Index Ga-Gb

Gaarlandt, Karel Hendrik (b. Sept. 11, 1909, Hilversum, Noord-Holland, Netherlands - d. Sept. 22, 1985, Amersfoort, Utrecht), queen's commissioner of Drenthe (1964-74). He was also mayor of Emmen (1946-63).

Gaay Fortman, Wilhelm Friedrich de (b. May 8, 1911, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. March 29, 1997, The Hague, Netherlands), interior minister of the Netherlands (1973-77). He was also minister of Suriname and Netherlands Antilles affairs (1973-75) and Netherlands Antilles affairs (1975-77) and deputy prime minister and justice minister (1977).

Gabaidze, Davit (b. Aug. 10, 1980), chairman of the Supreme Council of Ajaria (2016- ).

Gabaldón, José Rafael (b. Nov. 4, 1882, Betijoque, Trujillo, Venezuela - d. March 17, 1975, Caracas, Venezuela), governor of Lara (1936, 1945). He was also Venezuelan minister to Argentina (1939-41), Cuba (1941-43), Haiti (1943), and Brazil (1943-45).

Gabarayev, Vladislav (Nikolayevich) (b. Feb. 19, 1957, Staliniri [now Tskhinvali], South Ossetian autonomous oblast, Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of South Ossetia (1995-96).

Gabbard, Tulsi (b. April 12, 1981, Leloaloa, American Samoa), U.S. politician. She was a representative from Hawaii (2013-21) and a candidate for the 2020 Democratic presidential nomination.

Gabelentz, Hans Conon von der (b. Oct. 13, 1807, Altenburg, Saxe-Altenburg [now in Thüringen, Germany] - d. Sept. 3, 1874, Lemnitz, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach [now in Thüringen], Germany), minister of state of Saxe-Altenburg (1848-49). He was also known as a linguist.

Gabellah, Elliot (Mdutshwa) (b. 1923, Ntabazinduna, near Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. 1988), joint foreign minister of Rhodesia (1978-79).

Gabidullin, Khadzhi (Zagidullovich) (b. Nov. 7 [Oct. 26, O.S.], 1897, Savadi-Bashevo, Ufa province [now in Bashkortostan republic], Russia - d. [executed] Sept. 27, 1937), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Tatar A.S.S.R. (1924-27).

Gabites, Owston Paul (b. Dec. 5, 1913, Timaru, N.Z. - d. July 15, 1993, Kent, England), administrator of Tokelau (1965-68). He was New Zealand high commissioner to Western Samoa (1965-68) and ambassador to France (1969-75) and the Vatican (1973-75).

Gabiyev, Said (Ibragimovich) (b. May 28, 1882, Opochka, Pskov province, Russia - d. Feb. 18, 1963, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), chairman of the People's Council of the Terek People's Soviet Republic (1918-19). He was also chairman of the Revolutionary Committee (1920), people's commissar of education (1920-21), finance (1920s), and food (192...-26), and deputy premier (1921-23) of Dagestan (A.S.S.R. from 1921).

Gablaya, Ramin (Zaurovich) (b. July 25, 1968, Ochamchira, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), acting interior minister of Abkhazia (2010).

Gabolde, Maurice (b. Aug. 27, 1891, Castres, Tarn, France - d. Jan. 14, 1972, Barcelona, Spain), justice minister of France (1943-44).

Gabrel, Rudolf (Georg) (b. Sept. 1, 1871, Küti parish, Viru county, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. July 20, 1940), justice minister of Estonia (1923-25). He was also acting minister of education (1924).

Gabrié, Marie Louis Gustave (b. Aug. 24, 1852, Marseille, France - d. 19...), governor of Martinique (1898-1901).

Gabriel, Almir José de Oliveira (b. Aug. 18, 1932 - d. Feb. 19, 2013), governor of Pará (1995-2003). He was also mayor of Belém (1983-86).

Gabriel, Cecil Hamilton (b. Feb. 16, 1879 - d. Feb. 25, 1947), acting political resident in the Persian Gulf (1919).

L. Gabriel

M. Gabriel
Gabriel(-Blättler), Lisbeth, née Blättler (b. Aug. 28, 1948), Landammann of Nidwalden (2005-06).

Gabriel, Mariya (Ivanova), née Nedelcheva (b. May 20, 1979, Gotse Delchev, Bulgaria), deputy prime minister and foreign minister of Bulgaria (2023- ). She was also EU commissioner for digital economy and society (2017-19) and innovation, research, culture, education, and youth (2019-23).

S. Gabriel
Gabriel, Sigmar (b. Sept. 12, 1959, Goslar, Niedersachsen, West Germany), minister-president of Niedersachsen (1999-2003) and environment minister (2005-09), vice chancellor (2013-18), economy minister (2013-17), and foreign minister (2017-18) of Germany. He was chairman of the Social Democratic Party in 2009-17.

Gabriel Estany, Joan (b. Nov. 28, 1963), general syndic of Andorra (2005-09).

Gabrielli, Rodolfo (Federico) (b. May 25, 1951, Mendoza, Argentina), governor of Mendoza (1991-95) and interior minister of Argentina (2001-02).

Gabrielsen, Hans (Julius) (b. Jan. 8, 1891, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway - d. March 10, 1965, Lillehammer, Oppland [now in Innlandet], Norway), governor of Finnmark (1928-48) and Oppland (1948-61).

Gabriyel Efendi Noradonkyan (b. Nov. 6, 1852, Scutari, Ottoman Empire [now part of Istanbul, Turkey] - d. 1936, Paris, France), foreign minister of the Ottoman Empire (1912-13). He was also minister of commerce and public works (1908-10).

Gabrovski, Petur (Dimitrov) (b. July 9, 1898 - d. [executed] Feb. 1, 1945), interior minister (1940-43) and acting prime minister (1943) of Bulgaria. He was also minister of railways, posts, and telegraphs (1939-40).

Gaburici, Chiril (b. Nov. 23, 1976, Loganesti, Moldavian S.S.R.), prime minister of Moldova (2015). In 2018-19 he was minister of economy and infrastructure.

Gabyshev, Aleksandr (Gavrilovich) (b. 1899, Aleksandrovka, Yakutsk oblast [now in Sakha republic], Russia - d. [executed] May 21, 1942), acting executive secretary of the Communist Party committee (1926, 1928) and chairman of the Central Executive Committee (1934-38) of the Yakut A.S.S.R.

Gachhadar, Bijaya Kumar (b. 1953, Sunsari district, Nepal), home affairs minister (2011-13) and defense minister (2011-12) of Nepal. He was also minister of public works and transport (1997-98), tourism and civil aviation (1999-2000), water resources (2000, 2001-02), physical planning and works (2008-11), physical infrastructure and transport (2015-16), and federal affairs and local development (2017-18) and a deputy prime minister (2009-11, 2011-13, 2015-16, 2017-18).

Gade (Jensen), Søren (b. Jan. 27, 1963, Holstebro, Denmark), defense minister of Denmark (2004-10). He has also been speaker of the Folketing (2022- ).

Gadea Mantilla, Fabio (b. Nov. 9, 1931, Ocotal, Nueva Segovia department, Nicaragua), president of the Central American Parliament (2004-05). He was a Nicaraguan presidential candidate in 2011.

Gaden, (Nicolas Jules) Henri (b. Jan. 24, 1867, Bordeaux, France - d. Dec. 12, 1939, Saint-Louis, Senegal), commissioner (1916-20) and lieutenant governor (1920-26) of Mauritania.

Gadgil, Narhar Vishnu, byname Kakasaheb Gadgil (b. Jan. 10, 1896, Malhagarh [now in Madhya Pradesh], India - d. Jan. 12, 1966, Poona [now Pune], Maharashtra, India), governor of Punjab (1958-62). He was also Indian minister of works (1947-52), mines and power (1947-50), commerce (1948), and production and supply (1950-52).

Gadio, Cheikh Tidiane (b. Sept. 16, 1956, Saint-Louis, Senegal), foreign minister of Senegal (2000-09). He was a presidential candidate in 2012 (1% of the vote).

Gadoliyev, Kurbansho (b. 1908, Khobost, Fergana oblast, Russia [now in Tajikistan?] - d. 1987), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous oblast (1945-48). He was also minister of local industry of the Tadzhik S.S.R. (1952-55) and mayor of Khorog (19...-61).

Gadzhiyev, Islam (Abdulla ogly) (b. 1889 - d. [executed] Jan. 3, 1938), chairman of the Executive Committee of Nagorny Karabakh (1930-31).

Gadzhiyev, Zulfi (Salekh ogly), or Zulfi (Saleh oglu) Hajiyev (b. 1935 - d. [helicopter crash] Nov. 20, 1991, Garakend, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R. (1982-88). He was also deputy premier of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1989-91).

Gaekwar, Fateh Singh Rao, also called Fatehsinghrao Gaekwad (b. April 2, 1930, Baroda [now Vadodara, Gujarat], India - d. Sept. 1, 1988, Bombay [now Mumbai], India), titular maharaja of Baroda (1951-71). Known as "Jackie Baroda," Gaekwar was the last of a family of princes that dated to his great-great-great-grandfather, who had inherited the princedom as a poor 13-year-old cousin from a distant village. Gaekwar himself (1951) inherited the title and wealth then estimated at £15 million when his father was deposed. Gaekwar was educated by English tutors and entered national politics in 1957, serving as a member of parliament for ten years. In the regional Gujarat government, he was (1967-71) minister of health, fisheries, and jails. Gaekwar, revolted after a two-month shooting safari in the Belgian Congo in the early 1950s, became an ardent conservationist, serving the World Wildlife Fund and establishing a zoo on the palace grounds. When Indira Gandhi abolished (1971) the titles and legendary privileges of Indian princes, Gaekwar protested but adapted. His palace was to be converted into a museum and arts centre.

Gaeta, Anthony R. (b. Sept. 8, 1927, West Brighton, Staten Island, New York City - d. Dec. 26, 1988, Staten Island), borough president of Staten Island (1977-84).

Gaète, Martin Michel Charles Gaudin, duc de, Gaète also spelled Gaëte (b. Jan. 19, 1756, Saint-Denis [now in Seine-Saint-Denis département], France - d. Nov. 5, 1841, Gennevilliers, Seine [now in Hauts-de-Seine], France), finance minister of France (1799-1814, 1815). He was also governor of the Banque de France (1820-34). He was made comte (Count) Gaudin in 1808 and duc de Gaète (Duke of Gaeta) in 1809.

Gafencu, Grigore (b. Jan. 30, 1892, Bucharest, Romania - d. Jan. 30, 1957, Paris, France), foreign minister of Romania (1938-40). He became publisher and editor of Argus, a leading Romanian economic journal, in 1924. As a member of the National Peasant Party he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1928. He was undersecretary of state for foreign affairs in the first two cabinets of Iuliu Maniu (1928-30 and 1932-33) and minister of industry and trade in the short-lived third (1933). After Maniu's final quarrel with King Carol II, Gafencu went back to journalism and founded Timpul, which became the best Bucharest daily. Of great intelligence and charm, he was known as the handsomest man in Romania. On Dec. 21, 1938, King Carol, by then dictator, appointed Gafencu foreign minister as a gesture to the Western democracies, but on June 2, 1940, he dropped him as an act of appeasement toward Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Appointed minister to the U.S.S.R., Gafencu remained in Moscow until June 22, 1941, then returned to Romania, which he soon left for Switzerland. His two books - Préliminaires de la guerre à l'Est (1944) and Derniers jours de l'Europe (1946) - are penetrating analyses of the events of 1939-41 and of Soviet-German relations in particular. After World War II, Gafencu moved to Paris and took some part in Romanian politics in exile. On Nov. 11, 1947, in Bucharest, he was sentenced in absentia to 20 years' imprisonment; on Feb. 20, 1948, he was stripped of his Romanian citizenship. He also lived in the U.S. for some time and gave lectures at New York University in the early 1950s.

Gafiatullin, Suleyman (Khalilovich) (b. 1905, Chistopol, Kazan province [now in Tatarstan republic], Russia - d. May 1, 1983), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Tatar A.S.S.R. (1940-43). He was also people's commissar of state farms of the Kazakh S.S.R. (1945-46) and chairman of the executive committees of Vostochno-Kazakhstan (1946-48) and Zapadno-Kazakhstan (1948-52) oblasti.

Gafoor, Burhan (b. Oct. 20, 1965), Singaporean diplomat. He has been ambassador to France (2007-10), high commissioner to Australia (2014-16), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2016- ).

Gafurov, Bobodzhan (Gafurovich) (b. Dec. 31 [Dec. 18, O.S.], 1908, Isfisar village, near Khodzhent [now Khujand], Russia [now in Tajikistan] - d. July 12, 1977, Dushanbe, Tadzhik S.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Tadzhik S.S.R. (1946-56). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Stalinabad oblast (1948-51).

Gagarin, Knyaz (Prince) Aleksandr (Ivanovich) (b. 1801 - d. Nov. 8 [Oct. 27, O.S.], 1857, Kutaisi, Russia [now in Georgia]), governor of Derbent (1846-51) and military governor (1851-53) and governor-general (1856-57) of Kutaisi; son-in-law of Andrey Borozdin. On Nov. 3 (Oct. 22, O.S.), 1857, he was mortally wounded by deposed prince Konstantine of Svania; he died five days later.

Gagarin, Knyaz (Prince) Grigory (Ivanovich) (b. March 28 [March 17, O.S.], 1782, Moscow, Russia - d. Feb. 24, 1837, Munich, Bavaria [Germany]), Russian diplomat; cousin of Knyaz Pavel Gagarin. He was minister to the Papal State (1827-32) and Bavaria (1832-37).

Gagarin, Knyaz (Prince) Konstantin (Dmitriyevich) (b. Nov. 18, 1841 - d. 1916), governor of Tiflis (1878-83) and Ryazan (1883-86).

Gagarin, Knyaz (Prince) Pavel (Pavlovich) (b. March 15 [March 4, O.S.], 1789, Moscow, Russia - d. March 4 [Feb. 21, O.S.], 1872, St. Petersburg, Russia), chairman of the Committee of Ministers of Russia (1864-72). He was also chairman of the Imperial State Council (1864-65).

Gagarin, Knyaz (Prince) Sergey (Pavlovich) (b. Feb. 26 [Feb. 14, O.S.], 1818 - d. Oct. 15 [Oct. 3, O.S.], 1870, Kazan, Russia), governor of Arkhangelsk (1866-69) and Saratov (1869-70); son of Knyaz Pavel Gagarin.

Gage, Henry T(ifft) (b. Dec. 25, 1852, Geneva, N.Y. - d. Aug. 28, 1924, Los Angeles, Calif.), governor of California (1899-1903). He was also U.S. minister to Portugal (1910).

Gage, Lyman J(udson) (b. June 28, 1836, Deruyter, N.Y. - d. Jan. 26, 1927, Point Loma, Calif.), U.S. treasury secretary (1897-1902).

Gagemeyster, Leonty (Andrianovich), German Ludwig Karl August von Hagemeister (b. June 17 [June 6, O.S.], 1780, Drostengof, Riga province, Russia [now Drusti, Latvia] - d. Jan. 4, 1834 [Dec. 23, 1833, O.S.], St. Petersburg, Russia), governor of Russian America (1818).

Gagiyev, Ruslan (Magometovich) (b. Oct. 12, 1976, Malgobek, Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Ingushetia, Russia]), prime minister of Ingushetia (2016-18).

Gagliardi Schiaffino, José (b. Feb. 2, 1916, Cañete, Peru - d. June 11, 2000, Lima, Peru), interior minister of Peru (1981-83). He was also minister of labour and indigenous affairs (1962-63) and air (1967-68, 1980-81).

A. Gagloyev
Gagloyev, Alan (Eduardovich) (b. Feb. 6, 1981, Tskhinvali, South Ossetian autonomous oblast, Georgian S.S.R.), president of South Ossetia (2022- ).

Gagloyev, Georgy (Davidovich) (b. 1899, Kusdzhita, Tiflis province, Russia [now in South Ossetia, Georgia] - d. 1956), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the North Ossetian A.S.S.R. (1938-47).

Gagloyev, Sergey (Grigoryevich) (b. 1896, Kusdzhita, Tiflis province, Russia [now in South Ossetia, Georgia] - d. 1938), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of South Ossetia (1921).

Gagloyty, Yury (Sergeyevich) (b. Oct. 10, 1934, Tskhinvali, South Ossetian autonomous oblast, Georgian S.S.R. - d. March 11?, 2022), foreign minister of South Ossetia (1996-98).

Gago, Carlos Jorge Mendes Correia (b. June 25, 1934, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Dec. 25, 2015), foreign minister of Portugal (1978). He was also minister of economic coordination and planning (1979-80).

Gaguim, Carlos Henrique, byname of Carlos Henrique Amorim (b. April 21, 1961), governor of Tocantins (2009-11).

Gagulia, Gennady (Leonidovich) (b. Jan. 4, 1948, Lykhny, Gudauta rayon, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R. - d. [traffic accident] Sept. 8, 2018, near Myussera, Abkhazia), prime minister of Abkhazia (1995-97, 2002-03, 2018). He was also chairman of the State Committee for Foreign Economic Relations (1991-95), a deputy prime minister (1992-95), and head of the presidential administration (2003-04).

Gahona, Alfonso, Belizean diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (1997-98).

Gahutu, Zacharie (b. Nov. 29, 1950, Tangara, Burundi), Burundian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-11).

Gahyva, Theodorico (b. Feb. 1, 1912 - d. ...), governor of Rondônia (1972-74).

Gai (Kok), Riek, chairman of the Southern Sudan Coordination Council (2002-05). He was governor of Jonglei state in 1998-2000.

