d'affaires in the Ottoman Empire (1827-31) and minister of ecclesiastical affairs (1840-42). He was made friherre (baron) in 1843.

Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin (Mehmet) (b. Dec. 26, 1943, Cairo, Egypt), secretary-general of the Organization of the Islamic Conference/Organization of Islamic Cooperation (2005-13). In 2014 he was a presidential candidate in Turkey.

Iivula-Ithana, Pendukeni, formerly (1980s) Pendukeni Kaulinge (b. Oct. 11, 1952, Uukwandongo, Omusati region, South West Africa [now Namibia]), home affairs minister of Namibia (2012-18). She was also minister of youth and sport (1991-96), lands, resettlement, and rehabilitation (1996-2001), and justice (2005-12) and attorney general (2001-08).

Iizumi, Kamon (b. July 29, 1960), governor of Tokushima (2003-23).

Ijape, Mathias (b. Jan. 12, 1954, Rapigy village, Goroka, Eastern Highlands, Papua and New Guinea [now Papua New Guinea] - d. May 2017, Goroka), defense minister of Papua New Guinea (1994-97). He was also minister of police (1988-92).

Ijuin, Hikokichi (b. June 1864, Kagoshima, Japan - d. April 26, 1924, Tokyo, Japan), governor-general of Kwantung (1922-23) and foreign minister of Japan (1923-24). He was also minister to China (1908-13) and ambassador to Italy (1916-20).

H. Ikeda
Ikeda, Hayato (b. Dec. 3, 1899, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan - d. Aug. 13, 1965, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1960-64). He entered the Ministry of Finance as a civil servant in 1925. After rising to the position of vice minister of finance (1947), he was elected to the Diet in the January 1949 general election and became minister of finance (1949-52) in the government of Shigeru Yoshida. He sought to stabilize an economy wracked by inflation with the strong deflationary policy recommended by Joseph Dodge, a Detroit banker sent by the U.S. government to study the economic difficulties of occupied Japan. Ikeda played a leading role in peace treaty negotiations with the United States. He was finance minister another time (1956-57) and also minister of international trade and industry (1950, 1952, 1959-60) and minister without portfolio (1958). He also served terms as secretary-general (1954) of the Liberal Party (subsequently Liberal-Democratic Party) and as chairman of the party's political affairs research committee. When Nobusuke Kishi resigned in July 1960, Ikeda became president of the party and began his four years as prime minister. With the stated goal of doubling Japan's national income in 10 years, he launched a high-rate economic-growth policy based on expanded public-sector spending, reduced taxes, and efforts to keep both inflation and interest rates low. He made determined efforts to break down trade barriers to Japanese goods in foreign markets. He maintained a lower profile in foreign affairs. While continuing to cultivate close relations with the U.S. on economic and security matters, he did favour expanding trade ties with the Soviet Union and China. Ill health forced him to resign in November 1964.

Ikeda, Shigeaki, also known as Seihin Ikeda (b. Aug. 15, 1867, Yonezawa [now in Yamagata prefecture], Japan - d. Oct. 9, 1950), finance minister of Japan (1938-39). He was also governor of the Bank of Japan (1937) and minister of industry and commerce (1938-39).

Ikeda, Toyohito (b. July 15, 1961, Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan), governor of Kagawa (2022- ).

Y. Ikeda
Ikeda, Yukihiko (b. May 13, 1937, Kobe, Japan - d. Jan. 28, 2004, Tokyo, Japan), defense minister (1990-91) and foreign minister (1996-97) of Japan; son-in-law of Hayato Ikeda. As foreign minister, his term was marked by Peruvian rebels' takeover of the ambassador's mansion in Lima during a reception in December 1996. The rebels held 72 people, including Japanese diplomats and businessmen, captive for nearly four months. They were freed April 22, 1997, in a raid by Peruvian commandos. Ikeda also held key posts in the Liberal-Democratic Party.

Ikimi, Tom (Omoghegbe) (b. April 10, 1944, Igueben, Edo state, Nigeria), foreign minister of Nigeria (1995-98).

Ikonic, Branislav (b. June 21, 1928, Gornje Crniljevo, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. Jan. 16, 2002, Belgrade, Serbia), a deputy premier of Yugoslavia (1978-82) and president of the Executive Council (1982-86) and the National Assembly (1986-88) of Serbia.

Ikonomov, Todor (Poppetrov) (b. Aug. 29, 1838, Zheravna, Ottoman Empire [now in Bulgaria] - d. Oct. 28, 1892, Shumen, Bulgaria), interior minister of Bulgaria (1880). He was also mayor of Sofia (1880) and minister of public works, agriculture, and commerce (1883-84).

Ikouébé, Basile (b. July 1, 1946), foreign minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (2007-15). He was permanent representative to the United Nations in 1998-2007.

Ikramov, Akmal (Ikramovich) (b. September 1898, Tashkent, Russia [now in Uzbekistan] - d. [executed] March 15, 1938), executive secretary of the Communist Party of the Turkestan A.S.S.R. (1921) and first secretary of the Communist Party of the Uzbek S.S.R. and of the party committee of Tashkent city (1929-37).

Ikramov, Muzraf (Muborakkhodjayevich) (b. Sept. 14, 1973, Tashkent, Uzbek S.S.R.), justice minister of Uzbekistan (2015-17). He was also chairman of the Audit Chamber (2017-19).

Ikramullah, Mohammad (b. Jan. 15, 1903, Bhopal, India - d. Sept. 12, 1963, Rome, Italy), Pakistani diplomat. He was foreign secretary (1947-51, 1959-61), high commissioner to Canada (1952-53) and the United Kingdom (1955-59), and ambassador to France (1953-55) and Portugal (1958-60).

Ikramullah, Shaista Suhrawardy (b. July 22, 1915, Calcutta [now Kolkata], India - d. Dec. 11, 2000, Karachi, Pakistan), Pakistani diplomat; wife of Mohammad Ikramullah. She was ambassador to Morocco (1964-67).

Ikskul, Baron Boris (Vasilyevich), German Berend Johann Freiherr von Uexküll (b. Oct. 1, 1762, Reval, Russia [now Tallinn, Estonia] - d. May 11, 1827, Heimar, Russia [now Haimre, Estonia]), governor of Estonia (1808-18).

Ikskul fon Gildenband, Baron Aleksandr (Aleksandrovich), German in full Alexander Karl Abraham Freiherr von Uexküll-Güldenband (b. Feb. 20, 1840, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. July 10, 1912, St. Petersburg), governor of Livonia (1874-82), Kharkov (1884-86), and Pskov (1886-88).

Ikskul fon Gildenband, Baron Yuly (Aleksandrovich), German in full Julius Karl Freiherr von Uexküll-Güldenband (b. Dec. 16, 1852, or Jan. 16, 1853, Dvinsk, Russia [now Daugavpils, Latvia] - d. Sept. 21, 1918, Petrograd [St. Petersburg], Russia), Russian official; brother of Baron Aleksandr Ikskul fon Gildenband. He was secretary of state (1904-09).

Ikuga Ebombebombe, Andrés (b. Dec. 31, 1916), finance minister of Equatorial Guinea (1968-71).

Ikwechegh, Amadi (Guy) (b. Feb. 25, 1951, Igbere [now in Abia state], Nigeria - d. Nov. 11, 2009, United States), governor of Imo (1986-89).

Ila, Tony (b. March 16, 1944, Larian village, Papua [now in Gulf province, Papua New Guinea]), foreign minister of Papua New Guinea (1980). He was also minister of forestry (1978-79), labour and industry (1979-80), and labour and employment (1984-85, 1990-92).

Ilamanov, Amannazar, Turkmen Amannazar Ilamanow (b. 1943, Peshan-Ali, Mary oblast, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Mary velayat, Turkmenistan] - d. 2012), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (1996-97). He was also minister of irrigation and water management (1992-96) and head of Mary velayat (1996-97).

Ilangaratne, Tikiri Banda, also spelled Illangaratne (b. Feb. 27, 1913, Hataraliyedda, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. May 21, 1992), finance minister of Ceylon (1963-64). He was also minister of labour, housing, and social services (1956-59), home affairs (1959), commerce, food, trade, and shipping (1960-63), trade and supply (1964-65), foreign and internal trade (1970-77), and public administration and home affairs (1975-77).

Ilarion (b. Dec. 30 [Dec. 20, O.S.], 1696, Sosnitsa, Malorossiya, Russia [now Sosnytsia, Ukraine] - d. Dec. 14 [Dec. 3, O.S.], 1760, Moscow, Russia), Locum Tenens of Moscow (1754-57). He was bishop of Krutitsy (1748-60).

Ilasievici, Constantin (b. March 7, 1880, Dorohoi, Romania - d. Oct. 6, 1955, Vacaresti, Romania), war minister of Romania (1937).

Ilcus, Ioan (b. Jan. 18, 1882, Rasinari, Transylvania, Hungary [now in Sibiu county, Romania] - d. 1977), war minister of Romania (1939-40).

Iléo (Songo Amba), Joseph (b. Sept. 15, 1921, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Sept. 19, 1994, Brussels, Belgium), prime minister of Congo (Léopoldville) (1960, 1961). He was also president of the Senate earlier in 1960, as well as minister of information (1961-62), minister in charge of Katangese affairs (1963-64), and president of the National Legislative Council (1979).

Ileri, (Ahmet) Tevfik (b. 1912, Hemsin, Ottoman Empire [now in Rize province, Turkey] - d. Dec. 31, 1961, Ankara, Turkey), a deputy prime minister of Turkey (1957-58). He was also minister of transport (1950), education (1950-53, 1957, and [acting] 1959), and public works (1958-60). After the 1960 coup he was sentenced to life imprisonment in September 1961.

Ileto, Rafael (Manio) (b. Oct. 24, 1920, Nueva Ecija, Philippines - d. June 19, 2003, Quezon City, Philippines), defense minister of the Philippines (1986-88). He was also ambassador to Iran and Turkey (1975-80) and Thailand (1981-86).

Ilhan, Vecdi (b. 1924, Kastamonu, Turkey - d. March 15, 2011), interior minister of Turkey (1979). He was also minister of forestry (1977, 1978-79).

Iliadis, Dimitris, English Demetris (J.) Eliades (b. December 1947, Lefkoniko, Famagusta district, Cyprus), defense minister of Cyprus (2011-13). He was also minister of agriculture, natural resources, and environment (2010-11).

Iliadis, Ilias, English Elias Eliades (b. Oct. 24, 1947, Paphos, Cyprus), defense minister of Cyprus (1985-88).

Ilichev, Ivan (Ivanovich) (b. Aug. 14, 1905 - d. Sept. 2, 1983), Soviet high commissioner of Austria (1953-55). He was also head of the Soviet diplomatic mission to East Germany (1952-53) and ambassador to Austria (1953-56) and Denmark (1966-68).

Ilichev, Pyotr (Viktorovich) (b. March 11, 1966), Russian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2017).

Iliescu, Ion (Alexandru) (b. March 3, 1930, Oltenita, southeastern Romania), president of Romania (1990-96, 2000-04). He joined the Union of Communist Youth (UCY) at the age of 14 and the Communist Party in 1953 and held positions of increasing prestige through the following decade. He was among several protégés of Nicolae Ceausescu who benefited from their mentor's election as party general secretary in 1965, and he continued to enjoy favour as Ceausescu consolidated his authority into a dictatorship. In 1967-71 he was first secretary of the UCY and minister of youth problems. Ironically, Iliescu's popularity among students may have been his undoing. In 1971 the president divested him of all positions except his membership on the Central Committee, which he had obtained in 1968, and launched him on a career of remote assignments, frequent transfers, and decreasing responsibility. In 1984 he was expelled from the Central Committee. Upon Ceausescu's doomed flight from power on Dec. 22, 1989, Iliescu emerged from the shadows to head an interim government largely comprising disaffected former Communist officials. After the apparently spontaneous uprising that drove Ceausescu to an ignominious death, allegations circulated that a coup had been in the planning for several months, with Iliescu as president-designate. Despite promises of broad democratic reforms, charges of complicity with the ousted regime were widespread. After years of total suppression, however, the opposition was ill-equipped to mount a serious challenge. On May 20, 1990, Romania's first open elections in more than 50 years confirmed Iliescu as president. Political unrest continued and, in the most violent episode, some 7,000 miners were transported to the capital in June to suppress a popular protest by force. In 1992 he founded what would become the Social Democratic Party. Reelected under a new constitution in 1992, he lost the 1996 election to Emil Constantinescu but was returned in 2000. He withdrew from his party roles, including as honorary president, in 2010. In 2019 he was charged with crimes against humanity over his role in the 1989 revolution, during which 862 people were killed.

Iliev, Ivan (Stoyanov) (b. Jan. 24, 1925, Oreshets, Bulgaria - d. Oct. 17, 2017, Sofia, Bulgaria), Bulgarian politician. He was a deputy premier and chairman of the State Planning Committee (1973-75, 1985-87).


Ilimbetov, Azamat (Fattakhovich) (b. Sept. 26, 1972, Ufa, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Bashkortostan (2011-12).

Ilkin, Baki (b. Oct. 3, 1943, Ankara, Turkey - d. April 29, 2018), Turkish diplomat. He was ambassador to Pakistan (1987-90), Denmark (1990-93), the Netherlands (1996-98), and the United States (1998-2001) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-09).

Ilkovsky, Konstantin (Konstantinovich) (b. Jan. 12, 1964, Batagay, Yakut A.S.S.R. [now Republic of Sakha], Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Zabaikalsky kray (2013-16).

Illanes de la Riva, Fernando (d. May 23, 2021), finance minister of Bolivia (1993-94). He was also ambassador to the United States (1986-87), minister of energy and hydrocarbons (1987-88) and planning and coordination (1993), and minister without portfolio with responsibility for hydrocarbons (2002-03).

Illarionov, Ivan (Illarionovich) (b. Nov. 18 [Nov. 6, O.S.], 1893, Malaya Shatma, Kazan province [now in Chuvashia republic], Russia - d. Nov. 19, 1969, Ulyanovsk, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Executive Committee of Chuvash autonomous oblast (1924-25) and chairman of the Executive Committee of Soviets (1925-26) and the Central Executive Committee (1926-27) of the Chuvash A.S.S.R. He was also mayor of Cheboksary (1925).

Illia (Francesconi), Arturo Umberto (b. Aug. 4, 1900, Pergamino, Argentina - d. Jan. 18, 1983, Córdoba city, Argentina), president of Argentina (1963-66). He was propelled into politics after the democratic government of Pres. Hipólito Irigoyen was overthrown in a 1930 military coup. In 1935 Illia was elected to the provincial senate of Córdoba as a Radical, and he remained a member of that party throughout his political career. From 1940 to 1943 he served as vice-governor of Córdoba. In 1948, during the reign of Juan Perón, Illia, one of the rare non-Peronists, was elected to the National Assembly. He used his seat to speak out against Perón's dictatorship, and even though he lost his seat in the 1952 election, he had gained a national reputation for daring to oppose Perón. In 1962 he was elected governor of Córdoba, only to have the election annulled. In 1963 he was chosen by the People's Radical Civic Party as their presidential candidate. Illia's defeat of Oscar Alende marked a return to a constitutional government. For the first time for many years, the state of siege was lifted. He ended foreign control of Argentina's oil industry, but his administration was weakened by the Peronist General Confederation of Labour, the scarcity of beef after a two-year drought, and the drop in oil production during negotiations with the U.S. over the petroleum companies. There was continuing turbulence and threats of intervention by the armed forces. In October 1964, when Gen. Charles de Gaulle was in Argentina during his tour of South America, he had to abandon a speech he was making halfway because of shouts of "Perón" by demonstrators. Later that year, Perón himself made an unsuccessful attempt to return from his Spanish exile. In 1966 a disgruntled military ousted Illia as president.

Illingworth, James (Timothy Edward) (b. 1966), administrator of the British Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus (2017-19).

Illueca (Sibauste), Jorge (Enrique) (b. Sept. 17, 1918, Panama City, Panama - d. May 3, 2012), foreign minister (1981-82), vice president (1982-84), and president (1984) of Panama and president of the UN General Assembly (1983-84). He was also permanent representative to the UN (1959-60, 1976-81, 1994-97).

Illy, Riccardo (b. Sept. 24, 1955, Trieste, Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (2003-08).

Iloilo(vatu Uluivuda), Ratu Josefa (Samate) (b. Dec. 29, 1920, Waiyevo, Taveuni island, Fiji - d. Feb. 6, 2011, Suva, Fiji), president of Fiji (2000-09). He was also minister of forests (1992), president of the Senate (1996-99), and vice president (1999-2000).

Ilon, Epel K(alwin) (b. April 8, 1952, Mortlocks, Truk [now Chuuk], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), foreign secretary of the Federated States of Micronesia (1991-92 [acting], 1997-2000).

Ilongo Tokole, Jean (b. Nov. 9, 1968, Lufulutulu, Congo [Kinshasa]), special commissioner (2015-16) and governor (2016-17) of Tshopo.

Ilsley, James (Lorimer) (b. Jan. 3, 1894, Somerset, N.S. - d. Jan. 14, 1967, Halifax, N.S.), finance minister of Canada (1940-46). He was also minister of national revenue (1935-40) and justice (1946-48) and acting postmaster general (1940).


Ilunga Ilukamba, Sylvestre, Ilukamba also spelled Ilunkamba (b. March 28, 1947, Dino, Elisabethville province, Belgian Congo [now in Haut-Lomami, Congo (Kinshasa)]), finance minister of Zaire (1991) and prime minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (2019-21). He was also planning minister (1990-91).

Ilves, Toomas Hendrik (b. Dec. 26, 1953, Stockholm, Sweden), foreign minister (1996-98, 1999-2002) and president (2006-16) of Estonia. In 1993-96 he was ambassador to the United States. As foreign minister, he oversaw the country's successful drive to be included in the first wave of East European nations accepted for fast-track negotiations for EU membership. He resigned in 1998 to prepare his conservative People's Party for the March 1999 election. After that election, he returned to the post. Later that year the People's Party was absorbed by the Moderates.