Gaiciuc, Victor (b. March 12, 1957, Pepeni village, Singerei district, Moldavian S.S.R.), defense minister of Moldova (2001-04, 2019-20, 2020-21). He was also ambassador to the Benelux countries (2005-09) and secretary of the Supreme Security Council (2019, 2020).

Gaidam, (Alhaji) Ibrahim (b. Sept. 15, 1956, Bukarti [now in Yobe state], Nigeria), governor of Yobe (2009-19). He has also been Nigerian minister of police affairs (2023- ).

Gaidar, Yegor (Timurovich) (b. March 19, 1956, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Dec. 16, 2009, Uspenskoye, Moscow oblast, Russia), finance minister (1992) and acting prime minister (1992) of Russia. He was also a deputy prime minister (1991-92), economy minister (1991-92, 1993-94), and a first deputy prime minister (1992, 1993-94). He was a grandson of Soviet writers Arkady Gaidar and Pavel Bazhov and son-in-law of Soviet science-fiction writer Arkady Strugatsky.

Gailis, Maris (b. July 9, 1951, Riga, Latvian S.S.R.), prime minister (1994-95), acting interior minister (1994), and acting defense minister (1995) of Latvia. He was also minister of state reform (1993-94) and a deputy prime minister and minister of environmental protection and regional development (1995-96).

Gaillard (d'Aimé), Félix (b. Nov. 5, 1919, Paris, France - d. July 10, 1970, at sea off Jersey), finance minister (1957) and prime minister (1957-58) of France and president of the Radical Party (1958-61).

Gainsborg (Cabrera), J(osé) Minor (b. Feb. 20, 1882, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. June 27, 1952), interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1927-28).

Gainuse, Alexandrina (b. July 25, 1932, Stoina, Gorj county, Romania - d. July 2012, Bucharest, Romania), a deputy prime minister of Romania (1982-86). She was also first secretary of the party committee and chairman of the executive committee of Bacau county (1979-82) and minister of light industry (1986-87).

Gair, George (Frederick) (b. Oct. 13, 1926, Dunedin, New Zealand - d. Aug. 17, 2015), New Zealand politician. He was minister of customs (1972), housing and regional development (1975-77), national and regional development and energy (1977-78), health and social welfare (1978-81), and transport, civil aviation, and railways (1981-84), high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1991-94), and mayor of North Shore City (1995-98).

Gairdner, Sir Charles Henry (b. March 20, 1898, Batavia, Netherlands East Indies [now Jakarta, Indonesia] - d. Feb. 22, 1983, Nedlands, near Perth, W.Aus.), governor of Western Australia (1951-63) and Tasmania (1963-68); knighted 1948.

Gairy, Sir Eric (Matthew) (b. Feb. 18, 1922, St. Andrew's parish, near Grenville, Grenada - d. Aug. 23, 1997, Grand Anse, Grenada), chief minister (1961-62), premier (1967-74), and prime minister (1974-79) of Grenada. He formed the Grenada Manual, Maritime and Intellectual Workers' Union in 1950 and later the Grenada United Labour Party (GULP). He was minister of trade and production in 1956-57 and became chief minister and minister of finance in 1961. Charges of petty corruption led to his dismissal in 1962, but he and the GULP came back in 1967, and in 1974 he became Grenada's first prime minister after independence from Britain. He was accused of numerous human rights abuses, and a paramilitary band of thugs known as the "Mongoose Gang" terrorized his opponents. Gairy personally approved government spending and hiring decisions and granted contracts to his supporters. He responded to growing dissent with repression and restrictions on organized labour and the media. He took an interest in UFOs, once urging the United Nations to investigate them. He left Grenada for talks at the United Nations on UFOs on March 12, 1979. The next day, Maurice Bishop, of the opposition New Jewel Movement, took control of Grenada in a coup. The United States granted Gairy refuge, but quickly recognized the new People's Revolutionary Government. Bishop was assassinated, along with 10 other people, on Oct. 19, 1983. Six days later, U.S. Marines and paratroopers, along with a small regional force, invaded the island and ousted a Marxist junta that had seized power. Gairy returned home in 1984 and campaigned for his party. He told supporters he was a different man from the high-living "Uncle Gairy" who ran the island before the coup. But the GULP lost elections in 1984, 1990, and 1995.

Gaisford, Sir Philip (b. Nov. 28, 1891 - d. Feb. 11, 1973), resident in Mysore (1944-46); knighted 1946.

Gait, Sir Edward Albert (b. Aug. 16, 1863 - d. March 14, 1950), lieutenant governor of Bihar and Orissa (1915-20); knighted 1915.

Gaitán (C.), Francisco, minister of war, navy, and aviation of Nicaragua (1950-56).

Gaitán (Ayala), Jorge Eliécer (b. Jan. 23, 1898 [or possibly Jan. 23 or 26, 1903], Bogotá [or Cucunubá, Cundinamarca], Colombia - d. [assassinated] April 9, 1948, Bogotá), Colombian presidential candidate (1946). He was also president of the Chamber of Representatives (1931-33, 1939-40), mayor of Bogotá (1936-37), and minister of education (1940-41) and labour, hygiene, and social security (1943-44).

Gaitán Jaramillo, Gloria (Amparo de las Mercedes) (b. Sept. 20, 1937, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian politician; daughter of Jorge Eliécer Gaitán. She was ambassador to Romania (1978-82) and a minor presidential candidate (1994).

Gaitán Mahecha, Bernardo (b. July 17, 1924, Caparrapí, Cundinamarca, Colombia - d. March 22, 2018, Bogotá, Colombia), justice minister of Colombia (1982-83). He was also mayor of Bogotá (1976-78) and ambassador to the Vatican (1985-86).

Gaitán Patiño, Régulo (Alberto) (b. Aug. 8, 1901, Pacho, Cundinamarca, Colombia - d. April 11, 1994, Bogotá, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1949). He was also director of the national police (1948-49) and the army (1951) and commander of the military forces (1951-52).

Gaitskell, Hugh (Todd Naylor) (b. April 9, 1906, London, England - d. Jan. 18, 1963, London), British politician. On the outbreak of World War II he joined the newly formed Ministry of Economic Warfare, and later became head of the intelligence section for Germany. When Hugh Dalton became minister in 1940, Gaitskell became his principal private secretary and in 1942 accompanied him to the Board of Trade as principal assistant secretary. He entered the House of Commons in 1945 as Labour member for South Leeds. In 1946 he became parliamentary secretary to the Ministry of Fuel and Power and was made minister in 1947. After the general election of February 1950 Gaitskell became minister of state for economic affairs, and began to take some of the burden of work from the chancellor of the exchequer, Sir Stafford Cripps. On October 19 he was appointed to take Sir Stafford's place as chancellor of the exchequer. He left office when the Labour government was defeated in 1951. Gaitskell was chosen to succeed Clement Attlee as Labour leader in December 1955, in preference to two more experienced candidates, Herbert Morrison and Aneurin Bevan. He seemed discredited in 1959 when his party lost the general election, and in 1960 when the party executive, which opposed unilateral nuclear disarmament, was defeated on that issue at the annual party conference. At the 1961 party conference, however, he secured a reversal of the decision on nuclear weapons and then was able to reunite the party. In 1962, again at the party conference, he made a notable speech opposing Great Britain's entry into the European Economic Community (Common Market), for which the Conservative government was unsuccessfully negotiating. He remained party leader until his death. His widow was created a life peeress in 1964 (Dora Gaitskell, Baroness Gaitskell).

Gaivão, Manuel de Gusmão (Mousinho de Albuquerque) de Mascarenhas (b. March 1, 1901, Sandelgas, Coimbra, Portugal - d. Oct. 9, 1971), acting governor-general of Angola (1955-56).

Gajardo Villarroel, Oscar (b. Nov. 25, 1899, Valparaíso, Chile - d. Nov. 19, 1970, Santiago, Chile), justice minister of Chile (1942-44).

Gajdos, Peter (b. April 9, 1959, Nitra, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), defense minister of Slovakia (2016-20).

Gajraj, (Jairam) Ronald (b. 1953? - d. Dec. 15, 2018), home affairs minister of Guyana (1999-2005). He was also high commissioner to India (2005-15) and Bangladesh (2015).

Gakharia, Giorgi (b. March 19, 1975, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), interior minister and a deputy prime minister (2017-19) and prime minister (2019-21) of Georgia. He was also business ombudsman (2013-16), secretary of the Economic Council (2014-16), minister of economy and sustainable development (2016-17), and secretary of the National Security Council (2019).

Gakosso, Édouard, also spelled Ngakosso (b. 1941), finance minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1989-91).

J.-C. Gakosso
Gakosso, Jean-Claude (b. July 25, 1957, Inkouélé, Gamboma district, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), foreign minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (2015- ). He was also minister of culture, arts, and tourism (2002-15).

Gál, Gábor (b. Nov. 22, 1974, Sala, Slovakia), justice minister of Slovakia (2018-20).

Gál, Zoltán (b. Dec. 10, 1940, Budapest, Hungary), interior minister of Hungary (1990). He was also president of the National Assembly (1994-98).

Galaid, Ali Khalif, Somali Cali Khaliif Galaydh (or Galayr) (b. Oct. 15, 1941, Las Anod, Somalia - d. Oct. 8, 2020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia), prime minister of Somalia (2000-01). He was also minister of industry (1980-82) and president of the self-declared Khatumo state (2014-17).

Galaj, Dyzma (Kazimierz) (b. Jan. 15, 1915, Mystkowice, Poland - d. Dec. 6, 2000, Warsaw, Poland), Polish politician. He was marshal of the Sejm (1971-72).

Galaktionov, Aleksey (Petrovich) (b. March 13 [March 1, O.S.], 1888, Aleksandrovka, Samara province, Russia - d. [plane crash] June 5, 1922, near Chistopol, Tatar A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Tatar A.S.S.R. (1922). He was also chairman of the Revolutionary Committees of Samara (1918) and Stavropol (1920-21) provinces and of the Executive Committee of Samara province (1918-19, 1919-20) and mayor of Kazan (1921-22).

Galán (Sarmiento), Luis Carlos (b. Sept. 29, 1943, Bucaramanga, Colombia - d. Aug. 18, 1989, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian presidential candidate (1982). He was also minister of education (1970-72) and ambassador to Italy (1972-75). He was again a Liberal Party candidate for the 1990 presidential election but was shot by Medellín cartel drug traffickers at a campaign rally in Soacha, outside Bogotá; he died in hospital.

Galanos, Alexis (b. 1940 - d. July 15, 2019, Kos, Greece), Cypriot politician. He was president of the House of Representatives (1991-96), a minor presidential candidate (1998), and Greek Cypriot mayor in exile of Famagusta (2007-19).

Galant, Yoav (b. Nov. 8, 1958, Jaffa [now part of Tel Aviv-Yafo], Israel), defense minister of Israel (2022- ). He was also minister of construction and housing (2015-19), immigration and absorption (2019-20), education (2020-21), and higher and secondary education and water resources (2020-21)

Galassi, Clelio (b. March 2, 1950, Serravalle, San Marino), captain-regent (1976) and finance minister (1990-2002) of San Marino. In 2014-15 he was ambassador to the Vatican.

Galavanov, Aleksandr (Georgiyevich) (b. 1902, Tiflis, Russia [now Tbilisi, Georgia] - d. January 1986), chairman of the Executive Committee of the South Ossetian autonomous oblast (1943-48).

Galazov, Akhsarbek (Khadzhimurzayevich) (b. Oct. 15, 1929, Khumalag village, North Ossetian autonomous oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. [now North Ossetia-Alania republic, Russia] - d. April 10, 2013, Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia), first secretary of the party committee (1990-91), chairman of the Supreme Council (1990-94), and president (1994-98) of North Ossetia(-Alania).

Galbur, Andrei (b. July 5, 1975, Kishinev, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Chisinau, Moldova]), foreign minister of Moldova (2016-18). He was also ambassador to Russia (2013-15).

Galbura, Gheorghe (b. Sept. 5, 1961, Ignatei, Moldavian S.S.R.), acting defense minister of Moldova (2016-17).

Galdiano (y Mendoza), José María (Fermín) (b. July 7, 1782, Lima, Peru - d. Feb. 5, 1863, Lima), finance minister (1827) and foreign minister (1828) of Peru, foreign minister (1837-38), finance minister (1837), and interior minister (1837-38) of North Peru, and finance minister of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation (1838). He was also joint mayor of Lima (1820-21, 1824-25) and president of the Supreme Court of Peru (1831).

Galea, Louis (b. Jan. 2, 1948, Mqabba, Malta), home affairs minister of Malta (1992-95). He was also minister of social policy (1987-92), social development (1992-96), and education (1998-2008) and speaker of the House of Representatives (2008-10).

Gali Fayad, (José) Antonio, byname Tony Gali (b. Nov. 25, 1959, Puebla, Puebla, Mexico), governor of Puebla (2017-18). He was also mayor of Puebla (2014-16).

Galib Pasha, Ali (b. 1829 - d. [drowned] Oct. 29, 1858, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]), foreign minister of the Ottoman Empire (1857); son-in-law of Abdülmecit I. He was also minister of treasury (1855-57), waqfs (1857-58), and commerce (1858).

Galib Pasha, Mehmed Said (b. 1763/64, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. 1829, Balikesir, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey]), grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1823-24). He was also ambassador to France (1802).

Galich López, Manuel Francisco (b. Nov. 30, 1913, Guatemala City, Guatemala - d. Aug. 30, 1984, Havana, Cuba), foreign minister of Guatemala (1951-52). A noted writer, he was also education minister (1946) and minister to Uruguay (1953-54) and Argentina (1954).

Galijasevic, Miralem (b. Sept. 20, 1955, Maglaj [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Zenica-Doboj (2006-11, 2015-19).

Galíndez (Cordero), José Alberto (b. June 25, 1955), governor of Cojedes (1995-2000, 2021- ).

Galindo, José Gregorio (b. 1828?, Cañete, Lima department [now region], Peru - d. Sept. 24, 1892, Lima, Peru), justice and education minister of Peru (1890).

Galindo Pohl, Reynaldo (b. Oct. 18, 1918, Sonsonate, El Salvador - d. Jan. 5, 2012, San Salvador, El Salvador), member of the Revolutionary Council of Government of El Salvador (1948-49). He was also culture minister (1950-56) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1967-77).

Galkin-Vraskoy, Mikhail (Nikolayevich) (b. Sept. 29 [Sept. 17, O.S.], 1832, Polyanki, Kazan province [now in Tatarstan], Russia - d. April 21 [April 8, O.S.], 1916, Petrograd [St. Petersburg], Russia), governor of Estonia (1868-70) and Saratov (1870-79).

Galko, Lubomír (b. Feb. 14, 1968, Kliestina, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), defense minister of Slovakia (2010-11).

K. Gallagher

P. Gallagher
Gallagher, Katy (b. March 18, 1970, Canberra, A.C.T.), chief minister of the Australian Capital Territory (2011-14).

Gallagher (Canaval), Manuel C. (b. June 3, 1885, Lima, Peru - d. May 6, 1953, Lima), foreign minister of Peru (1944-45, 1950-52). He was also justice minister (1943-44).

Gallagher, Paul (Richard) (b. Jan. 23, 1954, Liverpool, England), Vatican foreign minister (2014- ). He was apostolic nuncio to Burundi (2004-09), Guatemala (2009-12), and Australia (2012-14).

Gallant, Brian (Alexander) (b. April 27, 1982, Shediac Bridge, N.B.), premier of New Brunswick (2014-18).

Gallardo (Lebrero), Ángel (Juan Pedro) (b. Nov. 19, 1867, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. May 13, 1934, Buenos Aires), foreign minister of Argentina (1922-28). He was also president of the National Council of Education (1916-21), minister to Italy (1921-22), and rector of the University of Buenos Aires (1932-34).

Gallardo (Román), José (Walter) (b. March 16, 1935, Piñas, El Oro province, Ecuador), defense minister of Ecuador (1992-95, 1998-2000). He was a minor presidential candidate in 1996.

Gallardo (García), José Miguel (b. Sept. 29, 1897, San Germán, Puerto Rico - d. July 18, 1976, San Juan, Puerto Rico), acting governor of Puerto Rico (1940-41, 1941).

Gallardo Cardona, (José) Ricardo (b. Nov. 18, 1980, San Luis Potosí, Mexico), governor of San Luis Potosí (2021- ).

Gallardo F.
Gallardo Fernàndez, Jordi (b. March 23, 1976, Andorra la Vella, Andorra), acting head of government of Andorra (2023).

Gallardo Hernández, Carmen María (b. Nov. 28, 1949, San Salvador, El Salvador), Salvadoran diplomat. She has been ambassador to France and Portugal (1993-94, 2016-20), Austria (2014-16), Romania (2015-16), and the Netherlands (2020- ) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-10).

Gallardo Lozada, Jorge (b. 1934, Sucre, Bolivia), interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1970-71).

Gallardo Nieto, Galvarino (b. Aug. 30, 1877, Talca, Chile - d. Jan. 13, 1957, Cartagena, Chile), finance minister (1922) and foreign minister (1924) of Chile. He was also mayor of Santiago (1943-46).


L. Gallegos
Gallati, Jean-Pierre (b. Aug. 24, 1966, Muri, Aargau, Switzerland), Landammann of Aargau (2023).

Gallatin, (Abraham Alfonse) Albert (b. Jan. 29, 1761, Geneva, Switzerland - d. Aug. 12, 1849, Astoria, N.Y.), U.S. treasury secretary (1801-14). He was also minister to France (1816-23) and the United Kingdom (1826-27).

Gallegos (Chiriboga), Luis (Benigno) (b. Dec. 13, 1946, Quito, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (2020-21). He was also chargé d'affaires in the United States (1979-80) and Bulgaria (1985-89), ambassador to El Salvador (1994-97), Australia (2005), and the United States (2005-11), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2002-05, 2005, 2018-20).

R. Gallegos
Gallegos (Freire), Rómulo (Ángel del Monte Carmelo) (b. Aug. 2, 1884, Caracas, Venezuela - d. April 4, 1969, Caracas), president of Venezuela (1948). He won an international reputation as one of the leading novelists of South America. Pres. Juan Vicente Gómez offered him a seat in the Senate, but Gallegos was unwilling to serve the dictator. In 1931 he left Venezuela for a voluntary exile of four years, until the death of Gómez. In 1936 he began a political career, serving briefly as minister of education, but his attempts to ban foreign mission schools in Venezuela forced his ouster. He helped found the Democratic Action party in 1941 and was the party's unsuccessful nominee against Isaías Medina Angarita later in the year. Gallegos was again the leftist party's candidate for president in elections held in December 1947 and won; he was inaugurated in February 1948. His liberalism displeased the military and certain powerful elements in the United States, and his government was overthrown by a military coup in November 1948. He was exiled to Cuba the following month and subsequently traveled to Mexico, where he remained until the ouster of the dictatorship of Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958. He then returned and was voted life membership in the Senate. He was also chairman of the Inter-American Committee of Human Rights of the Organization of American States.

Galler, Ivan (Vladimirovich), governor of Grodno (1862-63), Vilna (1863), and Volyn (1866-71).

Gallet, Gustave Pierre Théodore (b. March 15, 1850, Valescourt, Oise, France - d. 1926), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1896-1901).

Galley, Robert (b. Jan. 11, 1921, Paris, France - d. June 8, 2012, Troyes, Aube, France), French minister of armies (1973-74) and defense (1980-81). He was also minister of equipment (1968, 1974-76), housing (1968), posts and telecommunications (1969-72), transports (1972-73), and cooperation (1976-81) and mayor of Troyes (1972-95).

Gallieni, Joseph (Simon) (b. April 24, 1849, Saint-Béat, Haute-Garonne, France - d. May 27, 1916, Versailles, France), commandant-superior of Upper Senegal (1886-88), resident-general (1896-97) and governor-general (1897-1905) of Madagascar, and war minister of France (1915-16).

Galliffet, Gaston (Alexandre Auguste), marquis de, prince de Martigues (b. Jan. 23, 1830, Paris, France - d. July 8, 1909, Paris), war minister of France (1899-1900).

Gallin-Douathe, Michel (b. June 4, 1920, Limassa, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. 1989), interior minister of the Central African Republic (1979). He was also ambassador to the United States (1960-62, 1965-70) and France (1970-72) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1960-70).

Gallo, Franco (b. April 23, 1937, Rome, Italy), finance minister of Italy (1993-94). He was also president of the Constitutional Court (2013).

Gallo, Nicolás (Vicente) (b. Feb. 24, 1938), infrastructure and housing minister of Argentina (1999-2000).

Gallo, Nicolò (b. Aug. 10, 1849, Agrigento, Two Sicilies [now in Sicilia, Italy] - d. March 7, 1907, Rome, Italy), justice minister of Italy (1906-07). He was also minister of education (1897-98, 1900-01) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1900).

Gallo (Hernández), Pedro (b. 1818 - d. Jan. 25, 1885, Santiago del Estero, Argentina), governor of Santiago del Estero (1861-62, 1879-82).

Gallo Porras, Luis (Teodoro) (b. Nov. 9, 1893, Lima, Peru - d. April 22, 1972, Lima), prime minister of Peru (1958-59). He was also mayor of Lima (1934-37, 1941-45, 1948-49), first vice president (1956-62), and minister of finance and commerce (1958-59).


Gallop, Geoff(rey Ian) (b. Sept. 27, 1951, Geraldton, Western Australia), premier of Western Australia (2001-06).

Gallotti, Luiz (Octavio Pires e Albuquerque) (b. Aug. 15, 1904, Tijucas, Santa Catarina, Brazil - d. Oct. 24, 1978, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Santa Catarina (1945-46). He was also Brazilian attorney general (1947-49) and president of the Superior Electoral Court (1955-57) and the Supreme Federal Court (1966-68, 1969).

Galloway, Sir Alexander (b. Nov. 3, 1895, Hawick, Roxburghshire, Scotland - d. Jan. 27, 1977, Norham, Northumberland, England), high commissioner of the British zone of Austria (1947-50); knighted 1949.

Galloway, Arnold Crawshaw (b. 1901 - d. Aug. 1, 1988), British political agent in Kuwait (1939-41, 1948-49), Muscat and Oman (1944-45), and Bahrain (1945-47).

Galsworthy, Sir Arthur Norman (b. July 1, 1916 - d. Oct. 7, 1986), governor of Pitcairn Island (1970-73); knighted 1967. He was British high commissioner to New Zealand (1969-73) and ambassador to Ireland (1973-76).

Galt, Sir Alexander Tilloch (b. Sept. 6, 1817, London, England - d. Sept. 19, 1893, Montreal, Que.), finance minister of Canada (1867); knighted 1869. He was also high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1880-83).

Galtieri (Castelli), Leopoldo (Fortunato) (b. July 15, 1926, Caseros, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. Jan. 12, 2003, Buenos Aires), president of Argentina (1981-82). He rose steadily through the ranks of the Army and became Army chief in 1981. His two visits to Washington in that year were successful in achieving understanding between the U.S. and Argentina on foreign policy and economic planning. As Army commander, he was a member of the three-man junta under the presidency of Gen. Roberto Viola. Viola's ill health and the armed forces' dissatisfaction with his administration's policies led to his removal. Galtieri, with the support of newly promoted generals, was sworn in as president on Dec. 22, 1981. For the first time since 1978 the posts of president and Army commander were united. He made a number of statements on the need for a gradual return to civilian participation in government. This gained him some popular support, and that support grew enormously when, on April 2, 1982, he and his fellow junta members decided on the invasion of the Falkland Islands. It was a national ambition to make the islands a part of Argentina. To some extent, the invasion also diverted attention away from widespread anger over the military's handling of the economy and its refusal to provide information on thousands of desaparecidos, victims of the 1976-79 suppression of opposition. But the war with Britain ended with the surrender of Galtieri's forces on June 14, and he resigned as Army commander on June 17. He was soon replaced as president by Reynaldo Bignone. In his wake he left much recrimination and further instability within the ruling armed forces. He served four years of a life sentence but was freed in 1989 by a pardon from Pres. Carlos Menem; he was again arrested on July 11, 2002, on the basis that the amnesty was unconstitutional.

Galup (y Valdivieso), Manuel (b. 1833?, Lima, Peru - d. Nov. 12, 1886, Lima), finance minister of Peru (government of Miguel Iglesias, 1883-85).

Galusha, Jonas (b. Feb. 11, 1753, Norwalk, Connecticut - d. Sept. 24, 1834, Shaftsbury, Vt.), governor of Vermont (1809-13, 1815-20); son-in-law of Thomas Chittenden; brother-in-law of Martin Chittenden.

Galuska, Vladimír (b. Oct. 2, 1952, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czech diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1993 [acting], 1997-2001) and ambassador to Slovakia (2004-09).

Galvanauskas, Ernestas (b. Nov. 19, 1882, Zizonys, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. July 24, 1967, Aix-les-Bains, France), prime minister (1919-20, 1922-24) and foreign minister (1922-24) of Lithuania. He was also minister of finance, trade, and industry (1919-20, 1939-40) and minister to the United Kingdom (1924-27).

Galvão, Antônio Torres (b. June 13, 1905, Goianinha, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. July 1954), acting governor of Pernambuco (1952).

Galvão, Belarmino Neves (b. Oct. 8, 1905 - d. Dec. 20, 1974, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Rio Branco (1951-52).

Galvão, Felippe Benicio da Fonseca (b. 1828? - d. July 24, 1898, Paraíba state, Brazil), acting president of Paraíba (1879, 1880).

Galvão, Ignacio da Cunha (b. July 24, 1821, Porto Alegre, Brazil - d. Feb. 6, 1906, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Santa Catarina (1861).

Galvão, José Leite (d. 1889?), acting president of Mato Grosso (1881, 1883).

Galvão, Manoel Antonio (b. Jan. 3, 1791, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. March 21, 1850, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), principal minister of Brazil (1839-40). He was also president of Alagoas (1829-30), Espírito Santo (1830), Minas Gerais (1831), and Rio Grande do Sul (1831-33, 1846-48) and justice minister (1844-45).

Galvão, Manoel da Cunha (b. Sept. 27, 1822, Porto Alegre, Brazil - d. March 27, 1872, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Sergipe (1859-60).

Galvão, Manoel do Nascimento da Fonseca (b. Dec. 25, 1837, Estância, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Feb. 23, 1916, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), acting president of Santa Catarina (1869-70, 1870, 1872-73) and president of Sergipe (1873); brother of Rufino Enéas Gustavo Galvão, barão e visconde de Maracaju, and Antonio Enéas Gustavo Galvão, barão do Rio Apa.

M. Galvão
Galvão, Marcos (Bezerra Abbott) (b. Jan. 14, 1959, New York City), acting foreign minister of Brazil (2017). He was also ambassador to Japan (2011-13).

Galvão, Ney Neves (b. March 22, 1902, Rio Pardo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Sept. 6, 1990, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), finance minister of Brazil (1963-64). He was also president of the Bank of Brazil (1961-63).

Galvêas, Ernane (b. Oct. 1, 1922, Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. June 23, 2022, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), finance minister of Brazil (1980-85). He was also president of the Central Bank (1968-74, 1979-80).

Galveias, André de Melo e Castro, (4º) conde das (b. December 1668, Portugal - d. Jan. 28, 1753), governor of Minas Gerais (1732-35) and viceroy of Brazil (1735-49).

Galveias, Francisco de Melo e Castro, (5º) conde das (b. 1702, Estremoz, Portugal - d. ...), governor of Mozambique (1750-58); son of André de Melo e Castro, conde das Galveias.

Gálvez (Herrera), Ciro (Alfredo) (b. Jan. 16, 1949, Salcabamba, Huancavelica, Peru), Peruvian politician. He was a minor presidential candidate (2001, 2006, 2021) and minister of culture (2021).

Gálvez (Durón), Juan Manuel (b. June 10, 1887, Tegucigalpa, Honduras - d. Aug. 19, 1972, Tegucigalpa), president of Honduras (1949-54). He was also minister of interior and justice (1925-29) and war, navy, and aviation (1933-49).

Gálvez (Egúsquiza), Juan Miguel (Bautista Mariano) (b. June 26, 1816, Cajamarca, Peru - d. ...), interior, police, and public works minister of Peru (1867). He was also prefect of Cajamarca (1855-58).

Gálvez (Egúsquiza), Manuel María (b. Oct. 1, 1838, Cajamarca, Peru - d. March 27, 1917, Lima, Peru), foreign minister (1881, 1899) and prime minister (1899) of Peru; brother of Juan Miguel Gálvez and Pedro Gálvez.

Gálvez (Egúsquiza), Pedro (José) (b. April 28, 1822, Cajamarca, Peru - d. Aug. 23, 1878, Paris, France), prime minister of Peru (1868-69); brother of Juan Miguel Gálvez. He was also minister of finance (1854-55, 1862), justice, education, and worship (1855), and interior, police, and public works (1868-69) and minister to Guatemala (1856), France (1862-64, 1870-78), and the United Kingdom (1870-78).

Gálvez (Madrid), Virgilio (Roberto) (b. April 20, 1911, Santa Barbara, Honduras - d. ...), foreign minister of Honduras (1975-76). He was also ambassador to El Salvador (1965-69) and earlier to Nicaragua, Ecuador, Chile, and Guatemala.

Gálvez Barnes, Roberto (b. May 18, 1925, Puerto Cortés, Honduras - d. March 19, 1995, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), member of the Military Government Council of Honduras (1956-57). He was also minister of communications and public works (1956) and ambassador to the United States (1970-74).

Gálvez Barrenechea, José (Gabriel) (b. Aug. 7, 1885, Tarma, Junín department, Peru - d. Feb. 8, 1957, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (1931); grandnephew of Juan Miguel Gálvez, Pedro Gálvez, and Manuel María Gálvez; great-grandson of Antonio Gutiérrez de La Fuente. He was also justice minister (1931), minister to Colombia (1935-36), first vice president (1945-48), and president of the Senate (1945-48, 1956-57).

C. Gálvez
Gálvez Betancourt, Carlos (b. Feb. 14, 1921, Jiquilpan, Michoacán, Mexico - d. April 30, 1990), governor of Michoacán (1968-70). He was also Mexican minister of labour and social security (1975-76).

Galvis Galvis, Alejandro (b. Feb. 12, 1891, Curití, Santander, Colombia - d. June 17, 1981, Bucaramanga, Santander), war minister of Colombia (1942-43). The founder (1919) and long-time director of the Vanguardia Liberal newspaper, he was also governor of Santander (1930-31, 1944-46), president of the Senate (1936), minister to Mexico (1936-38), and ambassador to Venezuela (1943-44) and Spain (1969-70).

Galway, George (Vere Arundell) Monckton-Arundell, (8th) Viscount (b. March 24, 1882 - d. March 27, 1943, Blyth, Nottinghamshire, England), governor-general of New Zealand (1935-41). He succeeded as viscount in 1931.

Galway, Sir Henry Lionel, original surname (until November 1911) Gallwey (b. Sept. 25, 1859, Southampton, Hampshire, England - d. June 17, 1949, London, England), governor of Saint Helena (1903-11), Gambia (1911-14), and South Australia (1914-20); knighted 1910.

Gama, Agostinho Luiz da (b. April 19, 1820, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. Feb. 25, 1880, São Paulo, Brazil), president of Alagoas (1859).

Gama, Antonio Joaquim de Miranda Nogueira da (b. Jan. 8, 1828, São João del Rey, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. July 6, 1914, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Espírito Santo (1877).

Gama, Antonio Pinto Chichorro da (b. April 1800, Nazaré, Bahia, Brazil - d. June 10, 1887, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), principal minister (1833-35) and finance minister (1834) of Brazil. He was also president of Espírito Santo (1831-32), Alagoas (1832-33), and Pernambuco (1845-48) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1848-50).

Gama, Clóvis Salgado da (b. Jan. 20, 1906, Leopoldina, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. July 25, 1978, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais), acting governor of Minas Gerais (1955-56). He was also Brazilian minister of education and culture (1956-60, 1960-61).

Gama, Domício da, byname of Domício Afonso Forneiro (b. Oct. 23, 1862, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Nov. 8, 1925, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1918-19). He was also minister to Peru (1906-08) and ambassador to the United States (1911-18) and the United Kingdom (1919-24).

J. Gama
Gama, Jaime (José Matos da) (b. June 8, 1947, Fajã de Baixo, São Miguel, Azores, Portugal), interior minister (1978) and foreign minister (1983-85, 1995-2002) of Portugal. He was president of the Assembly of the Republic in 2005-11.

Gama, João de Saldanha da (b. March 19, 1674 - d. May 5, 1752), viceroy of Portuguese India (1725-32).

Gama, João Soares da (b. Dec. 26, 1955, Bafatá, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), Guinea-Bissauan diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires (1999-2000) and permanent representative (2010-17) to the United Nations and ambassador to France (2002-04).

Gamarnik, Yan (Borisovich), original name Yakov (Pudikovich) Gamarnik (b. June 2 [May 21, O.S.], 1894, Zhitomir, Russia [now Zhytomyr, Ukraine] - d. [suicide] May 31, 1937, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Belorussian S.S.R. (1928-29). He was also chairman of the party committee of Odessa province (1920), executive secretary of the party committee of Kiev province (1920), first secretary of the party committee of Dalnevostochny kray (1927-28); chairman of the Revolutionary Committees of Kiev province (1920-21) and Dalnevostochny kray (1923-26); and chairman of the Executive Committees of Kiev (1921-23) and Primorye (1923-24) provinces and Dalnevostochny kray (1926-27).

Gamarra (y Messia), Agustín (b. Aug. 27, 1785, Cusco, Peru - d. [in battle] Nov. 18, 1841, Ingavi, Bolivia), president of Peru (1829-33, 1838-41). He was also prefect of Cusco (1825-27).

Gamarra Ugaz, Carlos (Alberto Bernardino) (b. 1939?, Lima, Peru), justice minister of Peru (2004-05).

Gamassi, Mohamed Abdel Ghani al- (b. Sept. 9, 1921, al-Batanun, al-Minufiyah governorate, Egypt - d. June 7, 2003), minister of war (1974-78) and a deputy prime minister (1975-78) of Egypt. He was also chief of staff (1973-74) and commander-in-chief (1974-78) of the armed forces and minister of war production (1976-78).

Gamatié, Ali Badjo (b. 1957, Niamey, Niger), finance minister (2000-03) and prime minister (2009-10) of Niger.

Gamazo y Calvo, Germán (b. May 28, 1840, Boecillo, Valladolid, Spain - d. Nov. 22, 1901, Madrid, Spain), finance minister of Spain (1892-94). He was also minister of development (1883, 1898) and overseas (1885-86).

Gambari, Ibrahim (Agboola) (b. Nov. 24, 1944, Ilorin [now in Kwara state], Nigeria), foreign minister of Nigeria (1984-85). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-99), president of the UNICEF Executive Board (1999), UN special envoy to Myanmar (2007-09), and chief of staff to the president (2020-23).