Ilyas (Khan), Sardar Tanveer (b. 1974), prime minister of Azad Kashmir (2022-23).

Ilyashenko, Kirill (Fyodorovich) (b. May 27 [May 14, O.S.], 1915, Lipetskoye, Russia [now in Odessa oblast, Ukraine] - d. April 21, 1980, Kishinev, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Chisinau, Moldova]), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian S.S.R. (1963-80). He was also a deputy premier (1963).

Ilyasov, Magzhan (Zhanbotauly) (b. Aug. 26, 1974, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), Kazakh diplomat. He was ambassador to the Netherlands (2016-20) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2020-22). In 2022 he was appointed ambassador to the United Kingdom.

S. Ilyasov

Ilyasov, Stanislav (Valentinovich) (b. July 24, 1953, Kizlyar, Dagestan A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the government of Stavropol kray (1997-99) and Moscow-backed prime minister of Chechnya (2001-02). He was also Russian minister in charge of socioeconomic development in Chechnya (2002-04) and head of the Federal Agency for Fisheries (2004-07).

Ilyin, Ilya (Moiseyevich), original surname Broytman (b. 1893, Ananyev, Kherson province, Russia [now in Odessa oblast, Ukraine] - d. April 1973, Kishinev, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Chisinau, Moldova]), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Moldavian A.S.S.R. (1930-31).

Ilyin, Kuzma (Sergeyevich) (b. 1891, Kondoy ulus, Irkutsk province, Russia - d. [executed] Dec. 9, 1937, Irkutsk, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Central Executive Committee and of the Council of People's Commissars of the Buryat-Mongol A.S.S.R. (1927-29).

Ilyinsky, Mikhail (Sergeyevich), governor of Bessarabia (1854-57).

Ilyukhin, Vladimir (Ivanovich) (b. June 25, 1961, Novonikolayevka village, Krasnoyarsk kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Kamchatka kray (2011-20).

Ilyumzhinov, Kirsan (Nikolayevich) (b. April 5, 1962, Elista, Kalmyk A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), president (1993-2005) and head of the republic (2005-10) of Kalmykia. In 1990 he was elected to represent Kalmykia as a deputy of the Russian parliament, the next year he became a member of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet. On April 12, 1993, Ilyumzhinov became the first elected president of the Republic of Kalmykia. On Oct. 15, 1995, he was reelected as president with his term extended to 2002. On Nov. 24, 1995, Ilyumzhinov was elected president of the International Chess Federation (FIDE), a post he held until 2018. In 1994 a presidential decree made chess a course of instruction in Kalmyk secondary schools. He put his tiny republic on the map in 1996 by hosting the world championships between Anatoly Karpov and Gata Kamsky. He was reelected as president of Kalmykia in 2002 and, when regional elections in Russia were abolished, he was confirmed in office by Pres. Vladimir Putin in 2005.

Ilyushin, Viktor (Vasilyevich) (b. July 4, 1947, Nizhny Tagil, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), a first deputy prime minister of Russia (1996-97).

im Thurn, Sir Everard (Ferdinand) (b. May 9, 1852, Sydenham, Kent [now part of London], England - d. Oct. 9, 1932, Prestonpans, East Lothian, Scotland), governor of Ceylon (acting, 1903) and Fiji (1904-10); knighted 1905.

Imami, Arben (Fahri) (b. Jan. 21, 1958, Tiranë, Albania), defense minister of Albania (2009-13). He was also minister of legislative reform and relations with parliament (1997-99), justice (2000-01), and local government and decentralization (2001-02) and chief of cabinet of the prime minister (2005-09).

Imamura, Takeshi (b. November 1880 - d. 1960), governor of Karafuto (1932-38). He was also mayor of Sendai (1942-46).

Imanaliyev, Muratbek (Sansyzbayevich) (b. Feb. 25, 1956, Frunze, Kirgiz S.S.R. [now Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan]), foreign minister of Kyrgyzstan (1991-92, 1997-2002) and secretary-general of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (2010-12). In 1993-96 he was ambassador to China.

Imashev, Sattar (Nurmashevich) (b. March 20, 1925, Birlik, Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Atyrau oblast, Kazakhstan] - d. Feb. 22, 1984), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh S.S.R. (1979-84). He was also chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1975-79).

Imbali, Faustino (Fudut) (b. May 1, 1956, Ilondé, Biombo region, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), foreign minister (2001, 2012-13) and prime minister (2001, 2019) of Guinea-Bissau. He was a presidential candidate in 1999 (8.2% of the votes) and 2005 (0.5%) and was also deputy prime minister in charge of economic and social reconstruction (2000-01).

Imbassahy (da Silva), Antônio José (b. March 12, 1948, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil), governor of Bahia (1994-95). He was also mayor of Salvador (1997-2005).

Imbaud, Carlos Alfredo (b. Jan. 14, 1925 - d. Jan. 28, 2022, Buenos Aires, Argentina), federal interventor (1962) and governor (1970-71) of Tucumán.

Imbert, Colm (Peter), finance minister of Trinidad and Tobago (2015- ). He was also minister of works and transport (1991-95, 2005-10), local government (1994-95), health (2001-03), and science, technology, and tertiary education (2003-05).

Imbert Barrera, Antonio (Cosme) (b. Dec. 3, 1920, Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic - d. May 31, 2016, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), member of the Civic-Military Council (1962), president (1965), and defense minister (1986-88) of the Dominican Republic. He was the last surviving member of the group responsible for the 1961 assassination of dictator Rafael Trujillo.

Imbiriba, Mário Fernandes (b. Sept. 20, 1904, Santarém, Pará, Brazil - d. April 9, 1972), governor of Fernando de Noronha (1945-51).

Imbroda Ortiz, Juan José (b. June 24, 1944, Melilla, Spain), president of Melilla (2000-19, 2023- ).

Imbulana, P(rema) C(handra) (b. Oct. 18, 1920 - d. Sept. 28, 2012), governor of Uva (1988-90) and Central (1990-94) provinces, Sri Lanka. He was minister of labour in 1984-88.

Imfeld, Hans (b. June 21, 1902, Sarnen, Obwalden, Switzerland - d. July 3, 1947, Saigon, Vietnam), French commissioner of Laos (1945-46). He emigrated to France in 1922 where he attended the schools of officers of Poitiers and Fontainebleau. He entered the resistance in 1943 and was condemned to death by the Vichy government. He was on a mission in China in 1943-44, and he secured the restoration of the French protectorate over Laos in 1945. He was assassinated by the Communist Viet Minh.

Imhoff, Gustaaf Willem baron van (b. Aug. 8, 1705, Leer, East Frisia [now in Germany] - d. Nov. 1, 1750, Batavia, Netherlands East Indies [now Jakarta, Indonesia]), governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies (1743-50). Son of an East Frisian nobleman, he entered into the service of the Dutch East India Company and was sent to the Indies in 1725. By 1732 he was a member of the chiefly advisory Council of the Indies and in 1736 became governor of Ceylon. Because of his opposition to the ruthless repression of a Chinese uprising, he was sent back to Holland (1740). There, however, the company's directors took his part and made him governor-general of the Indies. He set forth a plan for reform in his tract "Considerations on the Present State of the Dutch East India Company." To encourage the development of the company as a territorial power, he wanted to confine its activities to the eastern part of the archipelago and to settle Dutchmen in colonies to raise crops and to trade. He eased the restrictions on free trade with Asia but not enough to make it profitable. In his dealings with Indonesians van Imhoff was tactless. He intervened in a quarrel between the ruler of the Mataram kingdom of Java and his brother, thus touching off the Third Javanese War of Succession (1749-57), which left Mataram split into two kingdoms. In Bantam, another kingdom of Java, van Imhoff lent his support to the unpopular faction of a dynastic dispute, bringing on a popular uprising. The rebels were seeking English help when van Imhoff died, leaving his successor to solve the problem.

Imhoff, Gustaaf Willem baron van (b. Nov. 22, 1767, Groningen - d. Feb. 13, 1830, Groningen), governor of Groningen (1814-30); grandson of the above.

H. Immongault
Immongault, Hermann (b. May 30, 1972), foreign minister (2023) and minister-delegate (2023-24) and minister (2024- ) of interior and security of Gabon. He was also ambassador to Turkey (2015-18) and Ethiopia (2018-22).

Immongault T.
Immongault Tatangani, Régis, foreign minister of Gabon (2018-19). He was also minister of energy and hydraulic resources (2009-12), industry and mines (2012-14), mines, industry, and tourism (2014), economy and investment promotion (2014-17), and economy and development planning (2017-18).

Imnadze, Akaky (Gabriyelovich) (b. 1908 - d. ...), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the South Ossetian autonomous oblast (1949-53).

Imnadze, Kakha (b. Feb. 4, 1969, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), Georgian diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2013-22) and ambassador to Canada (2022- ).

Imperti, Rainier (b. Jan. 6, 1944, Monaco - d. April 16, 2009, Monaco), foreign minister of Monaco (2005-06). He was earlier Monaco's ambassador to Germany (2000-05) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-05).

Imrédy (de Ómoravica), Béla (b. Dec. 29, 1891, Budapest, Hungary - d. [executed] Feb. 28, 1946, Budapest), finance minister (1932-35), prime minister (1938-39), and acting foreign minister (1938) of Hungary. He was also president of the Hungarian National Bank (1935-38) and a minister without portfolio (1938).

Imru, Leul Ras (Haile Selassie) (b. Nov. 23, 1892, Gursum, eastern Ethiopia - d. Aug. 15, 1980, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), regent of Ethiopia (1936). He was raised to the personal titles of Gerazmatch (1909), Kniazmatch (1911), Dejazmatch (1917), Ras (1932), and Leul Ras (1954). He was governor-general of Wollo (1929-32) and Gojjam (1932-35) provinces. In 1936-43 he was imprisoned in Italy. He was minister (1946-49) and ambassador (1949-53) to the United States and ambassador to India (1954-59).

Imru, (Lij) Mikael (b. November 1929, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia - d. October 2008), foreign minister (1961) and prime minister (1974) of Ethiopia; son of Leul Ras Imru. He was ambassador to the United States (1960-61) and the Soviet Union (1961-65) and minister of industry and commerce (1974) and information (1974-75).

In Tam (b. Sept. 22, 1922, Prek Kak, Stoeung Trang district, Kompong Cham province, eastern Cambodia - d. April 1, 2006, Chandler, Ariz.), Cambodian politician. He served as governor of Takeo (1958-64) and Kompong Cham (1970-71), interior minister (1964-65, 1965-66, 1973), agriculture minister (1968), president of the National Assembly (1970), and prime minister (1973). In the presidential election of June 4, 1972, he came second with 24% of the votes. One day after the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh, he fled from his farm in Poipet to Thailand on April 18, 1975, where he unsuccessfully tried to establish a counterrevolutionary force along the border. Thai authorities, unhappy with his activities, deported him to France the same year, and in 1976 he went to the U.S., where he received asylum. He returned to Cambodia several times. He was a founding member and top official of Norodom Sihanouk's FUNCINPEC party, which was set up in 1981 to fight the Phnom Penh government set up by Vietnam after it ousted the brutal Khmer Rouge regime in 1979. In 1993 he led his Democratic Party in UN-run general elections, but it failed to win a seat; in March 1997 it signed a cooperation accord with Hun Sen's Cambodian People's Party.

Inaba, Osamu (b. Nov. 19, 1909, Niigata prefecture, Japan - d. Aug. 15, 1992, Tokyo, Japan), justice minister of Japan (1974-76). He was also minister of education (1972).

Inada, Tomomi (b. Feb. 20, 1959, Echizen, Fukui, Japan), defense minister of Japan (2016-17). She was also minister in charge of administrative reform (2012-14).

Inam ul-Haq (b. November 1940), foreign minister of Pakistan (2002, 2007-08). He was also ambassador to Turkey (1992-96) and China (1997-99), permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2000), and foreign secretary (2000-02).

Inamine, Keiichi (b. Oct. 14, 1933), governor of Okinawa (1998-2006).

Inan, (Osman) Sefik (b. 1913, Simav, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. Jan. 27, 1972, Ankara, Turkey), finance minister of Turkey (1961-62).

Inauen, Roland (b. 1955, Appenzell, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Switzerland), Regierender Landammann of Appenzell Innerrhoden (2015-17, 2019-21, 2023- ).

Inayatullah Shah (b. Oct. 20, 1888, Kabul, Afghanistan - d. Aug. 12, 1946), king of Afghanistan (1929).

Ince, Basil (André) (b. May 1, 1933, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago), foreign minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1981-85). He was also minister of sport, culture, and youth affairs (1985-86) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1986-87).

Ince, Refik Sevket, until Jan. 1, 1935, Mehmet Refik Bey (b. 1885, Mitilini, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. April 24, 1955, Istanbul, Turkey), justice minister (1921-22) and defense minister (1950-51) of Turkey.

Inchyra, Frederick (Robert) Hoyer Millar, (1st) Baron (b. June 6, 1900, Montrose, Forfarshire [now Angus], Scotland - d. Oct. 16, 1989, Perth, Scotland), high commissioner of the British zone of Germany (1953-55). He was also British ambassador to West Germany (1955-57). He was knighted in 1949 and created baron in 1961.

Inculet, Ion (Constantin) (b. April 18 [April 5, O.S.], 1884, Rezeni, Russia [now in Moldova] - d. Nov. 18, 1940, Bucharest, Romania), president of the Bessarabian National Council (1918) and interior minister of Romania (1933-36). He was also minister of health and social protection (1927-28).

Indacochea (Galarreta), Enrique (b. 1901, Arequipa, Peru - d. ...), war minister of Peru (1955-56).

Indinok, Ivan (Ivanovich) (b. Aug. 6, 1938), head of the administration of Novosibirsk oblast (1993-95). He was also mayor of Novosibirsk (1988-90, 1991-93).

Indrawati, Sri Mulyani (b. Aug. 26, 1962, Tanjungkarang-Telukbetung, Sumatera Selatan [now Bandar Lampung, Lampung], Indonesia), finance minister of Indonesia (2005-10, 2016- ). She was also acting coordinating minister for economic affairs (2008-09).

Indrebø, Adolf (Oliverson) (b. Feb. 7, 1884, Hafstad, Førde municipality, Nordre Bergenhus [now in Vestland], Norway - d. Dec. 5, 1942), finance minister of Norway (1935-36). He was also mayor of Oslo (1929-31).

Indrenius, Bernhard (b. Jan. 16, 1812, Fredrikshamn [Hamina], Finland - d. Oct. 23, 1884, St. Petersburg, Russia), governor of Sankt Michel (1856) and Viborg (1856-66) and acting governor-general of Finland (1866, 1867).

Indzhova, Reneta (Ivanova) (b. July 6, 1953, Nova Zagora, Bulgaria), interim prime minister of Bulgaria (1994-95). She was a presidential candidate in 2001.

Infantado, Pedro Alcántara de Toledo y Salm-Salm, (XIII) duque del (b. July 20, 1768, Madrid, Spain - d. Nov. 27, 1841, Madrid), president of the Regency (1812 [in Resistance], 1823) and first secretary of state (1825-26) of Spain. He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1811). He succeeded as duke in 1790.

Ingebretsen, Paul Ingolf (b. Oct. 15, 1904, Stavanger, Stavanger amt [now Rogaland fylke], Norway - d. Aug. 16, 1968), governor of Rogaland (1959-68).

Ingerslev, Hans Peter (b. May 3, 1831, Århus [now Aarhus], Denmark - d. April 20, 1896, Copenhagen, Denmark), interior minister of Denmark (1885-94).

Ingersoll, Charles R(oberts) (b. Sept. 16, 1821, New Haven, Conn. - d. Jan. 25, 1903, New Haven), governor of Connecticut (1873-77); brother of Colin M. Ingersoll; son of Ralph I. Ingersoll.

Ingersoll, Colin M(acrae) (b. March 11, 1819, New Haven, Conn. - d. Sept. 13, 1903, New Haven), U.S. politician; son of Ralph I. Ingersoll. He was chargé d'affaires in Russia (1848) and a member of the House of Representatives (1851-55).

Ingersoll, George P(ratt) (b. April 24, 1861, New Haven, Conn. - d. Feb. 24, 1927, Stamford, Conn.), U.S. diplomat; son of Colin M. Ingersoll. He was minister to Siam (1917-18).

Ingersoll, Joseph R(eed) (b. June 14, 1786, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. Feb. 20, 1868, Philadelphia), U.S. politician; second cousin of Ralph I. Ingersoll. He was a member of the House of Representatives (1835-37, 1841-49) and minister to the United Kingdom (1852-53).

Ingersoll, Ralph I(saacs) (b. Feb. 8, 1789, New Haven, Conn. - d. Aug. 26, 1872, New Haven), U.S. politician. He was a member of the House of Representatives (1825-33), minister to Russia (1846-48), and mayor of New Haven (1851).

Ingham, Samuel D(elucenna) (b. Sept. 16, 1779, near New Hope, Pa. - d. June 5, 1860, Trenton, N.J.), U.S. treasury secretary (1829-31).

Inglis, John Forbes David (b. Aug. 19, 1820 - d. March 13, 1894), acting chief commissioner of Oudh (1876-77).

Ingman, Lauri (Johannes), originally Lars Johannes Ingman (b. June 30, 1868, Teuva, Finland - d. Oct. 25, 1934, Turku, Finland), prime minister of Finland (1918-19, 1924-25). He was also speaker of parliament (1918), minister of education (1920-21, 1924-25, 1925-26, 1928-29), and archbishop of Turku (1930-34).

Ingólfsson, Thorsteinn (b. Dec. 9, 1944, Reykjavík, Iceland), Icelandic diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2003) and ambassador to Cuba and Barbados (2001-04) and Jamaica (2003-04).