Gambarov, Aleksandr (Grigoryevich) (b. 1890, Poti, Kutaisi province, Russia [now in Georgia] - d. [executed] 1937), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee (1921), chairman of the Revolutionary Committee (1921-22), and chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1922) of Adzharistan. He was also Soviet chargé d'affaires in Latvia (1925).

I. Gambarov
Gambarov, Isa, Azeri in full Isa Yunis oglu Qämbär (b. Feb. 24, 1957, Baku, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), acting president of Azerbaijan (1992). He was chairman of the National Assembly in 1992-93. In 2003 he was a presidential candidate.

Gambetta, Léon (Michel) (b. April 2, 1838, Cahors, Lot, France - d. Dec. 31, 1882, Ville-d'Avray, Seine-et-Oise [now in Hauts-de-Seine], France), French politician. In 1868, in a political case known as the Affaire Baudin, he delivered an extremely forceful speech in which he indicted the imperial regime. Press reports of his speech made his political fortune, and almost overnight he became an acknowledged leader of the Republican Party. In 1869 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly. He opposed the steps that led to the outbreak of the Franco-German War in July 1870, but, once it had begun, he urged the quickest possible victory over the Germans. He played a principal role in proclaiming the republic and forming a provisional government of national defense, in which he became interior minister. He began to arouse unoccupied France for the defense of the entire country. He became war minister as well, assuming virtually unlimited powers. Though he wished to continue fighting, the country was tired of war, and the provisional government signed an armistice on Jan. 18, 1871. The armistice convention provided for the election of a National Assembly, which met at Bordeaux in March 1871 to ratify the peace terms. He was elected a deputy for Strasbourg, in Alsace, but, after the ratification of the peace, which yielded most of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany, he lost his seat and retired for a short time to Spain. In by-elections in July 1871, he was elected to the National Assembly by the Seine département. With supreme skill, he managed to push ratification of the republic through a weary assembly. Parliamentary intrigue prevented him from being elected president of the republic, but he became president of the Chamber of Deputies (1879-81). He became prime minister and foreign minister in November 1881 but was overthrown in January 1882.

Gamble, Dominic Jacotin (b. Aug. 15?, 1823, Ireland - d. Nov. 21, 1887, London, England), acting governor of Barbados (1880) and Jamaica (1883).

Gamble, Geoffrey Massey (b. Feb. 7, 1896 - d. Jan. 12, 1970), chief administrator of British-occupied Italian Somaliland (1948-50).

Gamboa, Rafael P(ascasio) (b. May 20, 1897, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico - d. Aug. 2, 1979), governor of Chiapas (1940-44). He was also president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (1946) and minister of health and welfare (1946-52) of Mexico.

Gamboa Iglesias, (José) Federico (Francisco de Paula Demetrio Trinidad) (b. Dec. 22, 1864, Mexico City, Mexico - d. Aug. 15, 1939, Mexico City), foreign minister of Mexico (1913). He was also chargé d'affaires (1899-1900, 1901-02) and minister (1905-07) to Honduras and Guatemala and minister to the Netherlands and Belgium (1911-13).

Game, Sir Philip Woolcott (b. March 30, 1876, London, England - d. Feb. 4, 1961, Sevenoaks, Kent, England), governor of New South Wales (1930-35); knighted 1924. He was also commissioner of the (London) Metropolitan Police (1935-45).



Gamedze, Mgwagwa, home affairs minister (2008-11), justice minister (2011-13), and foreign minister (2013-18) of Swaziland/Eswatini.

Gamidov, Abdusamad (Mustafayevich) (b. April 21, 1966, Mekegi village, Levashi district, Dagestan A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Dagestan (2013-18).

Gaminde y Lafont, Eugenio Indalecio de (b. April 30, 1812, La Coruña, Spain - d. Oct. 29, 1878, Madrid, Spain), war minister of Spain (1871-72). He was also captain-general of Catalonia (1869-72, 1872-73).

Gamio (y Masías), Pedro (José) (b. Feb. 20, 1813, Arequipa, Peru - d. April 18, 1851, Arequipa), acting finance minister of Peru (1844).

Gamio Palacio, Fernando (b. Feb. 15, 1909, Lima, Peru - d. 1985), foreign minister of Peru (1955). He was also prefect of Arequipa (1953) and ambassador to Bolivia (1954-55) and Brazil (1956).

Gamlin, Jarbom (b. April 18, 1961, Aalo [now in West Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh], India - d. Nov. 30, 2014, Gurgaon [now Gurugram], Haryana, India), chief minister of Arunachal Pradesh (2011).

Gamsakhurdia, Zviad (Konstantinovich), Georgian Zviad (Konstantines dze) Gamsakhurdia (b. March 31, 1939, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R. - d. Dec. 31, 1993, Jikhashkari village?, Tsalenjikha district, Samegrelo region, western Georgia), president of Georgia (1991-92). A prominent dissident in Soviet times, he was arrested on April 7, 1977, and, on May 19, 1978, sentenced in Tbilisi to three years in a labour camp and two years' internal exile for "anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda." After a public confession he was released from the labour camp in 1979. In November 1990 elections to the Georgian Supreme Council were won by nationalists and he became its chairman. In April 1991 independence was declared and he was given the new post of president. In May he won 87% of the vote in direct presidential elections. An armed rebellion began in September, and he was overthrown in January 1992. He escaped with members of his government first to Armenia (Jan. 6-15, 1992) and then to Chechnya, until he was able to move to Zugdidi, western Georgia, on Sept. 24, 1993. His supporters had started a rebellion in that region in August and made increasing territorial gains. With Russian aid, however, the Tbilisi government of Eduard Shevardnadze defeated Gamsakhurdia's forces, Zugdidi being taken on November 6. On December 31 he died under circumstances that are still unclear. The body was found with a single bullet wound to the head. The Russian agency Interfax reported his wife as saying that he had committed suicide to evade capture by pro-government forces. On Feb. 24, 1994, his body was reburied in the Chechen capital Grozny but on Jan. 26, 2004, Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili rehabilitated him and promulgated a decree granting permission for Gamsakhurdia's body to be reburied in Tbilisi. He praised him as a "great statesman and patriot."

Gamurari, Boris (b. Dec. 1, 1946, Vascauti, Moldavian S.S.R.), defense minister of Moldova (1999-2001). He was also ambassador to Poland (2005-09).

Gan, Baron Pavel (Vasilyevich), German Paul Baron von Hahn (b. July 30, 1793, Mitava, Russia [now Jelgava, Latvia] - d. Jan. 30, 1862, Mannheim, Baden [now in Baden-Württemberg, Germany]), governor of Courland (1824-27) and Livonia (1827-29).

Gana (López), José Francisco (b. 1796, Santiago, Chile - d. Jan. 20, 1864, Santiago), war and marine minister (1851-53, 1856-57) and acting finance minister (1856) of Chile. He was also governor of Talca (1827-29) and intendant of Atacama (1849-51).

Gana, (Alhaji) Mohammed Abba (b. 1943, Danboa [now in Borno state], Nigeria), minister of the Federal Capital Territory (2001-03).

Gana Castro, José Francisco (b. Feb. 19, 1828, Talca, Chile - d. July 8, 1894, Barcelona, Spain), war and marine minister of Chile (1890-91); nephew of José Francisco Gana. He was also commander-in-chief of the army (1888-91).

Gana Cruz, Domingo (b. July 10, 1845, Talca, Chile - d. Oct. 16, 1910, London, England), Chilean diplomat. He was minister to Mexico (1882-83), Brazil (1883-84), the United States (1886-88, 1893-98), Germany and Italy (1888-91), the United Kingdom (1898-1910), and Spain (1898-99).

Ganao, David Charles (b. July 20, 1927, Djambala, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. July 6, 2012, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine, France), foreign minister (1963-68, 1973-75) and prime minister (1996-97) of Congo (Brazzaville). He was also ambassador to Switzerland (1970-73).

Gandalovic, Petr (b. Aug. 15, 1964, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czech politician. He was mayor of Ústí nad Labem (2002-06), minister of regional development (2006-07) and agriculture (2007-09), and ambassador to the United States (2011-17).

Gandamana, Ipik (b. 1906 - d. ...), governor of Jawa Barat (1956-59) and interior minister of Indonesia (1959-64).

Gandapur, Sardar Inayatullah Khan (b. 1919, Kulachi tehsil, Dera Ismail Khan district, North-West Frontier Province [now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa], India [now in Pakistan] - d. April 28, 2005, Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan), chief minister of North-West Frontier Province (1973-75).

Gándara Gallegos, Mauricio, interior minister of Ecuador (2005). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1984-86).

Gándara y Navarro (Castanedo y Pérez de Irujo), José de la (b. Oct. 15, 1820, Bilbao, Spain - d. Sept. 1, 1885, Biarritz, France), governor of Spanish Guinea (1859-62) and governor-general of Santo Domingo (1864-65) and the Philippines (1866-69).

Gandarilla Bermejo, Julio César (b. 1943, Matanzas province, Cuba - d. Nov. 24, 2020, Havana, Cuba), interior minister of Cuba (2017-20).

Gandarillas (Luco), José Antonio (b. 1839, Santiago, Chile - d. Feb. 9, 1913, Santiago), finance minister of Chile (1870-71); brother of Pedro Nolasco Gandarillas. He was also minister of justice and public instruction (1879-80).

Gandarillas (Luco), Pedro Nolasco (b. 1837, Santiago, Chile - d. Nov. 11, 1891, Santiago), finance minister of Chile (1885, 1889, 1890).

Gandarillas Matta, Javier (b. Feb. 13, 1875, Santiago, Chile - d. July 20, 1951), justice (and education) minister of Chile (1920); nephew of José Antonio Gandarillas and Pedro Nolasco Gandarillas. He was also minister of industry, public works, and railways (1911).

Gander-Hofer, Elisabeth (b. Jan. 7, 1949), Landammann of Obwalden (2004-05).

Gandhi, Gopalkrishna (b. April 22, 1945), governor of West Bengal (2004-09) and Bihar (2006); grandson of Mohandas Gandhi and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari. He was Indian high commissioner to South Africa and Lesotho (1996-97) and Sri Lanka (2000-02) and ambassador to Norway and Iceland (2002-04).

I. Gandhi
Gandhi, Indira (Priyadarshini), née Nehru (b. Nov. 19, 1917, Allahabad [now Prayagraj], India - d. Oct. 31, 1984, New Delhi, India), prime minister (1966-77, 1980-84) and foreign minister (1967-69, 1984) of India; daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru. She was married to politician Feroze Gandhi (1912-1960). In 1964 Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri named her minister of information and broadcasting in his government. On Shastri's death in 1966, she became leader of the Congress party and thus also prime minister. She was also minister of atomic energy (1967-77), finance (1969-70), home affairs (1970-73), information and broadcasting (1971-74), space (1972-77), electronics (1973-77), planning (1975-77) and defense (1975, 1980-82). After the March 1972 elections, her defeated Socialist opponent charged that she had violated the election laws. In June 1975 the High Court of Allahabad ruled against her, which meant that she would be deprived of her seat in parliament and would have to stay out of politics for six years. In response, she declared a state of emergency, imprisoned her opponents, and assumed emergency powers, passing many laws limiting personal freedoms. When long-postponed elections were held in 1977, she and her party were soundly defeated. Early in 1978 her supporters split from the Congress party and formed the Congress (I) - I for Indira - party. She was briefly imprisoned (October 1977 and December 1978) on charges of official corruption, but she won a new seat in parliament in November 1978 and Congress (I) began to gather strength. When new elections were held in January 1980, she was swept back into power in a landslide victory. All legal cases against her were withdrawn. When Sikh extremists in the Punjab used violence to assert their demands for an autonomous state, Gandhi ordered an army attack in June 1984 on the Golden Temple of Amritsar, the Sikhs' holiest shrine, which led to the deaths of more than 450 Sikhs. Five months later Gandhi was killed in her garden by a fusillade of bullets fired by two of her own Sikh bodyguards in revenge for the attack on the Golden Temple.

Gandhi, Maneka (b. Aug. 26, 1956, New Delhi, India), Indian politician; widow of Sanjay Gandhi. She was minister of state (independent charge) for environment and forests (1989-91), programme implementation (1990, 2001-02), social justice and empowerment (1998-99, 1999-2001), culture (2001), animal care (2001-02), and statistics (2001-02) and minister of women and child development (2014-19).

Mohandas Gandhi
Gandhi, Mohandas (Karamchand), byname Mahatma Gandhi (b. Oct. 2, 1869, Porbandar [now in Gujarat], India - d. Jan. 30, 1948, Delhi, India), Indian political leader. While as a lawyer in South Africa, he witnessed the daily humiliations of Indians there and took up the fight on their behalf. In 1894 he founded the Natal Indian Congress and flooded the government, the legislature, and the press with closely reasoned statements of Indian grievances. He left South Africa in July 1914. In 1919 he launched a campaign of nonviolent struggle in India. He refashioned the old Indian National Congress into an effective political instrument of Indian nationalism. He was arrested on March 10, 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. He was released in February 1924. One of his most spectacular and successful campaigns was directed against a salt tax (1930); it resulted in the imprisonment of more than 60,000 persons. A new chapter in Indo-British relations opened with the victory of the Labour Party in 1945. Prolonged triangular negotiations between leaders of the Congress and the Muslim League and the British government culminated in the formation of the two new dominions of India and Pakistan in August 1947. In 1946-47, the outbreak of communal riots between Hindus and Muslims unhappily created a climate in which Gandhi's appeals to reason and justice had little chance. When persuasion failed, he went on a fast. In September 1947 his fasting stopped the rioting in Calcutta, and in January 1948, he shamed the city of Delhi into a communal truce. A few days later, while he was on his way to his evening prayer meeting in Delhi, he was shot down by Nathuram Godse, a young Hindu fanatic.

Gandhi, Rahul (b. June 19, 1970, Delhi, India), Indian politician; son of Rajiv Gandhi and Sonia Gandhi. He was leader of the Congress party in 2017-19.

Rajiv Gandhi
Gandhi, Rajiv (b. Aug. 20, 1944, Bombay [now Mumbai], India - d. May 21, 1991, Sriperumbudur, near Madras [now Chennai], Tamil Nadu, India), prime minister of India (1984-89); son of Indira Gandhi. At first, Rajiv largely stayed out of politics, while his brother Sanjay, a vigorous political figure, was viewed as the heir apparent to the political dynasty that was founded by his grandfather, Jawaharlal Nehru. But after Sanjay suddenly died in an airplane crash on June 23, 1980, Indira Gandhi, then prime minister, anxious to groom a successor, persuaded a reluctant Rajiv to enter the political arena. On June 15, 1981, he was elected in a by-election to the Lok Sabha (lower house of parliament) from Amethi. In the same month he became a member of the national executive of the Youth Congress. During the following two years he became more deeply involved in and apparently more enamoured of politics. In February 1983 Indira appointed Rajiv party secretary. When his mother was killed on Oct. 31, 1984, he was sworn in as prime minister that same day. On November 12 he was unanimously named president of the Congress (I) Party. The December 1984 elections returned him to power in a landslide dwarfing any experienced by his mother or his grandfather. Gandhi's attempts to discourage separatist movements in Punjab and Kashmir backfired, however, and his government became embroiled in several financial scandals. In the November 1989 elections Congress (I) lost control of the Lok Sabha. Gandhi was campaigning in Tamil Nadu for upcoming elections in which he hoped to regain the prime ministership when he was killed by a bomb carried by a woman who may have been associated with Tamil separatists. The chief suspect and six associates killed themselves to avoid capture.

Gandhi, Sanjay (b. Dec. 14, 1946, New Delhi, India - d. June 23, 1980, New Delhi), Indian politician; son of Indira Gandhi; brother of Rajiv Gandhi. Heir apparent of India's leading political family, he began to play an increasing role behind the scenes when his mother used her power as prime minister to declare a state of emergency in 1975. He was widely thought to be a powerful but negative influence on his mother's policies. His campaigns for birth control and slum clearance aroused hostility, mainly because of the harsh methods he used to implement them. But his ruthless and willful approach was combined with undoubted political acumen, and he was responsible for many of the electoral gains of his mother's Congress (I) Party and his own Youth Congress early in 1980. There were serious doubts, however, about his respect for democratic institutions and the use he would make of the power he seemed certain to acquire. Gandhi died when the light aircraft in which he was flying crashed.

Sonia Gandhi
Gandhi, Sonia, née Maino (b. Dec. 9, 1946, Lusiana, Vicenza province, Italy), Indian politician. She met Rajiv Gandhi in 1965 and they married in 1968. She became an Indian citizen in 1983. Though she campaigned for him during his years in politics, Sonia chose to remain in the background. When Rajiv was assassinated in 1991, Sonia was seen by many as the natural heir to the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty, and she was offered the leadership of the Congress (I) party. The party's elders had concluded that the right to assume responsibility for the party - and by implication India - was hers. She rejected the offer and remained at home in New Delhi, seldom appearing in public and refusing to discuss politics publicly. She did not visit Rajiv's former constituency in Amethi, Uttar Pradesh, until 1993 - but the crowds cheered her. Subsequently, she traveled throughout the country on behalf of trusts and committees devoted to Indian public life. In May 1995 she finally broke her long silence and telephoned Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao to urge him to allow two leading dissidents back into the party in time for the 1996 elections. In August she and her daughter, Priyanka, went to rural Amethi to dedicate a medical camp. There Sonia delivered an eight-minute address in which she praised Rajiv's dedication to the welfare of the people and expressed her anguish over the lack of progress into the investigation of his assassination. Resounding applause and shouts of anti-government slogans greeted this apparent criticism of Rao's leadership. In 1998 she agreed to enter politics and became president of the Congress party. She was first elected to the Lok Sabha in 1999. After her party won elections in 2004, she refused to take the post of prime minister, but did take over the ruling coalition. In 2006 she resigned as MP and as head of the National Advisory Council, a body set up to oversee the government's development program, after accusations that the two functions are incompatible under a 1959 law. In 2017 she passed the party leadership to her son Rahul, but took over again in 2019-22.

Gane, Nicolae (b. Feb. 1, 1838, Falticeni, Moldavia [now in Romania] - d. April 16, 1916, Iasi, Romania), Romanian politician. He was mayor of Iasi (1872-76, 1881, 1887-88, 1896-99, 1907-11), minister of agriculture, industry, commerce, and domains (1888), and president of the Senate (1897-99).

Ganesan, La. (b. Feb. 16, 1945, Thanjavur, Madras province [now in Tamil Nadu state], India), governor of Manipur (2021-23), West Bengal (2022), and Nagaland (2023- ).

Ganev (Vurbanov), Dimitur (b. Oct. 28, 1898, Gradets, Slivenski okrug, Bulgaria - d. April 20, 1964, Sofia, Bulgaria), president of Bulgaria (1958-64). He was also minister to Romania (1947-48), minister of external trade (1948-52), and ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1952-54).

S. Ganev
Ganev, Stoyan (Dimitrov) (b. July 23, 1955, Pazardzhik, Bulgaria - d. July 1, 2013, Greenwich, Conn.), foreign minister of Bulgaria (1991-92) and president of the UN General Assembly (1992-93).

Ganga, Dieudonné (Antoine) (b. Nov. 26, 1945, Brazzaville, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), foreign minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1992). He was ambassador to the United States in 1996-97.

Gangard, Yegor (Yegorovich) (b. 1812 - d. Dec. 27 [Dec. 15, O.S.], 1882), governor of Bessarabia (1867-71).

Ganic, Ejup (b. March 3, 1946, Novi Pazar, Serbia), president of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1997-99, 2000-01). On March 1, 2010, he was arrested in London after Serbia had issued an extradition warrant over alleged war crimes; he was released on bail on March 11. The accusation related to an attack on a convoy of Serb-led Yugoslav soldiers who retreated from Sarajevo in May 1992 taking Pres. Alija Izetbegovic with them as a prisoner; Ganic was acting president during the less than two days that Izetbegovic was held.

Ganilau, Ratu Epeli (b. Oct. 10, 1951, Savusavu, Fiji - d. March 23, 2023), defense minister of Fiji (2008-10); son of Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau; son-in-law of Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara. He was also army commander (1991-99) and minister of Fijian affairs (2007-08).

Ganilau, Ratu Sir Penaia (Kanatabatu), Tui Cakau (b. July 28, 1918, Taveuni island, Fiji - d. Dec. 15, 1993, Washington, D.C.), deputy prime minister (1973-83), governor-general (1983-87), and president (1987-93) of Fiji; knighted 1974. He was also minister of Fijian affairs and local government (1967-70), home affairs, lands, and mineral resources (1970-72), communications, works, and tourism (1972-75), home affairs (1975-83), and Fijian affairs and rural development (1977-83). He became Tui Cakau (chief of Cakaudrove) in 1988.

Ganiyev, Elyor (Majidovich) (b. 1960, Tashkent oblast, Uzbek S.S.R.), foreign minister of Uzbekistan (2005-06, 2010-12). He was also minister of foreign economic relations (1998-2002, 2006-10, 2012-17) and transport (2020) and a deputy prime minister (2002-05, 2009-12, 2019-20).

Ganiyev, Shukhrat (Madaminovich) (b. Sept. 11, 1968, Margilan, Uzbek S.S.R.), a deputy prime minister of Uzbekistan (2020- ). He was also hokim (head) of Fergana region (2011-20).

Ganoo, Alan (b. Jan. 17, 1951), foreign minister of Mauritius (2021-23). He has also been speaker of the National Assembly (1982-83), minister of justice and attorney general (1991-93), minister of housing (1996-97), public utilities (2000-05), fisheries (acting, 2004-05), and transport and light rail (2019- ), and leader of the opposition (2013).

Ganoza y Cavero, Agustín G(uillermo) (b. Jan. 11, 1855, Trujillo, Peru - d. March 23, 1926, Bournemouth, England), prime minister of Peru (1911-12). He was also mayor of Trujillo (1886-90), president of the Senate (1908-09), minister of justice, worship, and education (1911-12), and minister to Germany (1921-22) and the United Kingdom (1922-26).

Ganoza y Ganoza, Eduardo (Luis) (b. Nov. 21, 1881, Trujillo, Peru - d. Jan. 25, 1974, Lima, Peru), second vice president of Peru (1945-48).

Gans y López Martínez, Óscar B. (b. May 12, 1903, Havana, Cuba - d. Dec. 4, 1965, Mexico City, Mexico), premier of Cuba (1951-52). He was also minister to Costa Rica (1940-41), Chile (1941), Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador (1943-44), and Uruguay (1944-45), ambassador to Argentina (1946-47) and the United States (1949-50), and minister of labour (1941-42), justice (1950-51), and foreign affairs (1951).

Gantman, Veniamin (Romanovich) (b. 1891, Rechitsa, Minsk province, Russia - d. [executed] Sept. 17, 1937), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Mordovian autonomous oblast (1932-34).

Gantt, Harvey B(ernard) (b. Jan. 14, 1943, Charleston, S.C.), mayor of Charlotte (1983-87). He was the city's first black mayor. In 1990 and 1996 the Democrat unsuccessfully ran for the U.S. Senate against arch-conservative Republican Jesse Helms.

Gantz, Benny, byname of Benjamin Gantz (b. June 9, 1959, Kfar Ahim, Israel), defense minister of Israel (2020-22). He was also chief of staff of the Israel Defense Forces (2011-15), speaker of the Knesset (2020), and minister of communications (2020-21), justice (2021 [acting], 2021), and science and technology (acting, 2021).

Ganzouri, Kamal (Ahmed al-), Arabic Kamal (Ahmad) al-Janzuri (b. Jan. 12, 1933, al-Minufiyah governorate, Egypt - d. March 31, 2021, Cairo, Egypt), prime minister of Egypt (1996-99, 2011-12). He was also governor of al-Wadi al-Jadid (1976-77) and Bani Suwayf (1977), minister of planning (1982-96) and international cooperation (1984-87), and a deputy prime minister (1985-96).

Gao Lingwei (b. Sept. 12, 1870, Tianjin, China - d. 1940), minister of finance (1921, 1922), interior (1921-22, 1922-24), and agriculture and commerce (1922, 1924), acting premier (1923-24), and acting president (1923) of China and civil governor of Zhili (1922). He was civil governor of Hunan at the end of the Qing dynasty. After the founding of the republic, he was elected a member of the Senate, and years later he was selected into the cabinet. He became mayor of Tianjin in 1935. After the Japanese gained actual control over the wide areas north of Beijing, Gao was named a councillor of the Japanese-backed "Provisional Government of North China" and Japanese-designated governor of Hebei.

Gao Weiyue (b. 1875, Jin county [now Jinzhou], western Liaoning, China - d. October 1938, Beijing, China), governor of Chahar (1926-28). He was a graduate of the Northeastern Military College. Before being named as governor, he held several military posts, including the commander of the 19th Brigade, 7th Division, and later the 9th Army. After his protector Zhang Zuolin died in 1928, he was removed from office.

Gaolathe, Baledzi (b. March 4, 1942, Nkange, Bechuanaland [now Botswana] - d. May 28, 2010, Johannesburg, South Africa), finance minister of Botswana (1999-2009). He was also minister of trade and industry (2009-10).


Gaombalet, Célestin(-Leroy) (b. Jan. 1, 1942, Grimari, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. Dec. 19, 2017, Agen, Lot-et-Garonne, France), prime minister of the Central African Republic (2003-05). In 2005-13 he was speaker of the National Assembly.

Gaplikov, Sergey (Anatolyevich) (b. April 29, 1970, Frunze, Kirgiz S.S.R. [now Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan]), prime minister of Chuvashia (2004-10) and head of the republic of Komi (2015-20).

Gapurov, Mukhamednazar (Gapurovich) (b. Feb. 15, 1922 - d. [killed] July 13, 1999), chairman of the Council of Ministers and foreign minister (1963-69) and first secretary of the Communist Party (1969-85) of the Turkmen S.S.R. He was also first secretary of the party committee of Chardzhou oblast (1959-62).

Gara, Jean-Robert (b. 1957, Antsiranana), governor of Antsiranana (2001-02). When the forces of Pres. Marc Ravalomanana took over, he fled to Moroni, Comoros. In 2003 he was sentenced in absentia to five years in prison for proclaiming the independence of his province during the 2002 political crisis.

W.A. Gara
Gara, W(illy) A(nanias) (b. July 19, 1925, Pepas, Netherlands East Indies [now in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia] - d. March 11, 2007, Palangkaraya, Kalimantan Tengah), governor of Kalimantan Tengah (1978-83).

Garaikoetxea Urriza, Carlos (b. June 2, 1938, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain), Spanish politician. As leader of the Partido Nacionalista Vasco (PNV), the leading Basque Christian Democrat party, he was one of the principal negotiators of the Basque autonomy statute signed with the central Spanish government in July 1979. The agreement provided for measures of home rule on such matters as education, justice, taxation, and finance and was greeted with widespread relief by Spain's politicians. The PNV acknowledged that the new agreement was better than the 1936 Basque autonomy statute but had to accept that the Basque provinces would remain under Spanish sovereignty - an essential precondition for its approval by the Army and right-wing legislators in Madrid. The PNV also endorsed plans for a special referendum to decide the status of Navarre, where loyalists to the Basques, the province, and Spain as a whole were deeply divided. Garaikoetxea's election as head of the Basque government was a virtual certainty following massive Basque acceptance of the autonomy statute in an October 25 referendum. Garaikoetxea announced his intention of negotiating with the militant Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA) and its political ally, Herri Batasuna. Both of these advocated violence until the Basques attained complete independence. To be successful he would have to show that the central government in Madrid had transferred real power to the Consejo General Vasco; local control of the police force and courts were powerful symbols in his struggle to convince his opponents that their way forward lay in negotiations leading to a peaceful transfer of power. He was replaced as head of government in 1985 after a long-standing dispute with the PNV directorate over policy.

Garami, Ernö (b. Dec. 13, 1876, Budapest, Hungary - d. May 28, 1935, Budapest), justice minister of Hungary (1919). He was also trade minister (1918-19).

Garang (de Mabior), John (b. June 23, 1945, Wagkulei village, near Bor, Upper Nile region, Sudan [now in Jonglei state, South Sudan] - d. July 30, 2005, near New Cush, Eastern Equatoria state, Sudan [now in Namorunyang state, South Sudan]), Sudanese rebel leader and politician. He joined the Anya Nya rebellion, which had been started by the non-Muslim southerners at the time of Sudanese independence in 1956. They sought the secession of the non-Islamic southern provinces from the Islamic north. After the fighting ended in 1972, Garang joined the national Army and was later promoted to chief of the Military Research Center with the rank of lieutenant colonel. The imposition of Shari`ah (Islamic law) in The Sudan by Pres. Gaafar Nimeiry in September 1983 proved the focus of major discontent in the south of the country. Shortly afterward Garang formed the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) in opposition to Nimeiry's rule and to the introduction of Shari`ah in particular. The SPLM manifesto declared its opposition to all forms of military rule and its support of democratic parliamentary government. The movement did not call for secession of the south but favoured a unified country with a non-military government and sought the support of both Muslims and Christians in the war against Nimeiry. The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), the military wing of the SPLM, was welcomed by two of Nimeiry's most hostile neighbours, Libya and Ethiopia, which gave it arms and allowed SPLA bases on their territories. When Nimeiry was overthrown in 1985, however, Garang refused to end his fight and join the interim government because of its military involvement. For the same reason, he refused to allow the SPLM to participate in the 1986 elections for a new civilian government. He insisted on the abolition of Shari`ah as a prerequisite for a ceasefire. His forces gathered strength throughout the south. In 2005 he signed a peace agreement by which he became first vice president (the first southern Sudanese to hold this position since independence) and also president of a newly-created Government of Southern Sudan. Only three weeks after assuming those positions he was killed in a helicopter crash.

Garango, Tiémoko Marc (b. July 27, 1927, Gaoua, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso] - d. March 6, 2015, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso), finance minister of Upper Volta (1966-76). He was also ambassador to Taiwan (non-resident, 1966-73), West Germany (1977-81), and the United States (1981-83) and ombudsman (1994-2000).

Garapich, Pawel (b. Nov. 18, 1882, Cebrów, Austria [now Tsebriv, Ukraine] - d. 1957, Pulawy, Poland), governor of Lódzkie (1922-23 [acting], 1924) and Lwowskie (1924-27) województwa.

Garasanin, Ilija (b. Jan. 28 [Jan. 16, O.S.], 1812, Garasi, Serbia - d. June 22 [June 10, O.S.], 1874, Belgrade, Serbia), interior minister (1843-52, 1858) and prime minister and foreign minister (1852-53, 1861-67) of Serbia.

Garasanin, Milutin (b. Feb. 22 [Feb. 10, O.S.], 1843 - d. March 5, 1898, Paris, France), prime minister (1884-87) and foreign minister (1884-86) of Serbia; son of Ilija Garasanin. He was also interior minister (1880-83, 1886-87), minister to Austria-Hungary (1883-84) and France (1894-95), and president of the National Assembly (1895-96).

Garay Díaz, Narciso (b. June 12, 1876, Panama City, Colombia [now in Panama] - d. March 27, 1953, Panama City), foreign minister of Panama (1916-18, 1921-24, 1938-40). He was also minister to France (1925, 1931-33), Cuba and Mexico (1926-28), Germany (1929-31), the United Kingdom (1931-33), and Colombia (1940-44), minister of education (1934-36) and labour, commerce, and industries (1936-38), and ambassador to Ecuador (1944-46) and Costa Rica (1947-49).

Garay y Perales (Martínez de Villela y Franco), Martín de (b. Jan. 26, 1771, El Puerto de Santa María, near Cádiz, Spain - d. Oct. 7, 1822, La Almunia de Doña Godina, near Zaragoza, Spain), acting first secretary of state (1809) and finance minister (1816-18) of Spain.

Garba, Joseph Nanven (b. July 17, 1943, Langtang [now in Plateau state], northern Nigeria - d. June 1, 2002, Abuja, Nigeria), foreign minister of Nigeria (1975-78) and president of the UN General Assembly (1989-90). He spent nearly two decades in Nigeria's military before serving as foreign minister under consecutive military regimes led by Murtala Mohammed and Olusegun Obasanjo. He went on to become Nigeria's permanent representative to the United Nations (1984-89) and chaired a UN committee dedicated to fighting South African white-minority rule.

B. Garba Jahumpa
Garba Jahumpa, (Musa) Bala (b. July 20, 1958, Bathurst [now Banjul], Gambia), foreign minister of The Gambia (2006-07, 2014-15); son of Ibrahima Momodou Garba-Jahumpa. He was also minister of finance and economic affairs (1994-95, 1995-97), trade, industry, and employment (1995), works, construction, and infrastructure (2003-06), information and communication infrastructure (2012), health and social welfare (2012-14), and works and transport (2015-16, 2016-17), acting high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1999-2001), and ambassador to Cuba (2003), Venezuela (2007-12), and Spain (2012).

Garba-Jahumpa, Ibrahima Momodou (b. Nov. 22, 1912, Bathurst [now Banjul], Gambia - d. Sept. 4, 1994, Banjul), finance and trade minister of The Gambia (1972-77). He was also minister of agriculture and natural resources (1954-60), health (1968-72), and education (1970-72).

Garbai, Sándor (b. March 6, 1879, Kiskunhalas, Hungary - d. Nov. 11, 1947, Paris, France), chairman of the Central Executive Council (1919) and of the Revolutionary Government Council (1919) of Hungary. He was also education minister (1919).

Garbit, Hubert (Auguste) (b. April 4, 1869, Lyon, France - d. Oct. 30, 1933, Giron, Ain, France), governor of Réunion (1912-13) and governor-general of Madagascar (1909-10 [acting], 1914-17, 1920-23).

Garbuzov, Vasily (Fyodorovich) (b. July 3 [June 20, O.S.], 1911, Belgorod, Russia - d. Nov. 12, 1985, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet finance minister (1960-85). He was also chairman of the State Planning Committee of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1950-52).

Garcés Gana, Francisco (b. Sept. 1, 1879, Santiago, Chile - d. May 12, 1948), finance minister (1920, 1921-22, 1931, 1937-38), interior minister (1923), and justice minister (1935-36) of Chile.

Garcetti, Eric (Michael) (b. Feb. 4, 1971, Los Angeles, Calif.), mayor of Los Angeles (2013-22). In 2023 he became U.S. ambassador to India.

Garcez, Arnaldo Rollemberg (b. Jan. 19, 1911, Itaporanga, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Sept. 7, 2010, Aracaju, Sergipe), governor of Sergipe (1951-55).

Garcez, João de Andrade (b. June 25, 1926, Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Nov. 11, 2001, Aracaju, Sergipe), governor of Sergipe (1970-71).

Garcez, Lucas Nogueira (b. Dec. 9, 1913, São Paulo, Brazil - d. May 11, 1982, São Paulo), governor of São Paulo (1951-55).

Garcez, Martinho (da Silveira), Neto (b. May 16, 1911, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Sept. 2, 2002, Rio de Janeiro), acting governor of Guanabara (1965).