Ingr, (Jan) Sergej (b. Sept. 2, 1894, Vlkos u Vyskova, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. June 17, 1956, Paris, France), defense minister of Czechoslovakia in exile (1940-44).

Ingraham, Hubert (Alexander) (b. Aug. 4, 1947, Pine Ridge, Grand Bahama island, Bahamas), prime minister of The Bahamas (1992-2002, 2007-12). Once the political protégé of Prime Minister Sir Lynden Pindling, who named him minister of housing and national insurance in 1982, he was dismissed from the cabinet and the ruling Progressive Liberal Party (PLP) in 1984 for accusing his former mentor and fellow party leaders of corruption. Reelected as an independent in the 1987 election, he joined the Free National Movement (FNM) in April 1990 and succeeded to its leadership on the death of Sir Cecil Wallace-Whitfield in May 1990. In the 1992 election, the FNM won 31 of the 49 seats in the House of Assembly, defeating Pindling, who ruled since 1967 and had long been accused of enriching himself by allowing Colombian drug dealers to use The Bahamas for drug-trafficking purposes. Ingraham profited from a strategic mistake by Sir Lynden, who scheduled the election during the summer, when many Bahamian young people were home from college. To many older voters, Sir Lynden was the father of his country, but many first-time voters apparently supported Ingraham as the leader better able to revive the ailing tourist trade and thereby provide more jobs. For the better part of a decade, officials of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration had complained about Bahamian involvement in the international drug trade. Immediately following his swearing in, Ingraham predicted that his country's relations with the U.S. "can only get warmer," but he rejected any notion that his government would extradite Sir Lynden or any other member of the defeated PLP to the U.S. to face drug-trafficking charges. He led his party to an even greater victory in 1997, then stepped down as party leader just before the 2002 election, which the party lost, but he was again elected leader in 2005 and returned the party to power in 2007. When it was defeated again in the 2012 election, he quit politics.

Ingstad, Helge (Marcus) (b. Dec. 30, 1899, Meråker, Norway - d. March 29, 2001, Oslo, Norway), governor of Eric the Red's Land (1932-33).

Inguanez, Carmelo (b. Dec. 19, 1961, Birkirkara, Malta), Maltese diplomat. He has been ambassador to Russia (2009-11, 2024- ), Italy and San Marino (2011-13), Tunisia (2013-16), and France (2019-24) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2016-19).

Ingvarsson, Ingvi S(igurdur) (b. Dec. 12, 1924, Reykjavík, Iceland - d. Aug. 26, 2009, Reykjavík), Icelandic diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1973-77) and ambassador to Sweden and Finland (1977-82), Yugoslavia (1977-83), Albania (1978-83), Saudi Arabia (1981-82), the United States (1986-90), Argentina and Canada (1987-91), Brazil (1987-92), Chile (1987-94), Mexico (1988-91), Denmark, Lithuania, and Italy (1991-94), China (1991-95), and Turkey and Israel (1992-94).

Inhambupe (de Cima), Antonio Luiz Pereira da Cunha, visconde e marquês de (b. April 6, 1760, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. Sept. 18, 1837, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), finance minister (1826), foreign minister (1826-27), and principal minister (1831) of Brazil. He was also president of the Senate (1837). He was made viscount in 1824 and marquess in 1826.

Inhomirim, Francisco de Sales Torres Homem, visconde de (b. Jan. 29, 1812, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. June 3, 1876, Paris, France), finance minister of Brazil (1858-59, 1870-71). He was also president of the Bank of Brazil (1866-69). He was made viscount in 1872.

Inienger, John (Mark) (b. April 16, 1945, Mkar area [now in Benue state], Nigeria - d. Feb. 8, 2002, in his car en route from Jos to Makurdi, Nigeria), governor of Bendel (1985-87).

Íñiguez (Larraín), Pedro Felipe (José) (b. Sept. 29, 1873, Santiago, Chile - d. Feb. 12, 1936, Santiago), justice (and education) minister of Chile (1916-17); son-in-law of Augusto Matte. He was also chargé d'affaires in France (1901) and minister of industry, public works, and railways (1915).

Innes, Sir Charles (Alexander) (b. Oct. 27, 1874 - d. June 28, 1959), governor of Burma (1927-32); knighted 1924.

Innih, George (Agbazika) (b. Sept. 25, 1938, Agenebode [now in Edo state], Nigeria - d. Aug. 15, 2002, Germany), governor of Mid-Western state (1975-76) and Kwara (1976-78).

Inniss, Sir Probyn (Ellsworth) (b. Nov. 18, 1936, St. Kitts - d. March 12, 2017), governor of St. Kitts and Nevis (1975-81); knighted 1976.

Innitzer, Theodor Cardinal (b. Dec. 25, 1875, Weipert, Austria [now Vejprty, Czech Republic] - d. Oct. 9, 1955, Vienna, Austria), Austrian politician. He was rector of the University of Vienna (1928-29), minister of social administration (1929-30), and archbishop of Vienna (1932-55; a cardinal from 1933).

Innokenty, secular name Ivan (Yevseyevich) Veniaminov, original surname (until 1814) Popov (b. Sept. 6 [Aug. 26, O.S.], 1797, Anga, Irkutsk province, Russia - d. April 12 [March 31, O.S.], 1879, Moscow, Russia), metropolitan of Moscow (1868-79). He was also bishop (1840-50) and archbishop (1850-68) of Kamchatka. He was canonized in 1977.

Innokenty, secular name Ivan (Vasilyevich) Belyayev (b. Oct. 5 [Sept. 23, O.S.], 1862, Vladimir province, Russia - d. Sept. 22 [Sept. 9, O.S.], 1913, St. Petersburg, Russia), exarch of Georgia (1909-13). He was also bishop of Sumy (1899-1901), Narva (1901-03), and Tambov (1903-09).

Ino, Hiroya (b. Dec. 12, 1891, Mie prefecture, Japan - d. May 19, 1980), justice minister of Japan (1959-60). He was also minister of agriculture and forestry (1941-43) and colonization (1941-42).

Ino, Shigejiro (b. March 10, 1901, Chiba prefecture, Japan - d. June 12, 1981), director-general of the Defense Agency of Japan (1959).

Inonga Lokongo L'Ome (b. Jan. 12, 1939, Befale, Coquilhatville province, Belgian Congo [now in Tshuapa province, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. June 20, 1991, Johannesburg, South Africa), foreign minister of Zaire (1980-81, 1991). He was ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg in 1976-80 and permanent representative to the United Nations in 1984-85.


E. Inönü
Inoni, Ephraïm (b. Aug. 16, 1947, Bakingili, near Limbé, Cameroon), prime minister of Cameroon (2004-09).

Inönü, Erdal (b. June 7, 1926, Ankara, Turkey - d. Oct. 31, 2007, Houston, Texas), acting prime minister (1993) and foreign minister (1995) of Turkey; son of Ismet Inönü. He was also deputy prime minister (1991-93) and leader of the Social Democracy Party (1983, 1983-85) and the Social Democratic Populist Party (1986-93).

I. Inönü
Inönü, (Mustafa) Ismet, before 1935 (Mustafa) Ismet Pasha (b. Sept. 24, 1884, Smyrna, Ottoman Empire [now Izmir, Turkey] - d. Dec. 25, 1973, Ankara, Turkey), prime minister (1923-24, 1925-37, 1961-65) and president (1938-50) of Turkey. In 1916, during World War I, he commanded the 4th Army in Syria. At the time of the Ottoman surrender (Oct. 30, 1918), he was the undersecretary of war in Constantinople. Later he joined Mustafa Kemal's movement to resist the Allied occupation of Anatolia. In 1920 he was elected to the last Ottoman parliament as deputy for Edirne. After the Greek occupation of western Anatolia, he was appointed chief of the general staff of the nationalist army and repelled the invaders in the two battles of Inönü (near Ankara) in January and April 1921. From those engagements he later took his surname. Appointed foreign minister in the government of the Grand National Assembly in Ankara in 1922, he succeeded, with the support of Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk), in gaining most of the Turkish demands in the Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923). When the republic was proclaimed on Oct. 29, 1923, he became prime minister. On Atatürk's death in 1938, he was elected president and became the permanent chairman of the Republican People's Party (RPP). In response to internal strains and to Western pressures for a democratic regime, he encouraged the formation of the Democrat Party (DP) in 1946, which defeated the RPP in 1950 elections. Inönü was replaced as president and led the opposition, assuming the role of defender of democracy. Following the 1960 military coup, which overthrew the DP government, he formed three coalition governments in 1961-65, but in the elections of 1965 and 1969 his party suffered overwhelming defeats. He was replaced in 1972 as RPP leader by Bülent Ecevit.

Inos, Eloy S(ongao), byname of Eulogio Songao Inos (b. Sept. 26, 1949 - d. Dec. 28, 2015, Seattle, Wash. [December 29, Northern Mariana Islands time]), governor of the Northern Mariana Islands (2013-15). He was lieutenant governor in 2009-13.

Inoue, Junnosuke (b. May 6 [March 25, lunar calendar], 1869, Oita prefecture, Japan - d. [assassinated] Feb. 9, 1932, Tokyo, Japan), finance minister of Japan (1923-24, 1929-31). He was also governor of the Bank of Japan (1919-23, 1927-28).

Inoue, Kaoru, in full (from 1907) Koshaku (Marquess) Kaoru Inoue (b. Jan. 16, 1836 [Nov. 28, 1835, lunar calendar], Nagato province [in present Yamaguchi prefecture], Japan - d. Sept. 1, 1915, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1885-87). He was also minister of agriculture and commerce (1888-89), home affairs (1892-94), and finance (1898).

Insanally, Samuel R(udolph), byname Rudy Insanally (b. June 23, 1936, Georgetown, British Guiana [now Guyana] - d. Nov. 26, 2023), president of the UN General Assembly (1993-94) and foreign minister of Guyana (2001-08). He was also chargé d'affaires in Venezuela (1970), ambassador to Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (1972-78) and Belgium, Austria, Norway, and Sweden (1978-81), high commissioner to Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Eastern Caribbean and ambassador to Colombia (1982-86), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1987-2001).

Insenstierna, Fredrik Ulrik (b. Dec. 21, 1723 - d. Nov. 12, 1768, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Västmanland (1763-68).

Insfrán, Gildo (b. Jan. 19, 1951, Laguna Blanca, Formosa, Argentina), governor of Formosa (1995- ).

Inslee, Jay (Robert) (b. Feb. 9, 1951, Seattle, Wash.), governor of Washington (2013- ). He was also a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1993-95, 1999-2012). In March 2019 he joined the race for the 2020 Democratic presidential nomination, dropping out in August.

Insulza (Salinas), José Miguel (b. June 2, 1943, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister (1994-99) and interior minister (2000-05) of Chile and secretary-general of the Organization of American States (2005-15).

Insunza (Barrios), Sergio (Dagoberto) (b. May 6, 1919, Santiago, Chile - d. July 19, 2014), justice minister of Chile (1972-73).

Intelmann, Tiina (b. Aug. 25, 1963, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), Estonian diplomat. She has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-10), ambassador to Israel (2011), Montenegro (non-resident, 2011), and the United Kingdom (2017-21), and head of delegation of the European Union to Liberia (2014-17) and Somalia (2021- ).

Inukai, Takeru (b. July 28, 1896, Tokyo, Japan - d. Aug. 28, 1960, Tokyo), justice minister of Japan (1952-54); son of Tsuyoshi Inukai.

Ts. Inukai
Inukai, Tsuyoshi, also called Ki Inukai (b. May 5, 1855, Okayama, Japan - d. May 15, 1932, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister (1931-32), foreign minister (1931-32), and home affairs minister (1932) of Japan. Entering the Diet in 1890, he was briefly minister of education in 1898 and then founded a new political party, the Constitutional National Party (Rikken Kokuminto). In 1913 he headed a popular movement against the autocratic and unpopular government of the former army general Taro Katsura. As a result of Inukai's efforts, Katsura was forced to resign, opening the way for the gradual development of a cabinet selected by the majority party in the Diet (Japanese parliament). In 1922 Inukai organized another new party, the Reform Club (Kakushin Kurabu), and the following year he again joined the cabinet, this time as minister of communications. In 1924, however, he destroyed this coalition government when he left it to join the Friends of Constitutional Government (Rikken Seiyukai), the largest party in Japan; he served again as communications minister in 1924-25. In 1929 he became president of Rikken Seiyukai after the death of Giichi Tanaka. In 1931 Japanese troops occupied the Chinese provinces of Manchuria (Northeast Provinces), the first step in the process that led to the Pacific conflict of World War II. When the cabinet of Reijiro Wakatsuki fell, Inukai was able to organize a cabinet of his own, becoming prime minister in December 1931. His government immediately took the country off the gold standard and began efforts to reflate the economy. He was staunchly opposed to the continued attempts by the military to usurp the decision-making functions of the cabinet. He prepared to send a representative to negotiate with the Chinese and tried to halt any further military activities, but was fatally shot in the head as part of a coordinated terrorist outbreak by ultranationalist naval officers.

Inverarity, Jonathan Duncan (b. Aug. 11, 1812, India - d. April 28, 1882, Rosemount, Forfarshire [now Angus], Scotland), commissioner of Sind (1859-62).

Inzko, Valentin (b. May 22, 1949, Klagenfurt, Austria), international high representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2009-21). He was Austrian ambassador to Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996-99) and Slovenia (2005-09).

Inzov, Ivan (Nikitich) (b. Jan. 3, 1769 [Dec. 23, 1768, O.S.] - d. June 8 [May 27, O.S.], 1845, Odessa, Russia [now in Ukraine]), governor-general of Novorossiya and Bessarabia (1822-23).

Ioakim, secular name Ivan (Petrovich) Savelov (b. Jan. 16 [Jan. 6, O.S.], 1620 - d. March 27 [March 17, O.S.], 1690, Moscow, Russia), patriarch of Moscow (1674-90). He was also metropolitan of Novgorod (1672-74).

Ioane, Aumua, also called Aumua John Wendt, finance minister of Western Samoa (1975-76). He was also minister of works, transport, and marine (1974-75).

Ioann, secular name Ilya (Viktorovich) Vitushkin (b. Aug. 2, 1926, Yelokhino village, Yaroslavl oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. May 25, 2010), bishop of Kiev (1988-92) and Kostroma and Yaroslavl (1992-2010), Locum Tenens of the Russian Orthodox Old Believers Church (2004, 2005).

Ioann V, secular name Ivan (Aleksandrovich) Sokolov (b. Jan. 13 [Jan. 1, O.S.], 1877, Dmitrov, Moscow province, Russia - d. March 29, 1968, Kiev, Ukrainian S.S.R.), metropolitan of Kiev (1944-64). He was also bishop of Kimry (1929-31), Orekhovo-Zuyevo (1931-34), Podolsk (1934), Yegoryevsk (1934-36), Volokolamsk (1936), and Arkhangelsk (1937-38) and archbishop of Arkhangelsk (1938-39), Ulyanovsk (1941-42), and Yaroslavl (1942-44).

Ioannes XXIII
Ioannes XXIII, Saint, English John XXIII, original name Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (b. Nov. 25, 1881, Sotto il Monte, Italy - d. June 3, 1963, Vatican City), pope of the Roman Catholic Church (1958-63). In March 1925 he was appointed apostolic visitor to Bulgaria. In keeping with custom, he was made an archbishop before he left Rome. He spent the next 10 years in that obscure but delicate post, before he was appointed apostolic delegate to Greece, which was combined with naming him head of the Vatican diplomatic mission to Turkey. At the end of 1944, he was named papal nuncio to Charles de Gaulle's newly liberated France. In January 1953 he became a cardinal. As such, he immediately became eligible for one of the major Italian archbishoprics, and was appointed patriarch of Venice. After the death of Pius XII on Oct. 9, 1958, he was elected pope on the 12th ballot (October 28) - clearly a compromise candidate acceptable to all parties only because of his advanced years. He was crowned at St. Peter's on November 4. Soon after, he announced almost casually that he was summoning an ecumenical council - a general meeting of the bishops of the church - the first in almost a century. He said the idea came to him in a sudden inspiration. His purpose was to "bring the church up to date" (aggiornamento) and to work for its spiritual regeneration. He was the first pope since the Reformation who acknowledged frankly that Catholicism stood in need of reinvigoration and reform. Some of the Vatican cardinals did everything in their power to delay the council until the old man had passed from the scene and the project could be quietly dropped. But the pope pushed on with his plan and lived long enough to preside over the first session of the second Vatican Council in the fall of 1962. He was beatified in 2000 and canonized in 2014.

Ioannes Paulus I
Ioannes Paulus I, English John Paul I, original name Albino Luciani (b. Oct. 17, 1912, Forno di Canale, Veneto, Italy - d. Sept. 28, 1978, Vatican City), pope of the Roman Catholic Church (1978). He was ordained a priest in 1935. Appointed (1937) deputy director of the seminary in the Belluno diocese, he taught moral theology, canon law, and sacred art. In 1948 he was made vicar-general of his diocese, and in 1958 he was appointed bishop of Vittorio Veneto. Made patriarch of Venice in 1969, he became a cardinal in 1973. He was elected pope on Aug. 26, 1978, the first pope with a pastoral rather than a diplomatic or scholarly background since Pius X (reigned 1903-14). He was also the first pope to choose a double name and did so in commemoration of his two immediate predecessors, Ioannes XXIII and Paulus VI. He endeared himself to millions of people all over the world with his infectious smile, humble piety, and jovial extemporaneous conversations with his audiences. For his formal installation, he announced that he would not accept the traditional papal tiara nor be carried by papal throne-bearers to and from the ceremony. The sudden death of Ioannes Paulus I, who was discovered the morning after he died of an apparent heart attack while reading in bed, stunned the world. His 34-day pontificate was the shortest in modern times.