Garcez, Martinho César da Silveira (b. Nov. 30, 1850, Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Aug. 11, 1925, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Sergipe (1896-98).

A. García
García (Pérez), Alan (Gabriel Ludwig) (b. May 23, 1949, Lima, Peru - d. April 17, 2019, Lima), president of Peru (1985-90, 2006-11). He won his first political victory in 1980 when he gained a seat in the lower house of Congress. Two years later he became general secretary of the Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA). In the 1985 presidential election, his opponents criticized his lack of political experience, and certainly he had no experience of governing. To his supporters, however, this very weakness became a strength, and certainly he did not bow to the customary pressures of the military and (more recently) the international bankers. He won a conclusive victory in the April 14 election. He narrowly missed winning outright with 48% of the vote, but the runner-up, Alfonso Barrantes Lingán of the Marxist Izquierda Unida party, conceded defeat, thus saving a second round of voting. García, who was sworn in on July 28, became the first elected president to succeed another democratically chosen candidate in Peru in more than 40 years. He was also the first APRA leader to take office as president, despite APRA's being the country's oldest political party. After taking office García became extremely visible both at home and abroad. García turned Peru into an international financial pariah with galloping hyperinflation of 7,650%, challenged the International Monetary Fund, and announced he would limit Peru's debt payments to 10% of exports. He scored 80% popularity ratings before slumping to rank as one of the country's least-loved leaders by the time he left office with the economy in a shambles and Shining Path guerrillas on the rampage. After spending much of his time since 1992 in Bogotá, Colombia, he returned to Peru in January 2001 to launch a reelection bid which he lost to Alejandro Toledo. He won, however, in 2006, defeating Ollanta Humala in a runoff. Running again in 2016, he only came fifth. He shot himself in 2019 when police came to arrest him in connection with corruption allegations.

Garcia, Carlos P(olestico) (b. Nov. 4, 1896, Talibon, Philippines - d. June 14, 1971, Quezon City, Philippines), president of the Philippines (1957-61). He was a representative in the Philippine Congress, governor of his province (Bohol), and then (1941-53) senator. During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II, Garcia was active in the resistance movement. He was elected vice president on the ticket of the Nacionalista Party in 1953 and was also minister of foreign affairs (1953-57). As foreign minister he presided over the Manila conference of 1954, which produced the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, and later led the Filipino delegation to three succeeding SEATO meetings in Bangkok, Karachi, and Canberra. He became president of the Philippines in March 1957, upon the death of Pres. Ramon Magsaysay, and was elected to a full four-year term the same year. He maintained the strong traditional ties with the United States and sought closer relations with non-Communist Asian countries. His greatest claim to fame was his championing of the nationalistic "Filipino first" policy, which sought to transfer control of the country's economy from foreign to Filipino hands. In the election of November 1961 he was defeated by Vice Pres. Diosdado Macapagal. In 1971 he was elected president of the constitutional convention, but died three days later.

García (Estrada), Francisco E(spartaco) (b. July 4, 1920, Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico - d. June 10, 2004, Tacoaleche, Zacatecas), governor of Zacatecas (1956-62).

Garcia, Frederico Ressano (b. Nov. 12, 1847, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Aug. 27, 1911), finance minister of Portugal (1897-98). He was also marine and overseas minister (1889-90).

Garcia, Hélio de Carvalho (b. March 16, 1931, Santo Antônio do Amparo, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. June 6, 2016, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais), governor of Minas Gerais (1984-87 [acting], 1991-95). He was also mayor of Belo Horizonte (1983-84).

Garcia, José, Neto (b. June 1, 1922, Rosário do Catete, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Nov. 20, 2009, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil), governor of Mato Grosso (1975-78). He was also mayor of Cuiabá (1955-59).

García (Martínez), José Dolores, war, navy, and aviation minister of Nicaragua (1963-67).

García, José Félix, finance minister of Peru (1877-78).

Garcia, José Gilton Pinto (b. Jan. 5, 1941, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil), governor of Amapá (1990-91).

García, José Manuel (b. 1859, Bambamarca, Cajamarca, Peru - d. 19...), interior minister of Peru (1910). He was also minister of development and public works (1911-12).

García, Juan M. (b. Sept. 21, 1885, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. Feb. 13, 1957, Monterrey), governor of Nuevo León (1921-22). He was also mayor of Monterrey (1919).

Garcia, Luís (b. Oct. 14, 1910, Rosário do Catete, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Aug. 11, 2001, Aracaju, Sergipe), governor of Sergipe (1959-62).

García (Banqueda), Manuel (b. 1803, Santiago, Chile - d. May 4, 1872, Santiago), war and marine minister of Chile (1857-62).

García (Ferreyra), Manuel José (b. October 1784, Buenos Aires, Río de la Plata [now in Argentina] - d. Oct. 22, 1848, Buenos Aires), foreign minister of Argentina (1824-26, 1833). He was also minister to Brazil (1827).

García (Velásquez), Mario David (Antonio) (b. 1946, San Pedro Sacatepéquez, San Marcos, Guatemala), Guatemalan presidential candidate (1985, 2015).

García (Martín), Melchor Telésforo (b. 1830?, Lima, Peru - d. Oct. 29, 1888, Lima), justice and education minister of Peru (1871-72).

García, Pedro Mariano, finance minister of Peru (1864).

R. Garcia
Garcia, Rodrigo (b. May 10, 1974, Tanabi, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of São Paulo (2022-23).

García Alix, Antonio (b. Aug. 22, 1852, Murcia, Spain - d. Sept. 29, 1911, Madrid, Spain), interior minister (1903) and finance minister (1905) of Spain. He was also minister of education and fine arts (1900-01) and governor of the Bank of Spain (1902-03, 1908-09).

García Añoveros, Jaime (Julián) (b. Jan. 24, 1932, Teruel, Spain - d. March 15, 2000, Sevilla, Spain), finance minister of Spain (1979-82).

García Barragán, Marcelino (b. June 2, 1895, Cuautitlán, Jalisco, Mexico - d. Sept. 3, 1979, Guadalajara, Jalisco), governor of Jalisco (1943-47) and defense minister of Mexico (1964-70).

García Barzanallana (y García de Frías), José, marqués de Barzanallana (b. July 24, 1819, Madrid, Spain - d. Feb. 21, 1903, Madrid), finance minister of Spain (1876-77); brother of Manuel García Barzanallana. He was also governor of the Bank of Spain (1895-97).

García Barzanallana (y García de Frías), Manuel, (from 1867) marqués de Barzanallana (b. Aug. 17, 1817, Madrid, Spain - d. Jan. 29, 1892, Madrid), finance minister of Spain (1856-57, 1864-65, 1866-68). He was also president of the Senate (1876-81).

García Bauer, Carlos (b. Dec. 18, 1916, Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala - d. July 16, 2003), foreign minister of Guatemala (1958). He was also ambassador to the United States (1963-66).

García Bedoya, José Manuel (b. 1866, Lima, Peru - d. Oct. 9, 1940), interior minister of Peru (1916-17, 1926, 1931-32). He was also mayor of Lima (1932-33).

García-Bedoya Zapata, Carlos (b. April 30, 1925, Lima, Peru - d. Oct. 2, 1980, Lima), foreign minister of Peru (1979). He was also ambassador to the United States (1976-79).

J.A. García
García Belaúnde, José Antonio (b. March 16, 1948, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (2006-11); son of Domingo García Rada. He was also ambassador to Spain (2017-18).

García Belaúnde, Víctor Andrés (b. June 6, 1949, Lima, Peru), Peruvian politician; son of Domingo García Rada; brother of José Antonio García Belaúnde; grandson of Víctor Andrés Belaúnde. He was a minor presidential candidate (2000) and president of Popular Action (2004-09).

García Cabeza de Vaca, Francisco (Javier) (b. Sept. 17, 1967, Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico), governor of Tamaulipas (2016-22). He was also mayor of Reynosa (2005-07).

García Calderón (y Martínez Landa), Francisco (b. April 2, 1834, Arequipa, Peru - d. Sept. 21, 1905, Lima, Peru), finance minister (1868) and provisional president (1881; continuing in exile to 1885) of Peru. He was also president of the Constituent Congress (1867) and the Senate (1886-87) and rector of the University of San Marcos (1886-91, 1895-1905).

García Calderón Rey, Francisco (b. April 8, 1883, Valparaíso, Chile - d. July 1, 1953, Lima, Peru), Peruvian diplomat; son of Francisco García Calderón. He was minister to Belgium (1919-21), France (1930-40), and Portugal (1943-45).

García Capurro, Federico (b. Feb. 25, 1907, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. 2000), defense minister of Uruguay (1971-72). He was also minister of health (1952-55), culture (1968-70), and transport (1971-72).

García Carneiro, Jorge Luis (b. Feb. 8, 1952, Caracas, Venezuela - d. May 22, 2021), defense minister of Venezuela (2004-05) and governor of Vargas/La Guaira (2008-21). He was also minister of social development and popular participation (2005-07).

García Chávez, Arturo, justice and education minister of Peru (1887-88). He was also minister to Ecuador (1889-91).

García Correa, Bartolomé (b. April 2, 1893, Umán, Yucatán, Mexico - d. Dec. 17, 1978, Tecomán, Colima, Mexico), governor of Yucatán (1930-34).

García de la Cadena, (José) Trinidad (b. Nov. 15, 1823, Villa del Refugio [now Tabasco], Zacatecas, Mexico - d. [executed] Nov. 1, 1886, Estación González [now Estación Opal], Zacatecas), governor of Zacatecas (1868-70, 1876-80) and interior minister (1877-79) and finance minister (1879-80) of Mexico.

García de la Huerta Izquierdo, Manuel (b. Oct. 29, 1868, Santiago, Chile - d. January 1940?, Santiago), finance minister of Chile (1915); son of Manuel García de la Huerta Pérez. He was also mayor of San Bernardo (1906-09).

García de la Huerta Izquierdo, Pedro (b. Dec. 29, 1869, Santiago, Chile - d. 19...), finance minister (1913) and interior minister (1920) of Chile; son of Manuel García de la Huerta Pérez; brother of Manuel García de la Huerta Izquierdo. He was also minister of industry and public works (1909).

García de la Huerta Pérez, Manuel (b. 1837, Santiago, Chile - d. June 9, 1889, Santiago), Chilean minister of war and navy (1877-78, 1887-88) and justice, worship, and education (1880-81). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1879-80, 1881-82).

García de León y Pizarro, José (b. Oct. 19, 1770, Madrid, Spain - d. Jan. 27, 1835, Madrid), first secretary of state of Spain (1812 [in Resistance], 1816-18).

García de Polavieja y del Castillo, Camilo, marqués de Polavieja (b. July 13, 1838, Madrid, Spain - d. Jan. 15, 1914, Madrid), governor of Cuba (1890-92) and governor-general of the Philippines (1896-97).

García del Río, Juan (b. 1794, Cartagena, New Granada [now in Colombia] - d. May 15, 1856, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister of Peru (1821) and Colombia (1831) and finance minister of Ecuador (1832-34) and North Peru (1836-37, 1837-38).

García del Solar, Lucio (Alberto Saturnino) (b. Jan. 31, 1922, Mar del Plata, Argentina - d. Nov. 26, 2010, Buenos Aires, Argentina), Argentine diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1962-66) and ambassador to the Soviet Union (1966) and the United States (1982-86).

García Díez, Juan Antonio (b. Aug. 4, 1940, Madrid, Spain - d. May 6, 1998, Madrid), Spanish politician. He was minister of commerce and tourism (1977-80) and economy and commerce (1980-82) and second deputy prime minister (1981-82).

García Feraud, Galo (b. Aug. 30, 1934, Guayaquil, Ecuador), interior minister of Ecuador (1981-83). He was also minister of education and culture (1979-81).

García Frías, Guillermo (b. Feb. 10, 1928, Niquero, Oriente [now in Granma] province, Cuba), a vice premier of Cuba (1972-86). He was also minister of transport (1979-85).

García-Gallont (Bischof), Fritz (b. Aug. 9, 1955, Guatemala City, Guatemala), Guatemalan politician. He was minister of communications (1996-99), mayor of Guatemala City (2000-03), and a minor presidential candidate (2003, 2007).

García García, Arturo (b. May 3, 1914, Lima, Peru - d. October 2004), foreign minister of Peru (1979-80); son of Arturo García Salazar. He was also ambassador to Ecuador (1964-65, 1977-79), Chile (1968-70), Italy (1974-77), and the United Kingdom (1992-95).

García Godoy (Cáceres), Héctor (Federico) (b. Jan. 11, 1921, Moca, Dominican Republic - d. April 20, 1970, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), foreign minister (1963) and provisional president (1965-66) of the Dominican Republic. He was also ambassador to Belgium (1957-59), the United Kingdom and the Netherlands (1959-63), and the United States (1966-69).

García González, Andelfo (José), Colombian diplomat. He has been chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (1997-98) and ambassador to Thailand (2013- ) and Myanmar (2014- ).

García González, Carlos Enrique (b. Aug. 22, 1966, San Salvador, El Salvador), Salvadoran diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2013-14).

García Goyena, Florencio (b. Oct. 27, 1783, Tafalla, Navarra, Spain - d. June 2, 1855, Madrid, Spain), prime minister and justice minister of Spain (1847).

García Granados, Jorge (b. April 21, 1900, Villa Nueva, Guatemala - d. May 3, 1961, Santiago, Chile), Guatemalan presidential candidate (1950); grandson of Miguel García Granados. He was also president of the National Congress (1945), ambassador to the United States (1945-47) and Israel (1955-56), permanent representative to the United Nations (1947-48), and minister to the United Kingdom (1956-57).

García Granados (y Zavala), Miguel (b. Sept. 29, 1809, El Puerto de Santa María, Spain - d. Sept. 8, 1878, Guatemala City, Guatemala), president of Guatemala (1871-73).

García Hernández, José (b. March 19, 1915, Guadalajara, Spain - d. Feb. 5, 2000, Madrid, Spain), first deputy prime minister and interior minister of Spain (1974-75). He was also civil governor of Lugo (1947-48) and Las Palmas (1948-51).

García Incháustegui, Mario (b. September 1924, Havana, Cuba - d. [plane crash] Dec. 6, 1977, near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Cuban diplomat. He was ambassador to Uruguay (1959-61), Chile (1971-73), and Japan and Malaysia (1974-77) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1961-62).

García Jiménez, Cuitláhuac (b. April 18, 1968, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico), governor of Veracruz (2018- ).

García Kohly, Mario (b. Jan. 18, 1876, Havana, Spain - d. July 22, 1935, Madrid, Spain), Cuban politician. He was minister of education and fine arts (1910-13) and ambassador to Spain (1913-33).

García-Margallo (y Marfil), José Manuel (b. Aug. 13, 1944, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (2011-16).

García Medina, Amalia (Dolores) (b. Oct. 6, 1951, Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico), governor of Zacatecas (2004-10); daughter of Francisco E. García. She was also president of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (1999-2002).

García Menocal (y Deop), (Aurelio) Mario (Gabriel Francisco) (b. Dec. 16, 1868, Matanzas province, Cuba - d. Sept. 7, 1941, Havana, Cuba), president of Cuba (1913-21). He joined a Cuban army of rebels, fought in the war of independence (1898), and won renown as a military strategist. He rose swiftly in politics and was elected president of the island republic in 1912 and reelected in 1916. But his "businessman" government was widely criticized as corrupt, and the man hailed as a liberator in 1912 was regarded with suspicion in the early 1920s. His victory in 1916 was challenged by the Liberals, and José Miguel Gómez led a revolt; García was, however, able to avoid defeat and turned affairs into international channels by taking Cuba into World War I on the side of the United States. He remained a power in Cuban politics, backing Alfredo Zayas in 1920, but lost to Gerardo Machado in 1924. García was twice imprisoned and his taking part in the 1931 revolution led to exile in Miami, Fla. After Machado's fall he returned to Havana, was a member of the coalition that elected Pres. Fulgencio Batista in 1940, and was one of Batista's closest advisers.

García Meza
García Meza Tejada, Luis (b. Aug. 8, 1929, La Paz, Bolivia - d. April 29, 2018, La Paz), president of Bolivia (1980-81). He was a general leading the 6th Division of the Bolivian army when, on July 17, 1980, he staged the 189th coup in 155 years of Bolivian independence. A three-man junta consisting of himself, Gen. Waldo Bernal, commander of the Air Force, and Rear Adm. Ramiro Terrazas, the Navy commander, forced Pres. Lidia Gueiler Tejada, then the only woman leader in Latin America, to resign. Twenty soldiers, armed with automatic weapons, had burst into a room in the Quemado Palace where she was meeting with her cabinet. Saying "There will be no electoral adventures in this country," García installed himself as president. Elections on June 29 had failed to produce a clear winner, and it was decided that Congress would choose the president on August 4. The military, whose presidential candidate had placed third in the national balloting, anticipated that Hernán Siles Zuazo, a leftist, would be elected and acted to prevent him from taking office. It claimed that the popular elections were "fraudulent" and that Siles was a Communist. García promised to transform the backward nation into "a modern and industrial society." A few days after he took power, dissident tin miners and peasants stormed an army barracks, but they were beaten back after a five-hour battle. There were numerous arrests throughout the country, and foreign journalists were detained. He has been in jail since 1995 after he was sentenced to 30 years for genocide, torture, and killing of political opponents under his regime.

García Montes
García Montes (y Hernández), Jorge (b. Oct. 19, 1898, New York - d. June 21, 1982, Miami, Fla.), premier of Cuba (1955-57). He was also minister of education (1957-59).