Ioannes Paulus II
Ioannes Paulus II, Saint, English John Paul II, original name Karol (Józef) Wojtyla (b. May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland - d. April 2, 2005, Vatican City), pope of the Roman Catholic Church (1978-2005). Ordained on Nov. 1, 1946, he was made auxiliary bishop (1958) and archbishop (1964) of Kraków and cardinal in 1967. He was present at all four sessions of the second Vatican Council (1962-65) and spoke lucidly on religious liberty and atheism. Subsequently, he attended all five Roman synods held between 1967 and 1977 and was elected to the council of the synod in 1971 - a good index of popularity. He was elected pope on Oct. 16, 1978, and invested on October 22, becoming the first non-Italian pope in 456 years and the first Polish pope in the Roman Catholic church's history. His fluency in a number of modern languages (Polish, Italian, English, French, German, Spanish, and Portuguese) as well as in Latin qualified him uniquely as a roving international ambassador for the church. From the beginning of his reign he was an active pontiff, taking seriously his local duties as bishop of Rome in visiting parishes and institutions and at the same time undertaking extensive travels to Latin America and the Caribbean, the United States and Canada, Africa, various European countries, India, the Far East, and Australia. On May 13, 1981, he was shot and seriously wounded in St. Peter's Square by Mehmet Ali Agca, a Turkish national. Three Bulgarians suspected of conspiring with Agca and three other Turks in the assassination plot - attempted, it was believed, because of the pope's outspoken support of the Roman Catholic church and the Solidarity trade union in his native Poland - were later acquitted for lack of proof. On social questions, he was a conservative pope who firmly endorsed traditional Catholic views. He was beatified in 2011 and canonized in 2014.

Ioannidis, Georgios, English George (X.) Ioannides (b. 1924, Ktima, Paphos, Cyprus - d. 1995), justice minister (1970-72, 1975-78) and interior and defense minister (1972-74) of Cyprus. He was also minister of the presidency (1978-80).

Ioannidis, Ioannis, byname Giannis Ioannidis (b. 1900, Bulgaria - d. 1968), deputy prime minister (1947-49) and interior minister (1947-49) of Greece (Communist government).

Ioanniky, secular name Ivan (Maksimovich) Rudnev (b. March 4 [Feb. 20, O.S.], 1826, Vyshneye Skvorcheye, Tula province, Russia - d. June 20 [June 7, O.S.], 1900, near Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine]), metropolitan of Moscow (1882-91). He was also bishop of Vyborg (1861-64) and Saratov (1864-73), bishop (1873-77) and archbishop (1877) of Nizhny Novgorod, exarch of Georgia (1877-82), and metropolitan of Kiev (1891-1900).

Ioannou, Konstantinos (b. March 24, 1969), interior minister of Cyprus (2023- ). He was also health minister (2018-21).

Ioasaf, secular name Pavel (Dmitriyevich) Kallistov (b. 1850, Kostroma province, Russia - d. Feb. 3, 1920), Locum Tenens of Moscow (1917). He was bishop of Novo-Georgievsk (1912-17) and Dmitrov (1917-18) and archbishop of Kolomna (1918-19) and Krutitsy (1919-20).

Ioasaf II, secular name Vitaly (Mikhailovich) Lelyukhin (b. May 11 [April 28, O.S.], 1903, Dubosishche, Smolensk province, Russia - d. April 24, 1966, Kiev, Ukrainian S.S.R.), metropolitan of Kiev (1964-66). He was also bishop of Sumy (1958-59), Dnepropetrovsk (1959-61), and Vinnitsa (1961-64).

Ioffe, Yuliy (Yakovych) (b. Dec. 10, 1940, Voroshilovgrad, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Luhansk, Ukraine]), a deputy prime minister of Ukraine (1992-93).

Iona, secular name Ivan (Semyonovich) Vasilyevsky (b. March 1 [Feb. 18, O.S.], 1763, Kaluga, Russia - d. July 4 [June 22, O.S.], 1849, St. Petersburg, Russia), exarch of Georgia (1821-32). He was also bishop of Tambov (1812-21) and archbishop of Astrakhan (1821).

Ionatana, Ionatana (b. Nov. 15, 1938, Funafuti Atoll, Gilbert and Ellice Islands [now in Tuvalu] - d. Dec. 8, 2000, Funafuti Atoll), prime minister of Tuvalu (1999-2000). Ionatana entered public service in 1956. He became chief of police in 1976. In 1977, he was appointed as government secretary and became the top advisor to the cabinet. In 1979 he was accredited as Tuvalu's first ambassador to the United States. He was minister of works and communications (1989-93) and health, women's and community affairs, education, and culture (1996-99). He became prime minister in 1999 and was responsible for selling the country's ".tv" Internet suffix, which generated millions of dollars in revenue for the country. He also guided Tuvalu into membership of the United Nations and approached New Zealand about the possibility of settling Tuvaluans, threatened by rising sea levels, in that country. He died in office.

Ionescu, Constantin Dudu (b. May 21, 1956, Bucharest, Romania), defense minister (1998) and interior minister (1999-2000) of Romania.

Ionescu, Nicolae (b. 1820, Bradu, Moldavia [now in Romania] - d. Jan. 24, 1905, Bradu), foreign minister of Romania (1876-77).

Ionescu, Take (also spelled Tache), original name Dumitru (Ghita) Ioan (b. Oct. 25 [Oct. 13, O.S.], 1858, Ploiesti, Romania - d. June 22, 1922, Rome, Italy), foreign minister (1920-21) and prime minister (1921-22) of Romania. He was also minister of education and worship (1891-95, 1899-1900), finance (1900, 1905-07), and interior (1912-14).

Ionescu-Quintus, Mircea (b. March 18, 1917, Kherson, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Sept. 15, 2017, Ploiesti, Romania), Romanian politician. He was justice minister (1991-92) and president of the Senate (2000).

Ionita, Ion (b. June 14, 1924, Matasaru, Romania - d. July 27, 1987, Bucharest, Romania), defense minister of Romania (1966-76). He was also a deputy premier (1976-82).

Ionov, Mikhail (Yefremovich) (b. March 24 [March 12, O.S.], 1846 - d. Jan. 16, 1924), governor of Semirechye oblast (1899-1907).

Iordan, Andrey (Andreyevich) (b. Dec. 22, 1934, Saratov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Jan. 20, 2006, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan), acting prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (1991-92). He was minister of automobile transport and highways (1987-88), trade (1992-96), material resources (1992-94), and industry (1993-96) and deputy prime minister (1989-91, 1993-94).

Iorga, Nicolae (b. June 5, 1871, Botosani, Romania - d. [assassinated] Nov. 27, 1940, near Strejnic, Romania), prime minister of Romania (1931-32). A famous historian, he was also president of the Assembly of Deputies (1919-20) and the Senate (1939) and minister of education and worship (1931-32) and interior (1931).

Iorio, (Angelo) Michele (b. Jan. 17, 1948, Morrone del Sannio), president of Molise (1998-99, 2001-13).

Iorio, Pam (b. April 27, 1959, Waterville, Maine), mayor of Tampa (2003-11).

Ioseliani, Jaba (Aleksandres dze), Jaba also spelled Djaba or Dzhaba (b. July 10, 1926, Khashuri, Georgian S.S.R. - d. March 4, 2003, Tbilisi, Georgia), co-leader of the Military Council of Georgia (1992). He played a key role in Georgia's post-Soviet history. The leader of the Mkhedrioni (Horsemen) paramilitary force, he fought against separatists in the South Ossetia and Abkhazia regions of Georgia in the early 1990s. He was one of the initiators of the 1991-92 insurgency against the first president of independent Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, and then was instrumental in bringing Eduard Shevardnadze to office. By the mid-1990s, he was considered the second most powerful man in the Caucasus nation after Shevardnadze. Relations between the two men were tense, however. In early 1995, Shevardnadze ordered the Mkhedrioni disbanded, accusing the group of broad involvement in crime. Later in 1995, Ioseliani, who was also a member of parliament, was arrested for allegedly organizing a car bomb attack against Shevardnadze in August that year. He was charged with treason and plotting the killings of several Georgian political leaders, and sentenced in 1998 to 11 years in prison. Ioseliani's criminal career went back to Soviet times, when he served time in prison for assault and robbery. In all, he spent more than 20 years behind bars. He was equally comfortable in battle fatigues and formal wear, sometimes making public appearances in a white suit and white bow tie, an outfit he topped off with a white cane. He was known as a philologist and writer as well as a gifted politician - and shortly before his death he announced his intention of making a comeback in the fall 2003 parliamentary elections.

Iosif, secular name Iosif Volchansky (d. June 21 [June 10, O.S.], 1745), metropolitan of Moscow (1742-45). He was also bishop of Mstislavl (1735-42).

Iosif, secular name Ivan (Semyonovich) Petrovykh (b. Dec. 27 [Dec. 15, O.S.], 1872, Ustyuzhna, Novgorod province, Russia - d. [executed] Nov. 20, 1937, Chimkent?, Kazakh S.S.R.), acting Locum Tenens of Moscow and All Russia (1926). He was bishop of Uglich (1909-20), archbishop of Rostov (1920-26), and metropolitan of Leningrad (1926-27).

Iotti, Nilde, byname of Leonilde Iotti (b. April 10, 1920, Reggio Emilia - d. Dec. 3, 1999, Rome), Italian politician. She was one of the most prominent figures in Italian Communism. A long-time companion of postwar Communist leader Palmiro Togliatti and the first woman in Italy to hold a top institutional post, she was first elected deputy in the Constitutional Assembly in 1946. She was president of the Chamber of Deputies from 1979 to 1992.

Ipatas, Sir Peter (b. July 31, 1958), governor of Enga (1997- ); knighted 2015. He was also Papua New Guinean minister of mining (2001).

Ipatov, Pavel (Leonidovich) (b. April 12, 1950), governor of Saratov oblast (2005-12).

Ipek, Kenan (b. Oct. 5, 1959, Rize, Turkey), justice minister of Turkey (2015).

Ipoto Eyebu Bakand'Asi, (Martin) (b. Aug. 8, 1933, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)]), foreign minister of Zaire (1991). He was also ambassador to Algeria (1967-69), India (1970), Ethiopia (1970-72), West Germany (1975-77?), Zimbabwe (1980-88), and Poland (1988-91) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-73).

Ipsilanti, Alexandru Ioan (b. 1726 - d. [executed] Jan. 25 [Jan. 13, O.S.], 1807, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]), prince of Walachia (1774-82, 1796-97) and Moldavia (1786-88). He was also grand dragoman of the Porte (1774).

Ipsilanti, Constantin Alexandru (b. 1760, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. July 9 [June 27, O.S.], 1816, Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine]), prince of Moldavia (1799-1801) and Walachia (1802-06, 1806-07, 1807); son of Alexandru Ioan Ipsilanti. He was also grand dragoman of the Porte (1796-99).

Iqbal, Ahsan (b. March 28, 1959, Lahore, Pakistan), interior minister of Pakistan (2017-18). He was also minister of education and minorities (2008) and planning, development, and reforms (2013-17).

Iqbal, Rao Sikandar (b. 1943, Okara, Pakistan - d. Sept. 29, 2010, Okara), defense minister of Pakistan (2002-07).

Iragorri Hormaza, (Jorge) Aurelio (b. April 28, 1937 - d. Sept. 7, 2020, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was governor of Cauca (1975-76) and president of the Chamber of Representatives (1981-82) and the Senate (1990-91).

Iragorri Valencia, Aurelio (b. July 15, 1966, Popayán, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (2013-14); son of Aurelio Iragorri Hormaza. He was also minister of agriculture (2014-17).

Iraizos, Francisco (b. 1857, La Paz, Bolivia - d. 1930), foreign minister of Bolivia (1921, 1929). He was also minister of interior and justice (1923-25, 1928-29).

Irakli II, also spelled Erekle (b. Oct. 18 [Oct. 7, O.S.], 1721 [or Nov. 18 (Nov. 7, O.S.), 1720], Telavi, Kakhet`i [now in Georgia] - d. Jan. 22 [Jan. 11, O.S.], 1798, Telavi), king of Kakhet`i (1744-62) and K`art`li and Kakhet`i (1762-98).

Iranzo Enguita, Vicente (b. April 5, 1889, Cella, Teruel province, Spain - d. July 9, 1961, Madrid, Spain), war minister of Spain (1933). He was also minister of the navy (1933) and industry and commerce (1934).

Irarrázaval (Larraín), Manuel José (Leonardo de las Mercedes) (b. Nov. 7, 1834, Santiago, Chile - d. Feb. 14, 1896, New York City), interior minister of Chile (1891).

Irarrázaval (Lecaros), Raúl (b. Oct. 18, 1906, Santiago, Chile - d. June 13, 2001, Santiago), finance minister of Chile (1950-51); grandnephew of Manuel José Irarrázaval. He was also ambassador to the Vatican (1951-52) and West Germany (1974-75).

Iravani, Amir Saeid (b. 1961), Iranian diplomat. He has been ambassador to Iraq (1998-2001) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2022- ).

Iredell, James (b. Nov. 2, 1788, Edenton, Chowan county, N.C. - d. April 13, 1853, Edenton), governor of North Carolina (1827-28); nephew of Samuel Johnston.

Ireland, John (b. Jan. 21, 1827, near Millerstown, Ky. - d. March 5, 1896, San Antonio, Texas), governor of Texas (1883-87).

Ireney, secular name Ivan (Dmitriyevich) Bekish (b. Oct. 14 [Oct. 2, O.S.], 1892, Mezhirechye, Siedlce province, Russia [now Miedzyrzec Podlaski, Poland] - d. March 18, 1981, New York City), metropolitan of All America and Canada (1965-77). He was also bishop of Japan (1953-57) and archbishop of Japan (1957-60, 1962-64) and Boston (1960-62).

Irgens, Johannes (b. July 31, 1869, Ås, Akershus, Norway - d. Dec. 29, 1939, Oslo, Norway), foreign minister of Norway (1910-13) and acting governor of Hedemarkens amt (1915-16). He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1908-10), Denmark, Belgium, and the Netherlands (1916-22), Italy and Switzerland (1922-39), Greece (1927-35), and Romania (1930-31).

K. Irgens
Irgens, Kjeld (Stub) (b. May 23, 1879, Kvinesdal, Lister og Mandal amt [now in Agder fylke], Norway - d. Aug. 26, 1963, Oslo, Norway), Norwegian politician. A professional officer in the merchant navy, he was one of the acting councillors of state (kommisariske statsråder) appointed Sept. 25, 1940, under the German occupation (their style was changed to minister on Sept. 25, 1941). Irgens was in charge of naval affairs, and continued as a member of the Council of Ministers in the Vidkun Quisling government from Feb. 1, 1942, to June 12, 1944. He received a penalty of 15 years hard labour during the postwar treason trials.

Irías (Sandres), Julián (b. April 29, 1873, Pueblo Nuevo, Estelí [or Ocotal, Nueva Segovia], Nicaragua - d. Nov. 20, 1940, Managua, Nicaragua), interior minister (1905-06, 1936), foreign minister (1909-10, 1931), and provisional president (1936) of Nicaragua. He was also minister to Costa Rica (1903-05) and minister of development and public works (1908-09). In 1916 he was a presidential candidate but withdrew because of U.S. opposition.

Iribarne, Alberto (Juan Bautista) (b. Aug. 2, 1950), justice minister of Argentina (2005-07). He was also ambassador to Uruguay (2020-23).

I. Iribarren
Iribarren Borges, Ignacio (b. 1913, Caracas, Venezuela - d. June 16, 1988, Caracas), foreign minister of Venezuela (1964-69). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1959-64) and the United States (1976-79), minister of state for culture (1984-87), and acting minister of information and tourism (1984-85).

Iribarren Cabezas, Juan Antonio (b. May 7, 1885, Vicuña, Chile - d. April 11, 1968, Santiago, Chile), interior minister (1946) and acting president (1946) of Chile. He was also education minister (1940-41, 1945-46).

Irigoyen (Bustamante), Bernardo de (b. Dec. 18, 1822, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Dec. 27, 1906, Buenos Aires), foreign minister (1875-77, 1880-82) and interior minister (1877-78, 1882-85) of Argentina and governor of Buenos Aires (1898-1902). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1875).

H. Irigoyen
Irigoyen (Alem), (Juan) Hipólito (del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús), also spelled Yrigoyen1 (b. July 12, 1852, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. July 3, 1933, Buenos Aires), president of Argentina (1916-22, 1928-30). The nephew of Radical Party leader Leandro Alem, he was elected to the Buenos Aires provincial legislature in 1878 and to the national Chamber of Deputies in 1881. In 1893 the Radicals, led by Alem, with Irigoyen as his lieutenant, made an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the provincial government. After Alem's death in 1896 Irigoyen took control of the Radical Party. His relentless effort to obtain free elections succeeded in winning from the conservative oligarchy the Sáenz Peña Law (1912). Under this provision for the secret ballot he was elected president in 1916. During his six-year term he and his Radical followers in Congress maintained Argentina's neutrality in World War I. Measures regulating labour conditions were also passed, but these were not strongly enforced, and in 1919 a serious strike, in part politically inspired, was violently broken by the government. He was overwhelmingly reelected in 1928, despite the opposition of his former close associate, Marcelo T. de Alvear, who had served as president in 1922-28. But the increasingly senile Irigoyen lost his grip on affairs, and corruption and stagnation within his administration cost him much support, which went over to the opposition formed by his long-time conservative enemies. The business depression that began in 1929 further weakened his position, and a relatively bloodless conservative military coup in 1930 ended his career. For the last three years of his life he remained virtually a political prisoner.
1 From about 1918 he wrote his name with a Y possibly to distinguish himself from Bernardo de Irigoyen (no relation). His metronym was originally Alén, but his uncle Leandro Alén changed that name to Alem to separate himself from his father who was executed in 1853.

Irigoyen (Arias Larrea), Manuel, also spelled Yrigoyen (b. March 31, 1830, Lima, Peru - d. June 5, 1912, Chorrillos, Peru), foreign minister (1878-79, 1879, 1889-90, 1894-95) and prime minister (1878-79, 1890, 1894-95) of Peru. He was also chargé d'affaires in Prussia and Belgium (1861-66), minister to Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay (1873-78), finance and commerce minister (1886-87), and president of the Senate (1905-06).

Irigoyen Diez Canseco, Pedro (Osvaldo Benjamín), also spelled Yrigoyen (b. Feb. 28, 1886, Lima, Peru - d. Sept. 17, 1957, Lima), Peruvian diplomat; son of Manuel Irigoyen. He was minister to Belgium (1931-32) and Chile (1932-37) and ambassador to Spain (1941-43), Cuba (1943-44), and Italy (1944-46).

Irimescu, Radu (b. Dec. 9, 1890, Galati, Romania - d. May 17, 1975, Los Angeles, Calif.), war minister of Romania (1937). He was also minister of air and marine (1937-38) and minister to the United States (1938-40).


Irinaios I, original name Emmanouil Skopelitis (b. April 1939, Chora, Samos island, Greece - d. Jan. 10, 2023, Athens, Greece), patriarch of Jerusalem (2001-05). Top clergy voted to dismiss him over his involvement in the sale of church real estate in the Old City of Jerusalem to Jewish investors which provoked the anger of the Palestinians.

Irinej, original name Miroslav Gavrilovic (b. Aug. 28, 1930, Vidova village, near Cacak, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. Nov. 20, 2020, Belgrade, Serbia), patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church (2010-20). He was bishop of Moravica (1974-75) and Nis (1975-2010).

Iriondo (Zavalla), Manuel María (del Corazón de Jesús) de (b. Dec. 26, 1873, Santa Fe, Santa Fe, Argentina - d. Dec. 4, 1958, Buenos Aires, Argentina), federal interventor in San Luis (1907), finance minister of Argentina (1907-10), and governor of Santa Fe (1937-41). He was also president of Banco de la Nación Argentina (1910-18) and minister of justice and public instruction (1932-35).

Irklis, Peteris, Russian Pyotr (Andreyevich) Irklis (b. Jan. 15 [Jan. 3, O.S.], 1887, Riga, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. [executed] Sept. 9, 1937, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Karelian A.S.S.R. (1935-37).

Irmak, (Mahmut) Sadi (b. May 15, 1904, Seydisehir, Turkey - d. Nov. 11, 1990, Istanbul, Turkey), prime minister of Turkey (1974-75). He was speaker of the Consultative Assembly in 1981-83.

Irniq, Peter (Taqtu) (b. 1947, near Repulse Bay, Northwest Territories [now in Nunavut], Canada), commissioner of Nunavut (2000-05). He began his career in public affairs as an executive assistant to Northwest Territories Commissioner Stuart Hodgson in 1974-75. He represented the Keewatin region in the N.W.T. territorial council from 1975 to 1979. After that, Irniq worked as assistant regional director in the Department of the Executive within the Keewatin region, and as regional superintendent of renewable resources. In 1983, Irniq was elected president of the Keewatin Inuit Association, holding that post until 1987, when he was elected as member of the N.W.T. Legislative Assembly for the Aivilik constituency. Later, Irniq served on the Nunavut Implementation Commission, and was active in seeking justice for the former students of the infamous Joseph Bernier residential school in Chesterfield Inlet, who suffered physical and sexual abuse at the hands of school staff. Irniq was appointed deputy minister of Nunavut's Department of Culture, Language, Elders and Youth in April 1999. He was moved out of that job in summer 1999, and since then worked as an advisor at the Legislative Assembly before becoming commissioner.

Ironside, (William) Edmund Ironside, (1st) Baron (b. May 6, 1880, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. Sept. 22, 1959, London, England), governor of Gibraltar (1938-39). He was knighted in 1919 and created baron in 1941.

Irvine, Sir William (Hill) (b. July 6, 1858, Newry, County Down, Ireland - d. Aug. 20, 1943, Toorak, Melbourne, Vic.), premier (1902-04) and acting governor (1920-21, 1926, 1931-34) of Victoria; knighted 1914. He was also attorney-general (1899-1900, 1902-03) and chief justice and lieutenant governor (1918-35) of Victoria and attorney-general of Australia (1913-14).

Irvine of Lairg, Alexander (Andrew Mackay) Irvine, Baron, byname Derry Irvine (b. June 23, 1940, Inverness, Scotland), British lord chancellor (1997-2003). He was made a life peer in 1987.

C. Irving
Irving, (Edward) Clifford (b. May 24, 1914 - d. July 13, 2004, Douglas, Isle of Man), chairman of the Executive Council of the Isle of Man (1977-81). He became famous as a member of the Tourist Board in the 1960s, offering a £10,000 reward to anyone who found a mermaid in Manx waters. He chaired the board for 10 years from 1971 to 1981. He represented North Douglas, West Douglas, and East Douglas as a member of the House of Keys from 1955 to 1986, with only a three-year gap, and was a member of the Legislative Council from 1987 to 1995.

Irving, Sir Henry Turner (b. 1833 - d. Nov. 22, 1923), governor of Ceylon (acting, 1872), the Leeward Islands (1873-74), Trinidad (1874-80), and British Guiana (1882-87); knighted 1878.

Irving, Washington (b. April 3, 1783, New York City - d. Nov. 28, 1859, Tarrytown, N.Y.), U.S. diplomat. A famous writer, he was minister to Spain (1842-46).

Irwin, Frederick Chidley (b. March 22, 1794, Drogheda, Louth, Ireland - d. March 31, 1860, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England), acting governor of Western Australia (1832-33, 1847-48); cousin of Sir James Stirling.

Irwin, Jared (b. 1750, Anson [in present Mecklenburg] county, North Carolina - d. March 1, 1818, Washington county, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1796-98, 1806-09).

Irwin, John N(ichol) (b. Dec. 25, 1844, Butler county, Ohio - d. Dec. 22, 1905, Hot Springs, Ark.), governor of Idaho (1883) and Arizona (1890-92). He was also U.S. minister to Portugal (1899-1900).

Irwin, Robert (b. Jan. 17, 1865, Shelburne, N.S. - d. May 16, 1941, Shelburne), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (1937-40).

Irwin, William (b. 1827, Butler county, Ohio - d. March 15, 1886, San Francisco, Calif.), governor of California (1875-80).

A.K. al-Iryani
Iryani, Abdul Karim (Ali) al-, Arabic `Abd al-Karim (`Ali) al-Iryani (b. Oct. 12, 1934, Iryan village, Ibb governorate, Yemen - d. Nov. 8, 2015, Frankfurt, Germany), prime minister of Yemen (1998-2001); nephew of Abdul Rahman al-Iryani. He was minister of development (1974-77), education (1976-79), and agriculture (1979) and prime minister (1980-83) of Yemen (Sana). Before becoming deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs in 1984, he was in charge of the reconstruction of areas hit by an earthquake in the central highlands. After the unification of Yemen in 1990, Iryani was appointed minister of foreign affairs once again. In June 1993 he became minister of planning and development. In October 1994, he was reappointed deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs. A member of Pres. Ali Abdullah Saleh's ruling General People's Congress, Iryani replaced Faraj Said Bin Ghanem as prime minister, who resigned on April 29, 1998, after less than a year in office. Officials said Bin Ghanem, an independent, quit in a row over a cabinet reshuffle he suggested to push forward the implementation of administrative and economic reforms.

A.R. al-Iryani
Iryani, Abdul Rahman (Yahya) al-, Arabic `Abd al-Rahman (Yahya) al-Iryani (b. 1908?, Iryan village, Ibb governorate, Yemen - d. March 14, 1998, Damascus, Syria), president of Yemen (Sana) (1967-74). He gained widespread popularity and respect as one of the leaders of the al-Ahrar opposition group, which opposed Yemen's autocratic Mutawakkilite kings. He was sentenced to death by beheading in 1955 for his activities with al-Ahrar, Arabic for "the free." Minutes before his execution by sword, he was saved in a dramatic reprieve by King Ahmad. Iryani spent more than 15 years in prison during the rule of the Mutawakkilite, which ended in 1962. He was minister of justice (1962-63) and a deputy prime minister (1964) and was installed as head of a Presidential Council after the overthrow of Pres. Abdullah al-Sallal in 1967. He was the only civilian to have led Yemen (Sana). Since his own ouster in another coup in 1974 he lived in Damascus. In 1980, he returned to Yemen by invitation of Pres. Ali Abdullah Saleh, but chose to go back to Syria.

Isa, Mohammad (b. June 4, 1909, Bindjei, Netherlands East Indies [now Binjai, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia] - d. Nov. 17, 1979, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Sumatera Selatan (1946-52).

Isa, Ramez J(orge), byname Ronchi Isa (b. Oct. 17, 1917, Curaçao - d. March 17, 2005, Curaçao), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1971, 1972-73).

Isa ibn Salman Al Khalifa, Sheikh (b. June 3, 1933, al-Jasra village, Bahrain - d. March 6, 1999, Manama, Bahrain), ruler of Bahrain (1961-99). He came to the throne in 1961 on the death of his father, Sheikh Salman ibn Hamad Al Khalifa, after having been named crown prince in 1958. Bahrain had been a British protectorate since the mid-19th century. But with the gradual eclipse of the British presence east of Suez in the 1960s, a federation was proposed to include Bahrain, Qatar, and the seven Trucial States further down the Gulf - now the United Arab Emirates. Sheikh Isa, however, was dissatisfied with elements of the proposed constitution and decided to seek full independence. He adopted the title of emir on independence in 1971 and in 1973 established an elected parliament modelled on those of Lebanon and Kuwait. The assembly was dominated by leftists opposed to the ruling family's autocratic-style rule. Dissatisfaction with the assembly's workings and domestic political unrest led to its dissolution in 1975. Sheikh Isa and his government decided the island's future prosperity could only be assured by transforming the economy. Long an established trading centre, Bahrain encouraged the development of a substantial banking industry. Its economic diversification helped it weather volatile oil prices better than some of its Gulf neighbours. In a newspaper interview in December 1986, Sheikh Isa said he believed his biggest achievement as ruler had been the construction of a 25-km causeway linking Bahrain to Saudi Arabia by road for the first time. It was opened in November 1986. In December 1994, anti-government protests erupted after the arrest of a Shi`ite cleric for distributing leaflets signed by around 20,000 people demanding restoration of parliament.

Isaac, Gerald (b. Dawson, Yukon Territory [now Yukon]), acting commissioner of Yukon (2018). He was administrator in 2013-18.

Isaac, Mark (b. April 25, 1951), foreign minister of Grenada (1998-99, 1999-2000). He was previously minister of health, housing, and environment (1995-96), agriculture, forestry, lands, and fisheries (1996-98), and health and environment (1998).

Isaac, Pierre (Jean Marc) (b. Nov. 19, 1927, Toulouse, France - d. Sept. 9, 2012, Bordeaux, France), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (1979-80).

Isaacs, Grafton (Cephas) (b. Aug. 19, 1928, Vermont, St. Vincent - d. Nov. 28, 2015, Upper Villa, St. Vincent), home affairs minister of Saint Vincent (1975-77). He was also minister of tourism (1975-77) and communications and works (1977-80) and attorney general and minister of legal affairs (1980-84).

Isaacs, Sir Isaac (Alfred) (b. Aug. 6, 1855, Melbourne, Victoria - d. Feb. 11, 1948, Melbourne), governor-general of Australia (1931-36); knighted 1928. In 1892 he was elected to the legislative assembly of Victoria and in 1893 joined that colony's government as solicitor-general. He held office as attorney-general in 1894-99 and 1900-01; in that role he helped prepare the federal constitution (1897-99). He sat in the federal parliament (1901-06), was federal attorney general (1905-06), a justice of the High Court (1906-30), and chief justice (1930-31). He held strong views on the need for strengthening the power of the federal government as against that of the states and although he did not secure this in the framing of the constitution, his subsequent judgments did much to influence events in that direction. He became the first Australian to hold the office of governor-general, in fact the first governor-general appointed by the British crown directly on the advice of a dominion ministry.

Isaacs (Ferrer), Jorge (b. April 1, 1837, Cali, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. April 17, 1895, Ibagué, Colombia), civil chief of Antioquia (1880). He is also known as a novelist.

Isabayev, Beybit (Oksikbayevich) (b. Dec. 4, 1962, Bakanas, Alma-Ata oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. [now in Almaty oblast, Kazakhstan]), head of Zhetysu oblast (2022- ). He was also Kazakh ambassador to Pakistan (2003-06), Turkey and Albania (2006-08), Kyrgyzstan (2009-15), and Azerbaijan (2015-19).

Isabekov, Azim (Beyshenbayevich) (b. April 4, 1960, Arashan village, Alamedin district, Chu oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (2007). He was minister of agriculture in 2006-07.

Isabel II, in full María Isabel Luisa de Borbón y de Borbón (b. Oct. 10, 1830, Madrid, Spain - d. April 9, 1904, Paris, France), queen of Spain (1833-68); daughter of Fernando VII and Queen María Cristina (1806-1878).

Isabella, Gilbert (P.) (b. 1961, Willemstad, Curaçao), representative of the national government for the Caribbean Netherlands (2014-18).

Isaczai, Ghulam M(ohammad), Afghan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2021).

Isai, Hekuran (b. May 7, 1933, Peqin, Elbasan district, Albania - d. March 26, 2008), interior minister of Albania (1982-89, 1990-91). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Dibra district (1972-75) and a deputy premier (1987-89, 1990-91).

Isaias Afewerki: see Afewerki, Isaias.

Isakeyev, Bayaly (Dikambayevich) (b. 1897, Uchekinskaya volost, Semirechye oblast, Russia [now in Kyrgyzstan] - d. [executed] November 1938, near Tash-Debe, Kirgiz S.S.R.), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Kirgiz A.S.S.R./S.S.R. (1933-37). He was also people's commissar of agriculture (1929-30).

Isakov, Sapar (Dzhumakadyrovich) (b. July 29, 1977, Frunze, Kirgiz S.S.R. [now Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan]), prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (2017-18). Arrested in 2018, he was sentenced in June 2020 to 18 years in jail on corruption charges. During the post-election unrest of October 2020, he was released from a penal colony in the village of Moldovanovka.

Isaksson, (Gunnar) Martin (b. June 20, 1921, Hammarland, Åland Islands, Finland - d. December 2001), lantråd (1967-72) and governor (1972-82) of the Åland Islands. He was also Finnish ambassador to Iceland (1982-85).

Isanov, Nasirdin (b. Nov. 7, 1943, Kok-Bel settlement, Kirgiz S.S.R. - d. [car crash] Nov. 29, 1991, en route from Osh to Jalal-Abad, Kyrgyzstan), vice president (1990-91) and prime minister (1991) of Kyrgyzstan. He was also minister of construction (1983-86).

Isaq, Abdallah Derow, Somali Cabdalla Deerow Isaaq (b. 1950, Elgaras, Tayeglow district, Bakool region, Somalia - d. [assassinated] July 28, 2006, Baidoa, Somalia), acting president of Somalia (2000). He was speaker of the Transitional National Assembly from Aug. 22, 2000, to Dec. 3, 2003. In 2004 he became minister of federal and constitutional affairs.

Isarescu, Mugur, byname of Constantin Mugurel Isarescu (b. Aug. 1, 1949, Dragasani, Romania), prime minister of Romania (1999-2000). He has been governor of the National Bank (1990-99, 2000- ) and was a presidential candidate in 2000.

Isayev, Eli (Abubakarovich) (b. Dec. 31, 1964), acting prime minister of Chechnya (2003-04).

Isayev, Geydar (Isa ogly) (b. 1936 - d. 1999), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1988) and first secretary of the Communist Party committee (1988-90) of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R. He was also chairman of the State Committee for Vocational Education of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1983-88).

Isayev, Tadzhiddin (b. 1904, Garm, Russia [now in Tajikistan] - d. 1971, Dushanbe, Tadzhik A.S.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous oblast (1948-49). He was also people's commissar of food industry of the Tadzhik S.S.R. (1937-38).

Isayev, Uraz (Dzhanzakovich) (b. 1899, Lbishchensky district, Uralsk oblast, Russia [now in Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast, Kazakhstan] - d. [executed] Aug. 29, 1938), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Kazakh A.S.S.R./S.S.R. (1928-38).

Isberg, Paul Gustaf (Waldemar) (b. Sept. 2, 1848, Lund, Sweden - d. Sept. 10, 1908), governor of Stockholm (1896-1908).

Isea (Romero), Rafael (Eduardo) (b. Feb. 18, 1968, Maracay, Aragua, Venezuela), finance minister of Venezuela (2008) and governor of Aragua (2008-12).

Isekeshev, Aset (Orentayevich) (b. Aug. 17, 1971, Karaganda, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Astana city (2016-18). He was also Kazakh minister of industry and trade (2009-10), industry and new technologies (2010-14), and investment and development (2014-16), a deputy prime minister (2010-14), head of the administration of the president (2018-19), and secretary of the Security Council (2020-22).

Isenschmid, Josef (b. June 21, 1908 - d. Sept. 17, 2009), Schultheiss of Luzern (1960, 1967).

Ishak, Awang Faroek (b. July 31, 1948, Tenggarong [now in Kalimantan Timur], Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Timur (2008-18).

Ishanov, Khekim (Orazovich), Turkmen Hekim (Orazowiç) Isanow (b. 1942, Kyariz, Krasnovodsk oblast, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Balkan velayat, Turkmenistan]), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (1994-96). He was also minister of oil and gas (1994-95).

Ishayev, Viktor (Ivanovich) (b. April 16, 1948), head of the administration of Khabarovsk kray (1991-2009) and plenipotentiary of the president in Dalnevostochny federal district (2009-13). He was also minister of development of the Far East (2012-13).