García Moreno, Gabriel (Gregorio) (b. Dec. 24, 1821, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. Aug. 6, 1875, Quito, Ecuador), president of Ecuador (1859-65, 1869 [interim], 1869-75); son-in-law of Juan José Flores. He showed his conservatism in political debates as a student and became militantly conservative after visiting Europe during the violent liberal revolutions in 1848. In the early 1850s he was forced into exile in Colombia, Peru, and Europe, and though he was elected to the Senate, the government did not allow him to return. Back in Ecuador by the end of 1856, the following year he was elected mayor of Quito and rector of the university. In 1857-58 he was a member of the Senate. He led the opposition against the government while the country was being invaded by Peru. In January 1859 he fled to Peru but soon returned to Quito as one of the members of a newly formed revolutionary junta. Defeated by the regular Ecuadorian army, he had to flee once more to Peru. He offered his alliance to the Peruvian president, then sought French aid, in exchange for which Ecuador would have become a protectorate of France. Though all this scheming proved to be fruitless, by September 1860 García Moreno was in control of the republic, having achieved military victory with the help of his old enemy Gen. Juan José Flores. His tenure as president was legalized by the Constituent Convention of 1861. He wasted much of his first term fighting two wars against Colombia. The constitution did not allow immediate reelection; in 1869 he led a barracks revolt that overthrew Pres. Francisco Javier Espinosa, and later that year he began a 6-year term under a new constitution. The constitution returned control of education to the clergy, reestablished church courts independent of the civil jurisdiction, and restricted citizenship to Roman Catholics. He constructed new schools and roads such as the one linking Quito and Guayaquil, and stabilized the national finances. His liberal enemies charged him with religious fanaticism, and he was assassinated shortly after his reelection to a third term.

García Moritan, Martín (b. March 12, 1955), Argentine diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2016-20).

García Oldini, Fernando (b. 1896, Santiago, Chile - d. 1965, Geneva, Switzerland), foreign minister of Chile (1952). He was also minister of labour (1950).

García Ortiz, Laureano (b. July 19, 1867, Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia - d. Nov. 4, 1945, Bogotá, Colombia), foreign minister of Colombia (1920-21). He was also minister to Brazil (1925-31) and Chile (1934).

García Padilla
García Padilla, Alejandro (Javier) (b. Aug. 3, 1971, Coamo, Puerto Rico), governor of Puerto Rico (2013-17).

García-Page (Sánchez), Emiliano (b. June 11, 1968, Toledo, Spain), president of the Junta of Castilla-La Mancha (2015- ).

García Paniagua, Javier (b. Feb. 13, 1935, Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco, Mexico - d. Nov. 24, 1998, Guadalajara, Jalisco), Mexican politician; son of Marcelino García Barragán. He was minister of agrarian reform (1980-81) and labour and social security (1981) and president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (1981).

García Parra, Jaime (b. Dec. 19, 1931, Bucaramanga, Colombia), finance minister of Colombia (1978-81). He was also minister of communications (1974-75) and mines and energy (1975-77) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1977-78) and the United States (1991-93).

García Rada, Domingo (Ignacio Demetrio) (b. Dec. 20, 1912, Lima, Peru - d. June 9, 1994, Lima), Peruvian jurist; son-in-law of Víctor Andrés Belaúnde. He was president of the Supreme Court (1967-68).

García Ramírez, Sergio (b. Feb. 1, 1938, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico), Mexican politician. He was minister of labour and social security (1981-82) and attorney general (1982-88).

García Robles
García Robles, Alfonso (b. March 20, 1911, Zamora, Michoacán, Mexico - d. Sept. 2, 1991, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican diplomat. He entered Mexico's foreign service in 1939 and was a delegate to the 1945 San Francisco Conference, at which the United Nations was founded. He subsequently joined the UN Secretariat, serving as director of the Division of Political Affairs until he returned to his country's diplomatic corps in 1957. As director general for Europe, Asia, and Africa in the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs during the late 1950s, García Robles played a central role at the Law of the Sea conferences. While serving as ambassador to Brazil (1961-64), he first encountered the proposition of excluding nuclear armaments from Latin America, but the initiative was soon abandoned by the formulators of the idea - the presidents of Brazil, Ecuador, and Bolivia. Alarmed by the implications of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, he revived the proposal and later persuaded the Mexican government to support such a policy. His unremitting efforts eventually led to the Treaty of Tlatelolco (1967), which committed 22 nations of Latin America to bar nuclear weapons from their territories. A year later he helped draft the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. He was Mexico's permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-76) and foreign minister (1975-76). In 1977 he was appointed permanent representative to the Disarmament Conference in Geneva, and in 1978 he served as chairman of the Mexican delegation to the UN General Assembly's special session on disarmament. He continued to take an active role in subsequent special sessions devoted to a world disarmament campaign. He was the co-recipient (with Alva Reimer Myrdal of Sweden) of the Nobel Prize for Peace for 1982.

García Rodríguez, Ricardo (b. Nov. 20, 1930, Santiago, Chile - d. June 14, 2022), interior minister (1985-87) and foreign minister (1987-88) of Chile.

García Salazar, Arturo (b. Jan. 26, 1886, Lima, Peru - d. June 7, 1958, Lima), foreign minister of Peru (1918-19); son of Arturo García Chávez. He was also minister to Ecuador (1930-36) and ambassador to Colombia (1938-40), Chile (1940-45), the Vatican (1946-48), and France (1948-50).

D. García Sayán
García Sayán (Larrabure), Diego (b. Aug. 2, 1950, New York), foreign minister of Peru (2001-02); son of Enrique García Sayán. He was also justice minister (2000-01).

García Sayán, Enrique (Víctor Aurelio) (b. March 6, 1905, Lima, Peru - d. June 30, 1978), foreign minister of Peru (1946-48); grandson of Aurelio García y García; grandson-in-law of Eugenio Larrabure y Unanue.

García Sepúlveda, Samuel (Alejandro) (b. Dec. 28, 1987, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (2021- ).

García Solá, Manuel (Guillermo) (b. Nov. 14, 1953, Santa Fe, Santa Fe province, Argentina), education minister of Argentina (1999).

García Téllez, Ignacio (b. May 21, 1897, León, Guanajuato, Mexico - d. Nov. 14, 1985, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico), governor of Guanajuato (1923) and interior minister of Mexico (1938-40). He was also minister of education (1934-35) and labour (1940-43) and attorney general (1936-37).

García Toma, Víctor (Óscar Shiyin) (b. June 2, 1954, Lima, Peru), justice minister of Peru (2010). He was also president of the Constitutional Court (2005-06).

García Urrutia (y Muro), Baltasar (b. 1838, Lambayeque, Peru - d. Jan. 11, 1899, Lima, Peru), foreign minister (1884-85, 1894) and prime minister (1894) of Peru.

García Urrutia, José (d. April 1868), finance minister of Peru (1864-65).

García Vargas, Julián (b. Oct. 19, 1945, Madrid, Spain), defense minister of Spain (1991-95). He was also minister of health and consumer affairs (1986-91).

García Velasco, Rafael (b. Jan. 15, 1923, Quito, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (1971-72, 1987-88). He was also ambassador to Peru (1968-71), Canada (1981-83), and the United States (1983-84).

García Velutini, Óscar (b. Feb. 24, 1911, Caracas, Venezuela - d. June 12, 1991), foreign minister of Venezuela (1958).

García-Verdugo Candón, José Manuel (b. March 27, 1935, Málaga, Andalucía, Spain), president of the General Council of Castilla-Léon (1980-83).

García y García, Aurelio (b. Nov. 28, 1834, Lima, Peru - d. June 25, 1888, Callao, Peru), acting foreign minister (1881, 1881) and prime minister (1881) of Peru; brother of José Antonio García y García. He was also minister of interior and public works (1875-76) and mayor of Lima (1877).

García y García, Carlos (b. 19... - d. May 10, 2016), second vice president of Peru (1990-92).

García y García, José Antonio (b. 1832, Lima, Peru - d. Nov. 2, 1886, Lima), foreign minister of Peru (1876-77). He was also chargé d'affaires in Colombia (1862-65) and the United States (1865-66), minister to the United States (1867-69), mayor of Lima (1872), and president of the Senate (1878-79).

García y Lastres, Aurelio (b. May 19, 1866, Lima, Peru - d. Oct. 27, 1930, Lima), finance minister of Peru (1915-17).

Gärde, August Bernhard (b. June 4, 1877, Seglora, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. March 11, 1970), governor of Norrbotten (1928-37) and Västmanland (1937-43).

Garde, François (b. Oct. 13, 1959, Le Cannet Rocheville, Alpes-Maritimes, France), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (2000-05).

Gärde, (Johannes) Natanael (b. July 27, 1880, Seglora, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. Jan. 28, 1968, Stockholm, Sweden), justice minister of Sweden (1930-32).

Gardey, Abel (Justin Joseph Marie) (b. Nov. 21, 1882, Margouët-Meymes, Gers, France - d. Sept. 23, 1957, Pouylebon, Gers), justice minister of France (1932-33). He was also minister of agriculture (1932) and budget (1933).

Gardiner, Gerald Austin Gardiner, Baron (b. May 30, 1900, London, England - d. Jan. 7, 1990, London), British lord chancellor (1964-70). He was made a life peer in 1963.

J.G. Gardiner
Gardiner, James G(arfield), byname Jimmy Gardiner (b. Nov. 30, 1883, Farquhar, Ont. - d. Jan. 12, 1962, Balcarres, Sask.), premier of Saskatchewan (1926-29, 1934-35). As a Liberal he won a by-election to the Saskatchewan Legislative Assembly in June 1914 and soon made his mark as a competent debater. After being appointed to the provincial cabinet in 1922, he succeeded Charles Dunning as premier in 1926. He gave his province efficient and progressive government, but the unscrupulous methods of a powerful political machine, which he built up, and abuses in political patronage developed under it antagonized so many voters that his party lost the 1929 election. Thereafter he spent five years as the vigilant leader of the opposition until he was returned to power in 1934. The following year, however, he resigned to become federal minister of agriculture and was elected to the dominion House of Commons for Melville. Gardiner was minister of agriculture for 22 years during W.L. Mackenzie King's and Louis Saint Laurent's ministries. He dealt with federal agricultural assistance during the Great Depression of the 1930s and with problems relating to World War II (1939-45). He was a staunch supporter of the cooperative wheat pools of the prairie provinces and a resolute opponent of protective tariffs. In 1947 he was appointed to the Imperial Privy Council and in 1948 he made an unsuccessful attempt to replace King as Liberal leader. Reelected to the House in 1957, Gardiner resigned his portfolio when the Liberal ministry resigned. He was defeated in the 1958 general election.

Gardner, Anthony William (b. 1820, Virginia, U.S. - d. 1885), president of Liberia (1878-83). He was also attorney-general (1848-55), speaker of the House of Representatives (1860-61), and vice president (1872-76); when Pres. Joseph Jenkins Roberts became very ill and left for England for medical treatment in June 1875, he was appointed acting president.

G.R. Gardner
Gardner, Geoffrey Robert, byname Geoff Gardner (b. 1960?), chief minister of Norfolk Island (2001-06).

J.W. Gardner
Gardner, John W(illiam) (b. Oct. 8, 1912, Los Angeles, Calif. - d. Feb. 16, 2002, Stanford, Calif.), U.S. secretary of health, education and welfare (1965-68). A trailblazing advocate of democratic participation and volunteerism, his public service had by 1964 earned him the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He was secretary of health, education and welfare at the height of Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society program and the cabinet's token Republican. He resigned in 1968 after concluding Johnson should not run again. His accomplishments ranged over decades and across disciplines, but it was his founding of Common Cause that perhaps best captured his intellectual-activist impulse. "We are going to build a true 'citizens' lobby - a lobby concerned not with the advancement of special interests but with the well-being of the nation," Gardner said in 1970 as he introduced a group that quickly became significant in national politics. As its membership swelled to hundreds of thousands of members, the nonpartisan group wielded tremendous political clout, helping reform the nation's campaign finance laws. Among other posts, Gardner was chairman of the National Urban Coalition, as well as the National Civic League. In 1980 he co-founded Independent Sector, an organization that encouraged volunteerism.

M. Gardner
Gardner, Margaret (Elaine) (b. Jan. 19, 1954, Sydney, N.S.W.), governor of Victoria (2023- ).

Gardom, Garde (Basil) (b. July 17, 1924, Banff, Alberta - d. June 18, 2013, Vancouver, B.C.), lieutenant governor of British Columbia (1995-2001). A strong supporter of Premier W.A.C. Bennett's Social Credit Party, Gardom was elected to the provincial legislature from the constituency of Vancouver-Point Grey in 1966, 1969, 1972, 1975, 1978, and 1983. He was appointed attorney general in 1975 and became British Columbia's first minister of intergovernmental relations in 1979. He was an outspoken advocate for public accountability and participated in a number of legislative measures including the ombudsman, auditor-general, right to sue the crown, expropriation, criminal injuries compensation and family relations statutes, the inception of Hansard, a broadened legislative committee system, and the televising of debates. After retiring from politics, he served (1987-92) as agent-general for British Columbia in the United Kingdom and Europe, based in London. In 1995 he was rewarded for his service to the province and appointed lieutenant governor by Canadian Governor-General Roméo LeBlanc. During his tenure in office, Gardom once again showed his commitment to reform, refusing to wear the elaborate lieutenant governor's uniform and opening up his official residence to the public.

J.A. Garfield
Garfield, James A(bram) (b. Nov. 19, 1831, near Orange, Cuyahoga county, Ohio - d. Sept. 19, 1881, Elberon [now part of Long Branch], N.J.), president of the United States (1881). An advocate of free-soil principles, he soon became a supporter of the newly organized Republican Party, and in 1859 he was elected to the Ohio legislature. During the American Civil War he helped recruit the 42nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry and became its colonel. He fought at Shiloh (April 1862), served as chief of staff in the Army of the Cumberland, saw action at Chickamauga (September 1863), and emerged as a major general of volunteers. In 1862 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served until 1880. As chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations, he advocated a high protective tariff and, as a Radical Republican, sought a firm policy of Reconstruction for the South. In 1880 the Ohio legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate. At the Republican convention the same year in Chicago, the delegates were sharply divided between supporters of James G. Blaine and Ulysses S. Grant. Garfield, present as the chairman of the Ohio delegation, led a coalition of anti-Grant delegates who succeeded in rescinding the unit rule, by which a majority of delegates from a state could cast the state's entire vote. This rule change doomed Grant's candidacy, and on the 36th ballot the nomination went to Garfield. In November, with a popular plurality of less than 50,000 votes, he was elected. On July 2, 1881, after only four months in office, he was shot at the railroad station in Washington, D.C., by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker. For 80 days Garfield lay ill and performed only one official act - the signing of an extradition paper.

Garfield, James R(udolph) (b. Oct. 17, 1865, Hiram, Ohio - d. March 24, 1950, Cleveland, Ohio), U.S. secretary of the interior (1907-09); son of James A. Garfield.

Gargano (Ostuni), Reinaldo (Apolo) (b. July 26, 1934, Paysandú, Uruguay - d. Feb. 5, 2013, Montevideo, Uruguay), foreign minister of Uruguay (2005-08).

Gargar, Marcel (b. July 19, 1911, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe - d. Dec. 24, 2004), president of the Regional Council of Guadeloupe (1982-83).

Garibaldi, Giuseppe (Maria) (b. July 4, 1807, Nice, France - d. June 2, 1882, Caprera, Italy), dictator of the Two Sicilies (1860). The greatest figure of the Risorgimento, he was a member of Giuseppe Mazzini's Young Italy movement and took part in an abortive insurrection in Genoa in 1834. He subsequently fled to South America, where he fought in defense of the Rio Grande do Sul republic against the Brazilian empire and in Uruguay against the Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas. He returned to Italy (1848) and offered his services to King Carlo Alberto of Sardinia (Piedmont) against the Austrians. Rejected, he instead took part in the government and defense of the ephemeral Roman Republic, before attempting to relieve the Venetian republic of Daniele Manin. After the revolutions of 1848-49 he lived in the U.S. and Peru, returning to Italy in 1854. He played a minor but brilliant part in the 1859 campaign against the Austrians. In May 1860 he set sail from Genoa with 1,000 volunteers ("Red Shirts") to assist the anti-Bourbon rebellion which had broken out in Sicily. Having seized control of the island, he crossed to the mainland of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and overran much of the Mezzogiorno, entering Naples on September 7, where he proclaimed himself dictator. He held plebiscites in Sicily and Naples, which allowed him to hand over the whole of southern Italy to King Vittorio Emanuele II of Sardinia. So admired abroad was Garibaldi that in July 1861 U.S. president Abraham Lincoln offered him a Union command in the American Civil War (he refused the offer). In 1862 he attempted to march on Rome but was stopped by Piedmontese troops at Aspromonte. A similar attempt to seize the papal capital was blocked by French forces at Mentana in 1867. He fought with limited success against the Austrians in 1866 and in 1870 he aided the French against Prussia. In 1871 he was elected a deputy of the French National Assembly at Bordeaux but the election was invalidated. He was elected to the Italian parliament in 1874 and retired from public life in 1876.

Garibashvili, Irakli (b. June 28, 1982, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), interior minister (2012-13), prime minister (2013-15, 2021- ), and defense minister (2019-21) of Georgia.

Garicano Goñi, Tomás (b. Feb. 19, 1910, Pamplona, Spain - d. Jan. 17, 1988, Madrid, Spain), interior minister of Spain (1969-73). He was also civil governor of Guipúzcoa (1951-56) and Barcelona (1966-69).

Garin, Vasco Vieira (b. June 23, 1907, Lisbon, Portugal - d. ...), Portuguese diplomat. He was minister to India (1949-55), permanent representative to the United Nations (1956-63), and ambassador to Canada (1956-59) and the United States (1964-71).