Ishiba, Jiro (b. July 29, 1908, Tottori prefecture, Japan - d. Sept. 16, 1981, Tottori, Japan), governor of Tottori (1958-74) and Japanese minister of home affairs (1980).

Ishiba, Shigeru (b. Feb. 4, 1957, Tokyo, Japan), director-general of the Defense Agency (2002-04) and defense minister (2007-08) of Japan; son of Jiro Ishiba. He was also minister of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries (2008-09).

Ishibashi, Tanzan (b. Sept. 25, 1884, Tokyo, Japan - d. April 25, 1973, Tokyo), prime minister of Japan (1956-57). He served as an adviser to various government economic organs and in 1946 became finance minister in Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida's first cabinet. His responsibilities brought him into headlong opposition with the occupation authorities, whose economic policies he disapproved, and he was purged from office in 1947. In 1952 he was "depurged" and returned to the Liberal Party sticking to Ichiro Hatoyama in the party troubles which followed. He became international trade and industry minister in Hatoyama's cabinet in 1954 and won a narrow party election victory to become president of the majority Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP) and prime minister in December 1956, serving also as director-general of the Defense Agency until January 1957. He advocated "independent diplomacy" for Japan and sought trade relations with the People's Republic of China. At home he tried to stimulate production to achieve full employment in a welfare-state structure. But his cabinet proved unstable amid intraparty factional dissensions, and serious illness caused him to resign in favour of his former rival Nobusuke Kishi in February 1957. Despite ill health, he became president of the Japan-Soviet Friendship Association (1960) and the International Trade Promotion Association of Japan. He toured Russia and Europe (1964) to promote trade. In 1959 he visited China and returned there in 1963 as chairman of a Japanese trade fair. He advocated a multilateral peace treaty among Japan, the United States, China, and the Soviet Union, but his increasingly progressive policies had made him unpopular with the LDP, and he was defeated in an election bid for the House of Representatives (1963).

Ishida, Masatoshi (b. April 11, 1952, Kainan, Wakayama, Japan), internal affairs minister of Japan (2018-19).

Ishihara, Kanichiro (b. April 1, 1903, Fukushima prefecture, Japan - d. March 7, 1989), governor of Fukushima (1947-49). He was also director-general of the Autonomy Agency (1959-60) and minister of local autonomy (1960) of Japan.

Ishihara, Shintaro (b. Sept. 30, 1932, Kobe, Japan - d. Feb. 1, 2022, Tokyo, Japan), Japanese politician. He won a seat as a member of the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP) in the upper house of the Japanese legislature in 1968. He moved to the lower house in 1972. Although he lost the 1975 Tokyo gubernatorial election, he served as director-general of the Environment Agency in 1976 and as minister of transport in 1987-88. He attracted international attention in 1989 when he co-wrote a nationalist essay, "The Japan That Can Say No," with Sony chairman Akio Morita, arguing that Japan should wean itself from its reliance on the U.S. and that Americans were guilty of anti-Japanese racism. In 1995 he resigned from the LDP to protest the established political system. On March 10, 1999, he announced that he would run for governor of Tokyo again. His opponents included the LDP candidate, former UN undersecretary-general Yasushi Akashi, and former foreign minister Koji Kakizawa, who was expelled from the LDP for running against the party's wishes. He was the front-runner from the start and easily won the April 11 election. Although some commentators feared his win signaled widespread endorsement of his hawkish nationalism, others credited his victory to his name recognition as a popular novelist, a growing dissatisfaction with the LDP, and the public's desire for a strong leader unafraid to speak his mind. During the campaign, he promised to call for the return of the U.S. Yokota Air Force Base to Tokyo, a sensitive issue in Japanese-U.S. relations, but after the election he backed away from this promise, instead choosing to focus on Japan's relationship with China. His greatest challenge as governor was expected to be his handling of the city's economic problems, particularly its massive debt. Reelected three times, he resigned in 2012 to form a new party.

Ishii, Hajime (b. Aug. 17, 1934, Kobe, Japan - d. June 4, 2022, Tokyo, Japan), home affairs minister of Japan (1994). He was also director-general of the National Land Agency (1989-90).

Ishii, Kikujiro, in full Shishaku (Viscount) Kikujiro Ishii (b. March 10, 1866, Chiba, Japan - d. [killed in U.S. air raid] May 25, 1945, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1915-16). He was also ambassador to France (1912-15, 1920-27) and the United States (1918-19). He became baron in 1911 and viscount in 1916.

Ishii, Masahiro (b. Nov. 29, 1945), governor of Okayama (1996-2012).

Ishii, Mitsujiro (b. Aug. 18, 1889, Kurume, Fukuoka prefecture, Japan - d. Sept. 20, 1981), deputy prime minister of Japan (1957-58). He was also minister of commerce (1947), transport (1952-54), international trade and industry (1960), and justice (1965-66) and speaker of the House of Representatives (1967-69).

Ishii, Takakazu (b. Dec. 15, 1945), governor of Toyama (2004-20).

Ishikane, Kimihiro (b. Jan. 4, 1958), Japanese diplomat. He was ambassador to Canada (2017-19) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2019-23).

Ishikawa, Yoshinobu (b. Nov. 24, 1940), governor of Shizuoka (1993-2009).

Ishikawa, Yozo (b. July 6, 1925, Chofu, Tokyo prefecture, Japan - d. June 21, 2014, Ome, Tokyo prefecture), Japanese politician. He was mayor of Ome (1967-75) and director-general of the Defense Agency (1990).

Ishimoto, Shinroku, in full (from 1907) Danshaku (Baron) Shinroku Ishimoto (b. Feb. 17 [Jan. 20, lunar calendar], 1854, Himeji, Harima province [now in Hyogo prefecture], Japan - d. April 2, 1912), army minister of Japan (1911-12).

Ishiwata, Sotaro (b. Oct. 9, 1891, Tokyo, Japan - d. Nov. 4, 1950, Tokyo), finance minister of Japan (1939, 1944-45). He was also chief of the cabinet secretariat (1940, 1945) and minister of the imperial household (1945-46).

Ishizuka, Eizo (b. Sept. 1 [July 23, lunar calendar], 1866, Edo [now Tokyo], Japan - d. July 28, 1942), governor-general of Taiwan (1929-31).

Ishkhanyan, Davit (Rubenovich) (b. Dec. 27, 1968, Ashan, Martuni rayon, Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous oblast, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), acting president of Artsakh (2023). He has been speaker of the National Assembly (2023- ).

Ishmetov, Timur (Amindjanovich) (b. 1979, Tashkent, Uzbek S.S.R.), finance minister of Uzbekistan (2020-22).

Ishola, Kolapo (Olawuyi) (b. June 6, 1934, Pade village, near Ikereku [now in Oyo state], Nigeria - d. Aug. 9, 2011, Ibadan, Nigeria), governor of Oyo (1992-93).

Isidor, secular name Iakov (Sergeyevich) Nikolsky (b. Oct. 12 [Oct. 1, O.S.], 1799, Nikolskoye village, Tula province, Russia - d. Sept. 19 [Sept. 7, O.S.], 1892, St. Petersburg, Russia), metropolitan of St. Petersburg (1860-92). He was also bishop of Dmitrov (1834-37) and Polotsk (1837-40), bishop (1840-41) and archbishop (1841-44) of Mogilyov, exarch of Georgia (1844-58), and metropolitan of Kiev (1858-60).

Isik, Fikri (b. Sept. 13, 1965, Babacan, Gümüshane province, Turkey), defense minister of Turkey (2016-17). He was also minister of science, industry, and technology (2013-16) and a deputy prime minister (2017-18).

Isik, Hasan Esat (b. Oct. 21, 1916, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. July 2, 1989, Ankara, Turkey), foreign minister (1965) and defense minister (1974, 1977, 1978-79) of Turkey. He was also ambassador to Belgium (1962-64), the Soviet Union (1964-65, 1966-68), and France (1968-73).

Isingarin, Nigmatzhan (Kabatayevich) (b. Sept. 29, 1941, Burino, Chelyabinsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), Kazakh politician. He was minister of transport (1991-94) and a first deputy prime minister (1994-97).

Iskakov, Bolat (Gazizovich) (b. Feb. 9, 1947, Ushtobe, Taldy-Kurgan oblast [now in Almaty oblast], Kazakh S.S.R.), interior minister of Kazakhstan (2000-02). He was also ambassador to Belarus (2006-08).

Iskakov, Kuanyshbek (Dosmailovich) (b. March 15, 1968, Kzyl-Orda, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Kyzylorda, Kazakhstan]), head of Kyzylorda oblast (2019-20).

Iskaliyev, Gali (Nazhmedenovich) (b. Feb. 6, 1970, Talovka, Uralsk oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast, Kazakhstan]), head of Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast (2019-22); son of Nazhameden Iskaliyev.

Iskaliyev, Nazhameden (Ikhsanovich) (b. Sept. 5, 1941, Baybek village, Krasnoyarsk rayon, Astrakhan oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Dec. 5, 2023), head of Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast (1992-93) and Kokshetau oblast (1993). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Uralsk oblast (1986-91) and Kazakh ambassador to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (1994-97) and Ukraine and Moldova (1997-99).

Iskandarov, Akbarsho (Iskandarovich), Akbarsho also spelled Akbarshah (b. Aug. 1, 1951, Darvoz district, southeastern Tadzhik S.S.R.), chairman of the Provincial Council (1990-92) and of the Supreme Council (1992-93) of Gorno-Badakhshan and acting president of Tajikistan (1991, 1992). He was also ambassador to Turkmenistan (1993-2000) and Kazakhstan (2000-07).

Iskenderov, Mamed (Abdul ogly) (b. Dec. 17 [Dec. 4, O.S.], 1915, Eyvazlar, Russia [now in Azerbaijan] - d. May 28, 1985, Baku, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1959-61) and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1961-69) of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. He was also first secretary of the party committee of Baku city (1953-54).


S.N. Islam
Iskhakov, Kamil (Shamilyevich) (b. Feb. 8, 1949), plenipotentiary of the president in Dalnevostochny federal district (2005-07). In 1989-2005 he was mayor of Kazan.

Islam, Syed Ashraful (b. 1952, Mymensingh, Pakistan [now in Bangladesh] - d. Jan. 3, 2019, Bangkok, Thailand), Bangladeshi politician; son of Syed Nazrul Islam. He was minister of local government, rural development, and cooperatives (2009-15) and public administration (2015-19).

Islam, Syed Nazrul (b. 1925, Jamodal Dampara, Mymensingh district, Bengal, India [now in Kishoreganj district, Bangladesh] - d. [killed] Nov. 3, 1975, Dacca [now Dhaka], Bangladesh), acting president of Bangladesh (1971-72). He was vice president (1971-72, 1975) and minister of industries (1972-75).

Islami, Kastriot (Selman) (b. Aug. 18, 1952, Tiranë, Albania), Albanian politician. He was education minister (1991), chairman of the People's Assembly (1991-92), acting president (1992), deputy prime minister (1998), finance minister (2002-03), and foreign minister (2003-05).

Islamov, Sharustam (b. 1899, Tashkent, Russia [now in Uzbekistan] - d. [executed] 1938), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Turkestan A.S.S.R. (1924). He was also people's commissar of communal services and agriculture of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1930s).

Isler, Emrullah (b. Jan. 7, 1960, Kusçuören, Ankara province, Turkey), a deputy prime minister of Turkey (2013-14).

Islington, John Poynder Dickson-Poynder, (1st) Baron (b. Oct. 31, 1866, Ryde, Isle of Wight, England - d. Dec. 6, 1936, London, England), governor of New Zealand (1910-12). He was created baron in 1910.

Islyukov, Semyon (Matveyevich) (b. Feb. 7, 1915, Tayba-Taushevo, Simbirsk province [now in Tatarstan republic], Russia - d. Oct. 7, 1998, Cheboksary, Chuvashia, Russia), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1955), first secretary of the Communist Party committee (1955-68), and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1968-85) of the Chuvash A.S.S.R. He was also chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1947-55).

Ismadi, (Raden) Djanu (b. Jan. 1, 1901, Blitar, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Timur, Indonesia] - d. ...), a deputy prime minister of Indonesia (1955-56).

Ismail, (Muhammad) (b. Dec. 31, 1927, Maos, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. Feb. 23, 2008, Semarang, Jawa Tengah), governor of Jawa Tengah (1982-92).

Ismail (al-Jawfi), Abdul Fattah, Arabic `Abd al-Fattah Isma`il al-Jawfi (b. July 28, 1939, al-Hujariyah district, Yemen - d. Jan. 13, 1986, Aden, Yemen [Aden]), president of Yemen (Aden) (1978-80). He was killed in the fighting between rival factions in the government in January 1986, in which his faction was ultimately victorious over that of Pres. Ali Nasir Muhammad. His death was only announced by the new government on February 10.

Ismail, Abdul Malek (b. Nov. 26, 1936, Aden [now in Yemen]), Yemen (Aden) politician. He was minister of labour and social welfare (1967-68) and economy, commerce, and planning (1968-70), permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-73), and ambassador to Egypt (1973-75) and Sudan (1975).

Ismail, Abdullahi Sheikh (d. May 7, 2021, Mogadishu, Somalia), foreign minister of Somalia (2004-06). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1984-88) and minister of transport and civil aviation (2015).

Ismail (Ali), Ahmed (b. Oct. 14, 1917, Cairo, Egypt - d. Dec. 25, 1974, London, England), defense minister of Egypt (1972-74). He was also chief of staff of the armed forces (1969-72) and a deputy prime minister (1974).

Ismail, Amri Sued (b. 1942, Kigombe municipality, Ruhengeri prefecture, Rwanda - d. Oct. 5, 2017, Kigali, Rwanda), foreign minister of Rwanda (1999). He was also secretary-general of the Common African and Mauritian Organization (1979-85) and ambassador to Kenya (1985-89), Côte d'Ivoire (1989-91), and Egypt (1995-99).

E.A. Ismail

M.O. Ismail

O.G.A. Ismail

S. Ismail
Ismail, Edna Adan, Somali Adna Aadan Ismaaciil (b. Sept. 8, 1937, Hargeysa, British Somaliland [now Republic of Somaliland]), foreign minister of Somaliland (2003-06); widow of Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal. She was also minister of family welfare and social development (2002-03).

Ismail (al-Amin), Mustafa Osman, Arabic Mustafa `Uthman Isma`il (b. 1955, Romi al-Bakri, near Dongola, Sudan), foreign minister of The Sudan (1998-2005). He was also minister of investment (2012-14) and ambassador to Switzerland (2016-20).

Ismail, Omar Gamar Aldin, acting foreign minister of The Sudan (2020-21).

Ismail (Mohamed), Sherif (b. July 6, 1955 - d. Feb. 4, 2023, Cairo, Egypt), prime minister of Egypt (2015-18). He was also minister of petroleum and mineral resources (2013-15).

Ismail bin D.A.R.

Tuanku Ismail
Ismail bin Dato' Abdul Rahman, Tun (b. Nov. 4, 1915, Johor Bahru, Johor [now in Malaysia] - d. Aug. 2, 1973, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), foreign minister (1959-60), internal security minister (1960-63), interior minister (1961-63), home affairs minister (1963-67, 1969-73), justice minister (1964-67), and deputy prime minister (1970-73) of Malaya/Malaysia; son of Dato' Abdul Rahman bin Mohamed Yasin; brother of Tan Sri Suleiman bin Dato' Abdul Rahman. He was also ambassador to the United States and permanent representative to the United Nations (1957-59). He was given the title Tun in 1966.

Ismail (Hakki) Canbulat Bey (b. 1880, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. [executed] July 13/14, 1926, Smyrna [now Izmir], Turkey), interior minister of the Ottoman Empire (1918). He was also governor of Constantinople (1915-16), mayor of Constantinople (1916), and ambassador to Sweden (1917).

Ismail Hakki Bey, (Müftüzade) (b. 1870 - d. 1922), governor of Mount Lebanon (1917). He was also governor of Beirut (1918).

Ismail Hakki Pasha (d. March 13, 1868), Ottoman official. He was minister of waqfs (1862-63), privy purse (1863-68), and navy (1867-68).

Ismail Khan (bin Ibrahim Khan), Tan Sri (b. June 18, 1905, Taiping, Perak, Federated Malay States [now in Malaysia] - d. April 18, 2000, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia), Malaysian politician. He was chief justice of Borneo (1968-73) and president of the Dewan Negara (1981-85). He was awarded the title Tan Sri in 1984.

Ismail Nasiruddin Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Zainal Abidin (Muadzam Shah), Tuanku (b. Jan. 24, 1907, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu [now in Malaysia] - d. Sept. 20, 1979, Kuala Terengganu), sultan of Terengganu (1945-79) and paramount ruler of Malaysia (1965-70).

Ismail Pasha
Ismail Pasha (Arabic Isma`il Basha), byname Ismail the Magnificent (b. Dec. 31, 1830, Cairo, Egypt - d. March 2, 1895, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]), khedive of Egypt (1867-79). He undertook various diplomatic missions in Europe before becoming governor in 1863. In 1867 he obtained from the Ottoman sultan the hereditary title of khedive. As viceroy he conducted important negotiations regarding completion of the Suez Canal. The canal neared completion in the summer of 1869, and he turned the celebration of the canal's opening in November into a magnificent display of khedival splendour. One of the most significant of his innovations was the establishment of an assembly of delegates in November 1866. Although this body served only in an advisory capacity, its members eventually came to have an important influence on the course of governmental affairs. Ismail, hoping to bring the vast areas of the Sudan under effective Egyptian control, hired Europeans and Americans to direct the military and administrative aspects of this venture, feeling that they would be more immune to the intrigues to which his own officials would have been subjected. Although some progress was made, he did not realize his goal of creating a new southern province but did assert what later became an important element in nationalist thought - the political unity of the Nile valley. His administrative policies consumed an enormous amount of money, much of it supplied by European financiers. When he assumed power, the Egyptian national debt stood at £7,000,000; by 1876 this debt had increased to almost £100,000,000. The Commission of the Public Debt was set up at the urging of his foreign creditors, but he did not cooperate fully because some of the measures he was required to take would have infringed on his domestic authority. The Ottoman sultan dismissed him in June 1879.

Ismail Pasha, Hekim(basi) (b. 1807, near Smyrna, Ottoman Empire [now Izmir, Turkey] - d. 1880), Ottoman official. He was minister of public works (1848-49, 1873, 1873-74) and commerce (1849-51, 1856-58), governor of Aydin (1853-55, 1868-69), Shkodra (1855), Crete (1861-67), and Salonika (1871-72), and mayor of Constantinople (1873, 1874).

Ismail Sabri
Ismail Sabri (bin) Yaakob, Datuk Seri (Panglima) (b. Jan. 18, 1960, Temerloh, Pahang, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), defense minister (2020-21) and prime minister (2021-22) of Malaysia. He was also minister of youth and sports (2008-09), domestic trade, cooperatives, and consumerism (2009-13), agriculture and agro-based industry (2013-15), and rural and regional development (2015-18). He was awarded the titles Datuk in 2004, Dato' in 2005, Dato' Sri in 2008, and Datuk Seri Panglima in 2020.

Ismailov, Ibragim (b. 1901, Nyut, Fergana oblast, Russia [now in Gorno-Badakhshan, Tajikistan] - d. [executed] Oct. 20, 1938, Stalinabad, Tadzhik S.S.R. [now Dushanbe, Tajikistan]), chairman of the Executive Committee of Gorny Badakhshan (1926-28). He was also people's commissar of finance (1930-32) and commerce (1936-37) of the Tadzhik S.S.R.

Ismailov, Kyazim (Geydar ogly), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R. (1938?-40).

Ismailov, Ramazan (Akper ogly) (b. 1928), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R. (1964-66?).


Ismay (of Wormington), Hastings (Lionel) Ismay, (1st) Baron (b. June 21, 1887, Naini Tal, North-Western Provinces [now Nainital, Uttarakhand], India - d. Dec. 17, 1965, Broadway, Worcestershire, England), secretary-general of NATO (1952-57).

Ismay, Sir Stanley (b. July 1, 1848 - d. June 8, 1914), acting chief commissioner of the Central Provinces (1906); knighted 1911.

Ismayev, Karimulla (Khusnullovich) (b. June 24 [June 12, O.S.], 1898, Staraya Karmala, Kazan province [now in Samara oblast], Russia - d. 1978), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Tatar A.S.S.R. (1928-30).

Isnard, (Honoré) Maximin (or Henri Maximin Isnard) (b. Feb. 24, 1758 [or Nov. 16, 1755], Grasse [now in Alpes-Maritimes département], France - d. March 12, 1825, Grasse), president of the National Convention of France (1793).

Isogai, Rensuke (b. 1886 - d. June 6, 1967, Ichinomiya, Japan), Japanese governor of Hong Kong (1942-44).

Isong, Clement (Nyong) (b. April 20, 1920, Eket [now in Akwa Ibom state], Nigeria - d. May 29, 2000), governor of Cross River (1979-83). He was governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria in 1967-75.


Issa (Gwaider al-Ghaiti al-Abaidy), Akila Saleh, also spelled Aguila, Ageela, Eissa, Iissa, etc., Arabic `Aqila Salih `Isa (Quwaydar al-Ghayti al-`Abaydi) (b. 1944, Gubba, eastern Libya), president of the House of Representatives of Libya (2014- ). As such he was (disputed) head of state to 2021.

Issembe, Aristide (b. Dec. 20, 1910, Libreville, Gabon - d. July 1, 1997), Gabonese diplomat. He was ambassador to France (1961-62), the United States (1963-66), Taiwan (1967-68), and Canada (1971-72) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1962-65).

Issoïbeka, Pacifique (b. April 13, 1941, Bokouélé, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), finance minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (2005-09).

Issoufou, Mahamadou (b. 1952, Dandaji, Niger), prime minister (1993-94) and president (2011-21) of Niger. He was also president of the National Assembly (1995-96) and chairman of the Economic Community of West African States (2019-20). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1993, 1996, 1999, and 2004.

Issoze-Ngondet, (Franck) Emmanuel (b. April 2, 1961, Makokou, Gabon - d. June 11, 2020, Libreville, Gabon), budget minister (2011-12), foreign minister (2012-16), and prime minister (2016-19) of Gabon. He was also ambassador to South Korea (2000-06), Thailand (2003-06), the Philippines (2004-06), Ethiopia (2006-08), and Kenya (2007-08) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-09, 2009-11).

Istúriz (Almeida), Aristóbulo (b. Dec. 20, 1946, Curiepe, Miranda, Venezuela - d. April 27, 2021, Caracas, Venezuela), governor of Anzoátegui (2012-16) and executive vice president of Venezuela (2016-17). He was also mayor of Libertador (1993-96), minister of education (2001-07, 2018-21), vice president for territorial socialism (2017-21), and minister of communes and social movements (2017, 2018).

Istúriz y Montero, Francisco Javier de (b. Oct. 31, 1785, Cádiz, Spain - d. April 2, 1871, Madrid, Spain), prime minister and foreign minister of Spain (1836, 1846-47, 1858). He was also president of the Cortes (1823), the Estamento de Procuradores (1835-36), the Congress of Deputies (1838-39, 1840), and the Senate (1858), interior minister (1846), and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1847-48, 1850-54, 1858-62), Russia (1856-58), and France (1863-64).

Itaboraí, Joaquim José Rodrigues Torres, visconde de (b. Dec. 13, 1802, São João de Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro province [now state], Brazil - d. Jan. 8, 1872, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), chairman of the Council of Ministers of Brazil (1852-53, 1868-70). He was also minister of navy (1831-32, 1832-34, 1837-39, 1840, 1843-44), finance (1832, 1848-53, 1868-70), and war (1839), president of Rio de Janeiro (1834-36), and president of the Bank of Brazil (1855-57, 1859). He was made viscount in 1854.

Itagaki, Seishiro (b. Jan. 21, 1885, Iwate, Japan - d. [executed] Dec. 23, 1948, Tokyo, Japan), war minister of Japan (1938-39).

Itagaki, Taisuke, in full (from 1887) Hakushaku (Count) Taisuke Itagaki, original name Inosuke Itagaki (b. May 21 [April 17, lunar calendar], 1837, Nakajima-cho [now part of Kochi city], Tosa province [now in Kochi prefecture], Japan - d. July 16, 1919), home affairs minister of Japan (1896, 1898).

Itälä, Ville (Heimo Antero) (b. May 10, 1959, Luumäki, Finland), interior minister of Finland (2000-03). He was also deputy prime minister (2001-03).

Italeli, Sir Iakoba Taeia, governor-general of Tuvalu (2010-19); knighted 2011. He has also been attorney-general (2002-06), minister of health and education (2006-10), and speaker of parliament (2024- ).

Italmazov, Babaniyaz (Ovlyakuliyevich), Turkmen Babanyýaz (Öwlýagulyýewiç) Italmazow (b. 1966, Karabekaul, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Garabekevyul, Lebap velayat, Turkmenistan]), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (2013-14). He was also minister of building materials industry (2011-12) and industry (2012-13) and acting chairman of Turkmenkhimiya State Concern (2013-14).

Itamaracá, Antonio Peregrino Maciel Monteiro, barão de (b. April 30, 1804, Recife, Brazil - d. Jan. 5, 1868, Lisbon, Portugal), foreign minister of Brazil (1837-39). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1852-54) and minister to Portugal (1854-68). He was made baron in 1860.

Itamaracá, Thomaz Antonio Maciel Monteiro, barão de (b. 1780, Pernambuco captaincy [now state], Brazil - d. Nov. 24, 1847, Pernambuco province [now state]), acting president of Pernambuco (1840). He was made baron in 1843.

Itapemirim, Joaquim Marcellino da Silva Lima, barão de (b. 1780, Espírito Santo captaincy [now state], Brazil - d. Dec. 18, 1860, Itapemirim, Espírito Santo), acting president of Espírito Santo (1849, 1853-54, 1855-56, 1857). He was made baron in 1841.

Itapicuru-Mirim, José Félix Pereira (Pinto) de Burgos, barão de (b. 1780, Maranhão province [now state], Brazil - d. April 9, 1854, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Pará (1825-28, 1830-31) and war minister of Brazil (1835). He was made baron in 1829.

Itapitocahy, Miguel Rodrigues Barcellos, barão de (b. June 22, 1824, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Dec. 1, 1896, Pelotas), acting president of Rio Grande do Sul (1885). He was made baron in 1888.

Itaporanga, Domingos Dias Coelho e Mello, barão de (b. 1785 - d. April 11, 1874, Sergipe province [now state], Brazil), member of the provisional junta of Sergipe (1822-24). He was made baron in 1860.

Itaúna, Candido Borges Monteiro, barão e visconde de (b. Oct. 12, 1812, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Aug. 25, 1872, Rio de Janeiro), president of São Paulo (1868-69). He was also Brazilian minister of agriculture and public works (1872). He was made baron in 1867 and viscount in 1872.

Itno, Ibrahim Mahamat (b. 1950 - d. [executed] 1989 or 1990), interior minister of Chad (1984-89); half-brother of Idriss Déby Itno.

H. Ito
Ito, Hirobumi, original name Toshisuke (b. Oct. 14, 1841, Suo province [now Yamaguchi prefecture], Japan - d. Oct. 26, 1909, Harbin, Manchuria, China), prime minister (1885-88, 1892-96, 1898, 1900-01) and foreign minister (1887-88) of Japan. When Toshimichi Okubo, the most powerful man in the government, was assassinated in 1878, Ito succeeded him as minister of home affairs. His advancement brought him into conflict with the equally talented and ambitious statesman Shigenobu Okuma. In a series of masterful political strokes, Ito forced Okuma and his supporters out of the government in 1881 and persuaded the government to adopt a constitution; by 1889 the emperor proclaimed it and in 1890 the national Diet was established. In the mid-1890s, as prime minister, he helped Japan attain two important successes. The first was an agreement with Great Britain signed in 1894 for doing away with extraterritoriality by 1899. Under the agreement British nationals in Japan would thereafter be subject to Japanese law. This agreement was followed by others with other major Western nations. The second achievement was Japan's victory over China in 1895, and both achievements were among the first clear signs that Japan, alone among non-Western nations, had achieved success in modernization and a weightier role in East Asian affairs. In 1900 he formed the Rikken Seiyukai ("Friends of Constitutional Government"), which he based on an older anti-government party, the Kenseito ("Constitutional Association"). He resigned as its president in 1903. He became resident general in Korea in 1905. In 1909 he was shot in Harbin in North China by An Chung Gun, a member of the Korean independence movement. He held the titles of count (1884), marquess (1895), and duke (1907).

Ito, Masayoshi (b. Dec. 15, 1915, Fukushima prefecture, Japan - d. May 20, 1994), acting prime minister (1980) and foreign minister (1980-81) of Japan. He was also chief cabinet secretary (1979-80).

Ito, Soichiro (b. March 21, 1924, Miyagi prefecture, Japan - d. Sept. 4, 2001, Tokyo, Japan), director-general of the Defense Agency of Japan (1981-82). He was also director-general of the Science and Techhnology Agency (1987-88) and speaker of the House of Representatives (1996-2000).

Ito, Yuichiro (b. Nov. 17, 1947), governor of Kagoshima (2004-16).

Itriago Chacín, Pedro (b. Sept. 9, 1875, Zaraza, Guárico state, Venezuela - d. May 19, 1936, Canary Islands, Spain), foreign minister (1921-36) and acting president (1931) of Venezuela.

Itsundala Asang, Willy (b. April 9, 1962, Idiofa, Léopoldville province [now in Kwilu], Congo [Léopoldville (now Kinshasa)]), governor of Kwilu (2019-24).

Itú, Antonio de Aguiar Barros, visconde, conde e marquês de (b. Dec. 25, 1823, Itu, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Jan. 30, 1889, São Paulo, Brazil), acting president of São Paulo (1878, 1883). He was made viscount in 1880, count in 1885, and marquess in 1887.

Iturbide, Agustín de, also called (1822-23) Agustín (b. Sept. 27, 1783, Valladolid, New Spain [now Morelia, Mexico] - d. July 19, 1824, Padilla, Mexico), emperor of Mexico (1822-23). He favoured Mexican independence, but fought for the Spanish because he opposed the social revolution of the independence movement of Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos. His defense of Valladolid against the revolutionary forces dealt a crushing blow to the insurgents, and for this victory he was given command of the military district of Guanajuato and Michoacán. In 1816, however, grave charges of extortion and violence caused his removal. By 1820 the radical independence movement was almost entirely extinguished; both Hidalgo and Morelos had been captured and executed. The independence movement then performed a curious about-face. In reaction to a liberal coup d'état in Spain, the conservatives in Mexico (formerly staunch royalists) advocated immediate independence. Iturbide assumed command of the army and, at Iguala, allied his reactionary force with Vicente Guerrero's radical insurgents. Iturbide's Plan de Iguala, published on Feb. 24, 1821, proclaimed three guarantees: (1) immediate independence from Spain, (2) equality for Spaniards and Creoles, and (3) the supremacy of Roman Catholicism and a ban on all other religions. The Army of the Three Guarantees quickly subjugated the country; on Aug. 24, 1821, Juan O'Donojú, the new representative of the Spanish king, signed the Treaty of Córdoba, recognizing Mexican independence. The revolutionary coalition quickly fell apart as Iturbide removed Guerrero and his following from influence. Iturbide became president of the Regency and, in May 1822, made himself Emperor Agustín. He ruled as a despot and all parties soon turned against him. Opposition solidified behind Antonio López de Santa Anna, whose plan called for Iturbide's overthrow and exile. In March 1823 Iturbide abdicated and went first to Italy and then to England. In 1824, however, he returned to Mexico, unaware that the Congress had decreed his death. Captured on July 15, he was executed four days later.

Iturmendi Bañales, Antonio (b. Dec. 15, 1903, Baracaldo, Vizcaya province, Spain - d. March 4, 1976, Madrid, Spain), justice minister of Spain (1951-65). He was also president of the Cortes (1965-69).

Iturralde (Palacios), Abel (b. Feb. 11, 1869, La Paz, Bolivia - d. June 30, 1935, Santiago, Chile), interior minister (1920-21) and foreign minister (1928) of Bolivia. He was also prefect of La Paz (1920).

Iturralde Ballivián, Carlos (b. April 25, 1941, La Paz, Bolivia - d. Aug. 16, 2021), foreign minister of Bolivia (1989-92). He was also ambassador to Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Australia (1977-78) and the United States (1978-79).

Iturralde Chinel, Fernando (b. May 19, 1912, La Paz, Bolivia - d. 1971), foreign minister of Bolivia (1964). He was also ambassador to Guatemala (1952), education minister (1952-53), minister to Chile (1954-57), and ambassador to Argentina (1957-64).

Iturre, César (Eusebio) (b. 1938 - d. April 22, 1997, Asunción, Paraguay), governor of Santiago del Estero (1987-91).

Iturria (Igarzábal), (Nepomuceno) Raúl (b. June 16, 1935, Durazno department, Uruguay), interior minister (1993-94) and defense minister (1995-98) of Uruguay.

Itzik, Dalia, née Ballas (b. Oct. 20, 1952, Jerusalem), speaker of the Knesset (2006-09), acting president (2007), and interim president (2007) of Israel. She was also minister of environment (1999-2001), industry and trade (2001-02), and communications (2005).

Ivan V, in full Ivan Alekseyevich (b. Sept. 6 [Aug. 27, O.S.], 1666, Moscow, Russia - d. Feb. 8 [Jan. 29, O.S.], 1696, Moscow), joint tsar of Russia (1682-96); brother of Fyodor III.

Ivan VI, in full Ivan Antonovich (b. Aug. 23 [Aug. 12, O.S.], 1740, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. [killed in prison] July 16 [July 5, O.S.], 1764, Shlisselburg fortress, near St. Petersburg), emperor of Russia (1740-41); grandnephew of Anna.

Ivanchov, Todor (b. 1858, Turnovo, Ottoman Empire [now Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria] - d. Jan. 3, 1906, Paris, France), prime minister (1899-1901), foreign minister (1899-1900), and finance minister (1900-01) of Bulgaria. He was also education minister (1886, 1886-87, 1899).

Ivanenko, Viktor (Valentinovich) (b. Sept. 19, 1947, Koltsovka, Tyumen oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Jan. 1, 2023), chairman of the Committee of State Security of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1991) and director of the Federal Security Agency of Russia (1991-92).

Ivanic, Mladen (b. Sept. 16, 1958, Sanski Most, Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister of the Republika Srpska (2001-03) and foreign minister (2003-07) and chairman of the Presidency (2014-15, 2016-17) of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In June 2008 he was sentenced to 18 months in prison for "negligent behaviour" during his term as Republika Srpska premier, in relation to a corruption scandal involving the biggest state-owned timber company; the ruling was appealed. In July he became chairman of the House of Peoples; he resigned in February 2009.

Ivanisevic, Katica (b. Jan. 11, 1935, Omisalj, Krk island, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia]), president of the House of Counties of Croatia (1994-2001).

Ivanisevic, Stjepan (b. Aug. 12, 1939, Trpanj, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. May 29, 2021, Zagreb, Croatia), justice minister of Croatia (2000-01). He was also minister of administration and local self-government (2000-01).


G. Ivanov
Ivanishvili, Bidzina (Grigoryevich) (b. Feb. 18, 1956, Chorvila, Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Georgia (2012-13). He was the founder and chairman (2012-13, 2018-21) of the Georgian Dream party.

Ivanou, Aleg (Mikalayevich), Russian Oleg (Nikolayevich) Ivanov (b. Aug. 11, 1961), Belarusian diplomat. He has been chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2002-04) and in Russia (2011, 2012) and ambassador to Tajikistan and Afghanistan (2016- ).

Ivanov, Aleksandr (Stepanovich) (b. Nov. 7, 1957, Syatrakasy village, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), acting prime minister of Chuvashia (2011).

Ivanov (Vasilev), Aleksi (b. Oct. 22, 1922, Hagilar [now Lastuni], Romania - d. 1997), a deputy premier of Bulgaria (1986-87). He was also minister of agriculture and forestry (1986-88).

Ivanov, Apollon (Alekseyevich) (b. Jan. 7, 1798 [Dec. 27, 1797, O.S.] - d. Sept. 28 [Sept. 16, O.S.], 1844), governor of Kaspiyskaya oblast (1842-44).

Ivanov, Boris (Petrovich) (b. July 7, 1941), chairman of the Executive Committee (1991) and head of the administration (1991-96) of Chita oblast.

Ivanov, Gerasim (Ivanovich) (b. Feb. 27, 1905, Tyumerevo, Kazan province [now in Chuvashia republic], Russia - d. [executed] Feb. 23, 1939, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Chuvash A.S.S.R. (1937-38).

Ivanov, Gjorge (b. May 2, 1960, Valandovo, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), president of (North) Macedonia (2009-19).

Ivanov, Grigory (Alekseyevich) (b. Feb. 22 [Feb. 10, O.S.], 1897, Sholokovo, Vyatka province [now in Udmurtia republic], Russia - d. 1963), chairman of the Executive Committee (1931-35), the Council of People's Commissars (1935-37), and the Central Executive Committee (1935-37) of the Udmurt autonomous oblast/A.S.S.R.

Ivanov, Grigory (Ivanovich) (b. 1841 - d. Feb. 5, 1913), governor of Semirechye oblast (1887-99).

Ivanov, Hristo (Lyubomirov) (b. Sept. 13, 1974, Sofia, Bulgaria), a deputy prime minister (2014) and justice minister (2014-15) of Bulgaria.

I. (S.) Ivanov
Ivanov, Igor (Sergeyevich) (b. Sept. 23, 1945, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), foreign minister of Russia (1998-2004); son-in-law of Semyon Kozyrev. A career diplomat, he was ambassador to Spain (1991-93), and had a long experience of working under Yevgeny Primakov. He was his first deputy at the foreign ministry and then became foreign minister himself when Primakov became prime minister. Unlike Primakov, an Arabic-speaking Middle East expert, Ivanov, who speaks Spanish and English, had stronger professional ties with Europe and had been involved in efforts to bring peace to former Yugoslavia. In 2004-07 he was secretary of the Security Council.

Ivanov, Igor (Vladimirovich) (b. Sept. 13, 1937), acting head of the republic of Karachayevo-Cherkessia (1999).

Ivanov, Ivan (Ivanovich) (b. September 1889, Popov, Tver province, Russia - d. April 10, 1941, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Mari autonomous oblast (1923-26).

Ivanov, Kliment (Yegorovich) (b. Nov. 10, 1936, Elgyay, Yakut A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now Sakha republic, Russia]), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Yakut-Sakha S.S.R. (1990-92). He was also minister of agriculture of the Yakut A.S.S.R. (1986-88).

Ivanov, Nikita (Petrovich) (b. 1908, Petrishchevo, Smolensk province, Russia - d. June 1977, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the North Ossetian A.S.S.R. (1938-40).

Ivanov, Nikola (Ivanov) (b. March 2 [Feb. 18, O.S.], 1861, Kalofer, Ottoman Empire [now in Bulgaria] - d. Sept. 10, 1940, Sofia, Bulgaria), army minister of Bulgaria (1896-99). He was also chief of the General Staff (1894-96).

Ivanov, Nikolay (Agapovich) (b. 1813 - d. Nov. 7, 1873), governor of Kutaisi (1858-61) and head of Kuban oblast (1860-62).

Ivanov, Nikolay (Aleksandrovich) (b. Feb. 7 [Jan. 26, O.S.], 1842 - d. May 31 [May 18, O.S.], 1904), governor of Fergana oblast (1883-89) and governor-general of Turkestan (1901-04).

Ivanov, Nikolay (Ivanovich) (b. 1896, Moscow province, Russia - d. 1956?), acting first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Karelian A.S.S.R. (1937-38).

Ivanov, Semyon (Aleksandrovich) (b. Sept. 14, 1922, Aranastakh, Yakut A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Yakut A.S.S.R. (1963-65). He was also minister of local industry (1954-56).

Ivanov, Sergey (Borisovich) (b. Jan. 31, 1953, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]), defense minister of Russia (2001-07). A close confidant of Vladimir Putin, he was, like him, a former KGB intelligence officer from St. Petersburg. He was in charge of army reform, but was accused by critics of being ineffective in handling the enormous task. He was also secretary of the Security Council (1999-2001), a deputy prime minister (2005-07, 2008-11), first deputy prime minister (2007-08), and head of the Administration of the President (2011-16); in 2016 he was named special representative of the president for environmental conservation, ecology, and transport.

Ivanov, Solomon (Matveyevich) (b. 1912, Yey ulus, Irkutsk province, Russia - d. 1964, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars/Council of Ministers of the Buryat-Mongol A.S.S.R. (1937-48, 1950-51).

Ivanov, Vasily (Ivanovich) (b. 1905 - d. October 1989), Soviet politician. He was a deputy premier of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1953-55) and Soviet ambassador to North Korea (1955-57) and Albania (1957-60).

Ivanov, Viktor (Aleksandrovich) (b. 1903, Kazan, Russia - d. Jan. 23, 1969, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R. (1940-44).

Ivanov, Vitaly (Innokentievich) (b. Nov. 10, 1946), acting governor of Irkutsk oblast (1997).

Ivanov, Vladimir (Ivanovich) (b. March 23 [March 11, O.S.], 1893, Tula, Russia - d. [executed] March 15, 1938), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1925-27). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Severny kray (1931-37) and Soviet people's commissar of forest industry (1936-37).

Ivanov, Yury (Nikolayevich) (b. Sept. 28, 1929, Kostroma oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. 2002), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Karelian A.S.S.R. (1984-89).

Ivanov-Rinov, Pavel (Pavlovich) (b. July 26, 1869 - d. af. 1926), governor of Fergana oblast (1916-17). He was also war minister in the Provisional Siberian Government at Omsk (1918).

Ivanova, Iliana (Naydenova) (b. Sept. 14, 1975, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria), Bulgarian politician. She has been EU commissioner for innovation, research, culture, education, and youth (2023- ).


F. Ivanovic
Ivanova, Lyudmila (Nikolayevna) (b. Sept. 1, 1956), prime minister of Kalmykia (2011-12).

Ivanovic, Bozina (b. Dec. 31, 1931, Podgorica, Banovina of Zeta, Yugoslavia [now in Montenegro] - d. Oct. 10, 2002, Podgorica), president of the Presidency of Montenegro (1988-89).

Ivanovic, Filip (b. Jan. 6, 1986, Titograd [now Podgorica], Montenegro), foreign minister of Montenegro (2023- ).

Ivanusic, Zvonko (b. May 17, 1959, Gorenjci pri Adlesicih, Slovenia), finance minister of Slovenia (2000).

Ivarato, Aita (Ikirari) (b. 1953, Pusarasa, Eastern Highlands, Papua and New Guinea [now Papua New Guinea] - d. April 4, 2021, Goroka, Papua New Guinea), governor of Eastern Highlands (1995-97). He was also minister of works of Papua New Guinea (1987-88).

Ivashchenko, Valeriy (Volodymyrovych) (b. July 30, 1956, Zaporozhye [Zaporizhzhya], Ukrainian S.S.R.), acting defense minister of Ukraine (2009-10).

Ivashko, Vladimir (Antonovich) (b. Oct. 28, 1932, Poltava, Ukrainian S.S.R. - d. Nov. 13, 1994), first secretary of the Communist Party (1989-90) and chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1990) of the Ukrainian S.S.R. He was also first secretary of the party committee of Dnepropetrovsk oblast (1987-88) and deputy general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1990-91).

Ivey, Kay (Ellen) (b. Oct. 15, 1944, Camden, Ala.), governor of Alabama (2017- ).

Ivic, Ivan (b. April 27, 1962, Kupres, Bosnia and Herzegovina), governor of Herzeg-Bosnia (1998-2000).

Ivlev, Igor (Aleksandrovich) (b. May 30, 1941), acting head of the administration of Ryazan oblast (1996-97).

Ivory, Jason (b. Aug. 4, 1970), administrator of Tristan da Cunha (2022).

Iwaki, Mitsuhide (b. Dec. 4, 1949, Iwaki, Fukushima prefecture, Japan), justice minister of Japan (2015-16).

Iwamura, Michiyo (b. Aug. 21, 1883, Tokyo, Japan - d. March 13, 1965), justice minister of Japan (1941-44).

Iwanicki, Stanislaw (b. March 5, 1951, Biala Podlaska, Poland), justice minister and prosecutor-general of Poland (2001). He was also head of the presidential chancellery (1995).

Iwata, Chuzo (b. April 7, 1875, Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan - d. Feb. 22, 1966), justice minister of Japan (1945-46).

Iwaya, Takeshi (b. Aug. 24, 1957, Beppu, Oita, Japan), defense minister of Japan (2018-19).

Iweins d'Eeckhoutte, Maurice (Léon Marie Joseph Ghislain) (b. Dec. 20, 1904, Ieper, Belgium - d. Jan. 22, 1976, Uccle, Belgium), secretary-general of the Western European Union (1962-70). He was also Belgian ambassador to the United Arab Republic (1960-61).

Iyambo, Nickey (b. May 20, 1936, Onayena, Oshikoto region, South West Africa [now Namibia] - d. May 19, 2019, Windhoek, Namibia), vice president of Namibia (2015-18). He was also minister of health and social services (1990-96), regional and local government and housing (1996-2002), mines and energy (2002-05), agriculture, water, and forestry (2005-08), safety and security (2008-10), and veterans affairs (2010-15).

Iyamuremye, Augustin (b. March 15, 1946), foreign minister of Rwanda (1999-2000). He was also minister of agriculture and livestock (1994-97), agriculture, environment, and rural development (1997-99), and information (1999-2000).

Iyasu V, original name Kifle Yaqub (b. Feb. 3, 1898, Tanta, Ethiopia - d. Nov. 25, 1935, Gara Muleta, Ethiopia), regent (1912-13) and emperor (1913-16) of Ethiopia; grandson of Menelik II; nephew of Zauditu. The form "Lij Iyasu," meaning "Prince Iyasu" (with an overtone of "Child Iyasu"), though proper before his succession, continued to be used with a derogatory meaning during his reign (he was never crowned, and ultimately deposed).

Izaguirre (Angeli), Alejandro (b. July 17, 1924, Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela - d. Jan. 11, 2012, Valencia), interior minister of Venezuela (1989-92). He was also ambassador to the Dominican Republic (1962-63).

Izaguirre (Porras), Maritza (b. May 9, 1939, New York City), finance minister of Venezuela (1998-99).

Izard, George (b. Oct. 21, 1776, Richmond [now part of London], England - d. Nov. 22, 1828, Little Rock, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1825-28).

Izard, Mark W(hitaker) (b. Dec. 25, 1799, Lexington, Ky. - d. Aug. 8, 1866, Forrest City, Ark.), governor of Nebraska (1855-57).

Izawa, Takio (b. Dec. 26 [Nov. 24, lunar calendar], 1869, Takato [now part of Ina, Nagano prefecture], Japan - d. Aug. 13, 1949), governor-general of Taiwan (1924-26). He was also governor of Wakayama (1907-09), Ehime (1909-12), and Niigata (1912-13) and mayor of Tokyo (1926).

Izbaskhanov, Kylyshbek (Satylganovich) (b. Oct. 26, 1952), Kazakh politician. He was chairman of the State Committee for State Properties (1991-93) and mayor of Shymkent (1997-99).

Izbastin, Temirtay (Rymtayevich) (b. Sept. 10, 1957, Bayanaul, Pavlodar oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), Kazakh diplomat; brother-in-law of Kasymzhomart Tokayev. He was head of the diplomatic mission (2009-19) and ambassador (2019-22) to Bulgaria.

Izcue (Gutiérrez), (Francisco Javier María) José (Raymundo) Rafael de (b. Jan. 28, 1832, Arequipa, Peru - d. Jan. 11, 1889, Lima, Peru), finance minister of Peru (1878-79).

A. Izetbegovic
Izetbegovic, Alija (b. Aug. 8, 1925, Bosanski Samac, Yugoslavia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. Oct. 19, 2003, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), president of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1990-98, 2000). A Muslim Slav nationalist, he was imprisoned in 1946-48 and again in 1983-88 for "pan-Islamic" activities by the Communist government of Yugoslavia (of which Bosnia and Herzegovina was then a part). He founded the Muslim nationalist Party of Democratic Action (SDA) in 1990 and was elected president of the Bosnian republic the same year. After voters chose independence in late February 1992, he mobilized the republic's armed forces to repel attacks from ethnic Serb guerrillas and units of the Serb-dominated Yugoslav military. Wishing to preserve his nation as a unitary multiethnic state, in 1992 he asked for Western arms and military intervention to protect its newly achieved independence. When this aid was not forthcoming, he accepted the principle early in 1993 of dividing the nation into separate autonomous provinces in which Muslims, ethnic Serbs, and ethnic Croats would each rule. No agreement could be reached on boundaries, however, and hostilities continued. On March 18, 1994, agreement was reached between the Muslim-dominated government of Bosnia and its ethnic Croatian population to create a federation of the territories under the respective control of the two groups. He took part in the Dayton, Ohio, peace negotiations, signing the agreement there on Nov. 21, 1995, and the formal peace treaty designed to end the war in Bosnia on Dec. 14, 1995. In 1996 he ran for election to the three-member presidency established for Bosnia by the Dayton agreement. Gaining the largest number of votes, he became the first chairman of the presidency, serving until 1998. He was again chairman for a regular eight-month term in 2000 and then withdrew from the presidency.

B. Izetbegovic
Izetbegovic, Bakir (b. June 28, 1956, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2012, 2014, 2016, 2018); son of Alija Izetbegovic. He was also chairman of the House of Peoples (2019, 2021).

Izgi, Ömer (b. 1940, Doganhisar, Turkey), Turkish politician. He was speaker of the Grand National Assembly (2000-02).

Izmen, Mehmet (b. 1909, Boztekke, near Giresun, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. Jan. 8, 1986), defense minister of Turkey (1972-73). He was also minister of agriculture (1962-63) and communications (1969).

Izmukhambetov, Baktykozha (Salakhatdinovich) (b. Sept. 1, 1948, Guryev [now Atyrau] oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast (2007-12) and Atyrau oblast (2012-16). He was also Kazakh minister of energy and mineral resources (2006-07) and chairman of the Mazhilis (2016).

Izoria, Levan (b. Feb. 5, 1974, Georgian S.S.R.), defense minister of Georgia (2016-19). He has also been head of the Intelligence Service and secretary of the National Security Council (2019-20) and ambassador to Germany (2020- ).

Izquierdo Fredes, Luis (b. Aug. 13, 1864, San Fernando, Chile - d. Sept. 6, 1949, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister (1910, 1931), interior minister (1910, 1916, 1922), and finance minister (1931-32) of Chile. He was also minister to Argentina (1920-22).

Izrailovich, Abram (Ilich) (b. Nov. 13 [Nov. 1, O.S.], 1883, Moscow, Russia - d. [executed] Nov. 26, 1937), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Crimea (1921-22). He was also chairman of the party committee of Yekaterinburg province (1919-20).

Izumida, Hirohiko (b. Sept. 15, 1962), governor of Niigata (2004-16).

Izvolsky, Aleksandr (Petrovich) (b. March 18 [March 6, O.S.], 1856, Moscow, Russia - d. Aug. 16, 1919, Paris, France), foreign minister of Russia (1906-10); son of Pyotr (Aleksandrovich) Izvolsky; son-in-law of Graf Karl (Karlovich) Tol. He was also minister resident to the Vatican (1894-97), minister to Serbia (1897), Bavaria (1897-99), Japan (1899-1902), and Denmark (1902-06), and ambassador to France (1910-17).

Izvolsky, Pyotr (Aleksandrovich) (b. April 20, 1816, Kasimov district, Ryazan province, Russia - d. Aug. 21, 1888, St. Petersburg, Russia), Russian official. He was governor of Irkutsk (1860-62), Yekaterinoslav (1862-63), and Kursk (1863-66).

Izvolsky, Pyotr (Petrovich) (b. Feb. 26 [Feb. 14, O.S.], 1863, Yekaterinoslav, Russia [now Dnipro, Ukraine] - d. Dec. 9, 1928, Le Vésinet, Yvelines, France), Russian official; brother of Aleksandr Izvolsky. He was chief procurator of the Holy Synod (1906-09).

Izzet Bey, Ahmed, byname Kambur (b. 1871, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Jan. 5, 1920), Ottoman acting interior minister (1919); son of Said Pasha. He was also governor of Van (1912-13) and Smyrna (1919-20) and minister of waqfs (1918-19).

Izzet Mehmed Pasha, (Darendeli Topal) (b. 1792/93, Darende, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. March 7, 1855, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]), grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1828-29, 1841-42). He was also navy minister (1827-29) and governor of Vidin (1832-33), Afyonkarahisar (1834-36), Angora (1836-39), and Akka (1840). The byname Topal ("Lame") was due to an injury of his foot in an 1840 gun accident.

Izzet Mehmed Pasha, (Safranbolulu) (b. 1743, Safranbolu, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. Sept. 9, 1812, Manisa, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey]), grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1794-98). He was also governor of Diyarbakir (1786-87), Jeddah (1787), and Egypt (1791-93).

Izzet Pasha, Ahmed: see Furgaç, Izzet.