Garland, Augustus H(ill) (b. June 11, 1832, Covington, Tenn. - d. Jan. 26, 1899, Washington, D.C.), governor of Arkansas (1874-77) and U.S. attorney general (1885-89).

Garland, Merrick (Brian) (b. Nov. 13, 1952, Chicago, Ill.), U.S. attorney general (2021- ).

Garmendia (Puértolas), Francisco (b. Jan. 29, 1821 - d. Feb. 13, 1873, Piacenza, Italy), second vice president of Peru (1872-73). He was also prefect of Cusco (1859, 1863-64).

Garn, Jake, byname of Edwin Jacob Garn (b. Oct. 12, 1932, Richfield, Utah), mayor of Salt Lake City (1972-74). He was also a U.S. senator (1974-93). In 1985 he flew as a payload specialist on the space shuttle Discovery, becoming the first member of Congress to travel to space.

Garneau, (Joseph Jean-Pierre) Marc (b. Feb. 23, 1949, Québec, Que.), foreign minister of Canada (2021). A former astronaut, he was also minister of transport (2015-21).

Garner, John N(ance), byname Cactus Jack (b. Nov. 22, 1868, Blossom Prairie, Red River county, Texas - d. Nov. 7, 1967, Uvalde, Texas), speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (1931-33) and vice president (1933-41).

Garnet, Henry Highland (b. 1815, New Market [now Chesterville], Md. - d. Feb. 13, 1882, Liberia), U.S. diplomat. Known as an abolitionist, he was minister resident in Liberia (1881-82).

Garnier, (Marius) Albert (b. Nov. 4, 1870, Remollon, Hautes-Alpes, France - d. June 3, 1929, Paris, France), administrator of Kwangchowan (1915-17).

Garnier, Claude Léon (Lucien), acting resident-superior of Laos (1913, 1914-18).

J.-R. Garnier
Garnier, Jean-René (b. Oct. 18, 1938, Brest, Finistère, France - d. Jan. 18, 2008, Villejuif, Val-de-Marne, France), prefect of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1987-88). He was also prefect of the départements of Indre (1988-90), Pyrénées-Orientales (1990-92), Morbihan (1992-95), Isère (1995-98), and Alpes-Maritimes (1999-2002).

Garnier-Mouton, Gabriel Samuel (b. Oct. 31, 1864, Cognac, Charente, France - d. 19...), administrator of Mayotte (1911-12) and the Comoros (1912-13).

Garnier-Pagès, Louis Antoine (b. July 10, 1803, Marseille, France - d. Oct. 30, 1878, Paris, France), finance minister of France (1848). He was also mayor of Paris (1848) and a member of the Government of National Defense (1870-71).

A. Garotinho
Garotinho, Anthony, original name Anthony William Matheus de Oliveira (b. April 18, 1960, Campos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Rio de Janeiro (1999-2002) and Brazilian presidential candidate (2002). He was a soccer commentator who changed his name to Garotinho ("little boy") after the success of his radio program, "The Garotinho Show." He was elected state legislator in Rio de Janeiro (1987-89) and mayor of Campos (1989-92, 1997-98). Following a near-fatal car crash in 1994, he converted to evangelist Protestantism and his speeches acquired a messianic tone reminiscent of the pulpit. With the support of the politically influential evangelist community he was elected governor in 1998 with 58% of the vote. He targeted the poor by providing cut price meals at so-called "people's restaurants," building 35,000 affordable homes, and giving badly-off families a monthly "citizen's cheque." At the same time, he balanced the books and renegotiated Rio's debt. The approach won him high approval ratings, but his time in office was marked by allegations of serious corruption and wrangles with his coalition partners. As presidential candidate in 2002 he attempted to extend his winning formula to the national level, but his popularity did not reach much further than Rio and evangelical voters, and he won only 18% of the vote.

Garotinho, Rosinha, byname of Rosangela Barros Assed Matheus de Oliveira (b. April 6, 1963, Itaperuna, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil), governor of Rio de Janeiro (2003-07); wife of Anthony Garotinho. She was also mayor of Campos (2009-17).

Garraud, Gustave Aristide Léopold (b. Sept. 15, 1820, Toulon, France - d. ...), commandant-particular of Gabon (1871-73).

Garraway, Sir Edward Charles Frederick (b. March 10, 1865 - d. June 27, 1932), resident commissioner of Bechuanaland (1916-17) and Basutoland (1917-26); knighted 1922.

Garré, Nilda (Celia) (b. Nov. 3, 1945, Buenos Aires, Argentina), defense minister of Argentina (2005-10). She was also ambassador to Venezuela (2005) and minister of security (2010-13).


Garre López, Alberto (b. Feb. 10, 1952, Balsicas, Murcia, Spain), president of Murcia (2014-15).

Garret Ayllón, Julio (b. May 22, 1925, Sucre, Bolivia - d. March 19, 2018, Sucre), foreign minister (1979-80) and vice president (1985-89) of Bolivia. He was also ambassador to the U.S.S.R. (1970-72), Czechoslovakia (1973-74), and Argentina (1995-97) and president of the Senate (1982-85).

Á. Garrido
Garrido (García), Ángel (b. April 7, 1964, Madrid, Spain), president of the government of Madrid (2018-19).

Garrido (Quintero), Sergio (Ramón) (b. Nov. 2, 1967), governor of Barinas (2022- ).

Garrido Canabal, Tomás (b. Sept. 20, 1891, Catazajá, Chiapas, Mexico - d. April 8, 1943, Los Angeles, Calif.), governor of Yucatán (1920) and Tabasco (1921-24, 1926, 1931-34). He was also Mexican minister of agriculture and development (1934-35).

Garrido-Lecca Álvarez-Calderón, Guillermo (b. June 15, 1941, Lima, Peru), economy, finance, and commerce minister of Peru (1985); son of Guillermo Garrido-Lecca Frías.

Garrido-Lecca Frías, Guillermo (Alfonso) (b. May 2, 1917, Piura, Peru - d. Nov. 5, 2008, Lima, Peru), Peruvian politician; son of Guillermo Garrido-Lecca Montoya. He was minister of health and social welfare (1959-60).

Garrido-Lecca Montoya, Guillermo (b. June 26, 1887, Chorrillos, Peru - d. June 4, 1959, Lima, Peru), minister of justice, education, and worship (1931) and interior and police (1939-42) of Peru.

Garrido Patrón, Francisco (b. Nov. 23, 1953, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Querétaro (2003-09). He was also mayor of Querétaro (1997-2000).

Garrigues y Díaz-Cañabate, Antonio (b. Jan. 9, 1904, Madrid, Spain - d. Feb. 24, 2004, Madrid), justice minister of Spain (1975-76). He was also ambassador to the United States (1962-64) and the Vatican (1964-72).

Garrioch, Sir (William) Henry (b. May 4, 1916 - d. Feb. 18, 2008), acting governor-general of Mauritius (1977-78); knighted 1977.

Garrison, Lindley M(iller) (b. Nov. 28, 1864, Camden, N.J. - d. Oct. 19, 1932, Sea Bright, N.J.), U.S. secretary of war (1913-16).

Garrouste, Pierre (Marie Charles François) (b. Oct. 22, 1900 - d. June 30, 1969), administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1943-46).

Garsia, Rupert C(lare) (b. Oct. 9, 1887, Christchurch, N.Z. - d. Feb. 18, 1954, Canberra, Australia), administrator of Nauru (1933-38).

Garstin, John Henry (b. July 16, 1838 - d. April 15, 1903), acting governor of Madras (1890-91).

Garting, Ivan (Markovich), Dutch Johan Festus Hartingh (b. 1768 - d. 1831), governor of Bessarabia (1813-17); brother-in-law of Mihai Grigore Sturza.

Gartman, Vladimir (Karlovich) (b. Aug. 18, 1947, Aganas, Akmolinsk [now Akmola] oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Severo-Kazakhstan oblast (1992-97) and Akmola oblast (1997-98). He was also chairman of the Executive Committee of Uralsk oblast (1989-92).

Gartner (de la Cuesta), Jorge (b. Dec. 17, 1890, Riosucio, Caldas, Colombia - d. June 28, 1982), interior minister of Colombia (1940-42). He was also governor of Caldas (1931-34) and minister of national economy (1938-40).

Gartz, Åke (Henrik) (b. June 9, 1888, Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland - d. Nov. 29, 1974, Karis [now part of Raseborg], Finland), foreign minister of Finland (1950-51). He was also minister of trade and industry (1944-46) and ambassador to Switzerland (1951-53) and the Soviet Union and Romania (1953-55).

Garu, Moses (b. Dec. 1, 1969), Solomon Islands politician. He was minister of mines, energy, and rural electrification (2011-14), lands, housing, and survey (2015-17), police and national security (2017, 2017-19), and home affairs (2017).

Garuba, Chris (Abutu) (b. April 8, 1948, Ipole-Otukpa [now in Benue state], Nigeria), governor of Bauchi (1985-87).

Garvey, Sir Ronald Herbert (b. July 4, 1903 - d. May 31, 1991), administrator of Saint Vincent (1944-48), governor of British Honduras (1949-52) and Fiji (1952-58), and lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man (1959-66); knighted 1950.

Garyayev, Naldzhi (Lidzhiyevich) (b. 1889 - d. 1958), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Kalmyk A.S.S.R. (1937-43).

Garza, Arturo B(onifacio) de la (b. May 14, 1905, General Bravo, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. 1952, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (1943-49).

Garza Aldape, Manuel (b. April 29, 1871, Múzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico - d. Feb. 28, 1924, Mexico City, Mexico), acting foreign minister (1913) and interior minister (1913-14) of Mexico. He was also minister of education and fine arts (1913).

Garzón (Quintero), Angelino (b. Oct. 29, 1946, Buga, Valle del Cauca, Colombia), vice president of Colombia (2010-14). He was also minister of labour and social security (2000-01), governor of Valle del Cauca (2004-08), and ambassador to Costa Rica (2019-22).

Garzón, Luis Eduardo, byname Lucho Garzón (b. Feb. 15, 1951, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian presidential candidate (2002). He was also mayor of Bogotá (2004-07), minister counselor for social dialogue (2012-14), and minister of labour (2014-16).

Gasana, Anastase (b. Aug. 5, 1950, Gikomero, near Kigali, Rwanda), foreign minister of Rwanda (1993-94, 1994-99). He also served as ambassador to the United States (1994) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-03). He served as one of the negotiators and signatories of the 1993 Arusha Peace Agreement.

Gasana, Eugène-Richard (b. July 2, 1962, Bujumbura, Burundi), Rwandan diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Germany (1994-95) and Switzerland (1995-97), ambassador to Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Russia, Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Romania (2004-09), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-16).

Gasche, Urs (b. March 15, 1955, Bern, Switzerland), president of the government of Bern (2003-04, 2007-08).

Gascoigne, Sir Julian (Alvery) (b. Oct. 25, 1903 - d. Feb. 26, 1990), governor of Bermuda (1959-64); knighted 1953.

Gasfort, Gustav (Khristianovich) (b. April 12 [April 1, O.S.], 1794, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - d. May 17 [May 5, O.S.], 1874, St. Petersburg, Russia), governor-general of West Siberia (1851-61).

Gasic, Bratislav (b. June 30, 1967, Krusevac, Serbia), defense minister (2014-16) and interior minister (2022- ) of Serbia. He was also chief of the Security Information Agency (2017-22).

Gaskin, John Calcott (b. 1867, Ottoman Empire - d. Jan. 7, 1931, Surrey, England), British political agent in Bahrain (1900-04).

Gaspar, Alfredo Rodrigues (b. Aug. 8, 1865, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal - d. Dec. 1, 1938, Lisbon, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (1924). He was also minister of colonies (1914-15, 1915-16, 1919-20, 1922-23), navy (1919-20), interior (1924), and agriculture (1924).

Gaspari, Remo (b. July 10, 1921, Gissi, Chieti province, Italy - d. July 19, 2011, Gissi), defense minister of Italy (1987). He was also minister of transport and civil aviation (1969-70), health (1972-73), and posts and telecommunications (1981-83) and minister without portfolio (reform of public administration 1970-72; relations with parliament 1980; civil service 1983-87, 1989-92; coordination of civil protection 1987-88; special intervention in the Mezzogiorno 1988-89).

Gasparin, Adrien (Étienne Pierre) de (b. June 29, 1783, Orange, Vaucluse, France - d. Sept. 7, 1862, Orange), interior minister of France (1836-37, 1839). He was also prefect of the départements of Loire (1830), Isère (1830-31), and Rhône (1831-35) and minister of public works, agriculture, and commerce (1839).

Gasparotto, Luigi (b. May 31, 1873, Sacile, Udine province, Italy - d. June 29, 1954, Cantello, Varese province, Italy), war minister (1921-22) and defense minister (1947) of Italy. He was also minister of postwar assistance (1945-46).

Gasparovic, Ivan (b. March 27, 1941, Poltár, Slovakia), speaker of the National Council (1992-98) and president (2004-14) of Slovakia.

Gasparri, Pietro Cardinal (b. May 5, 1852, Capovallazza di Ussita, Italy - d. Nov. 18, 1934, Rome, Italy), Vatican secretary of state (1914-30). He was also apostolic delegate to Peru (1898-1901) and chamberlain (1916-34). He became cardinal in 1907.

C.A. Gasperoni

P.P. Gasperoni
Gasperoni, Cesare Antonio (b. Oct. 17, 1944, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1990-91, 2005). He was also minister of relations with the district councils (1998-2000).

Gasperoni, Ermenegildo, byname Gildo Gasperoni (b. Aug. 4, 1906 - d. June 26, 1994), captain-regent of San Marino (1978-79).

Gasperoni, Pier Paolo (b. June 29, 1950 - d. [car crash] July 1997), captain-regent of San Marino (1985-86, 1996).

Gass, Sir Michael David Irving (b. April 24, 1916 - d. Feb. 27, 1983), high commissioner for the Western Pacific (1969-73).

Gasser Vargas, Alberto (Werner) (b. April 1, 1953, Cochabamba, Bolivia), interior minister of Bolivia (2002-03). He was also prefect of Cochabamba (1995-97).

Gassiyev, Znaur (Nikolayevich) (b. March 17, 1925, Tskhinvali, South Ossetian autonomous oblast, Georgian S.S.R. - d. March 6, 2016), first secretary of the Communist Party committee (1991) and chairman of the Executive Committee (1991) of the South Ossetian autonomous oblast and chairman of the parliament of South Ossetia (1991-92, 2004-09).

Gastélum (Izabal), Bernardo J(osé) (b. Nov. 4, 1886, Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico - d. Dec. 21, 1981, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican politician. He was ambassador to Paraguay and Uruguay (1922-23) and Italy and Hungary (1929-30) and education minister (1924).

Gastón, Alfredo (b. 1845, Lima, Peru - d. ...), minister of justice, worship, and education (1893) and interior, police, and public works (1893-94) of Peru.

Gaston Marin, Gheorghe, original name Gheorghe Grossmann (b. April 14, 1918, Padureni, Hungary [now part of Chisineu-Cris, Arad county, Romania] - d. Feb. 25, 2010, Bucharest, Romania), a deputy premier of Romania (1962-69). He was also minister of electric power (1949-54) and electrotechnical industry (1951-54) and chairman of the State Planning Committee (1956-65) and the State Committee for Prices (1969-82).

Gastorn, Kennedy Godfrey (b. Dec. 25, 1976, Tanzania), Tanzanian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2020-23).

Gasymov, Tofik (Masim ogly) (b. April 10, 1938, Lyaki village, Agdash district, Azerbaijan S.S.R. - d. Jan. 26, 2020, Luzern, Switzerland), foreign minister of Azerbaijan (1992-93). Arrested in 1995 on charges of involvement in a coup attempt, he was released in 1996 and went into exile.

Gata Mavita wa Lufuta, Ignace (b. Jan. 7, 1949, Popokabaka, Léopoldville province, Belgian Congo [now in Kwango province, Congo (Kinshasa)]), Congo (Kinshasa) politician. He was minister of regional integration (2007) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2012-21).

Gates, Horatio (b. July 26, 1727, Maldon, Essex, England - d. April 10, 1806, New York City), U.S. general; president of the Board of War (1777-81).

R.M. Gates
Gates, Robert M(ichael) (b. Sept. 25, 1943, Wichita, Kan.), U.S. director of the Central Intelligence Agency (1991-93) and defense secretary (2006-11). He joined the CIA in 1966, left it in 1974 to join the staff of the National Security Council, but returned to the spy agency in 1979 and became deputy director in April 1986; he served as acting CIA director from Jan. 29, 1987, when William Casey left office, to May 26, 1987, when William Webster was sworn in. He was first nominated to head the CIA by Pres. Ronald Reagan in 1987 but withdrew when he was accused of knowing more than he admitted about the Iran-contra affair. From Jan. 20, 1989, he served as assistant to Pres. George Bush and deputy national security advisor. Bush appointed him CIA director on May 14, 1991; the Senate confirmed the appointment November 5, and he was sworn in November 6. He was the only career officer in CIA history to rise from entry-level employee to director of central intelligence. He left government service in 1993. In 2006 he was involved in bipartisan discussions on Iraq as a member of the Iraq Study Group before he was nominated defense secretary by Pres. George W. Bush. He was maintained in office by Pres. Barack Obama in 2009, becoming the first defense secretary to serve under two presidents of different parties.

T. Gates
Gates, Thomas (Sovereign, Jr.) (b. April 10, 1906, Germantown, Pa. - d. March 25, 1983, Philadelphia, Pa.), U.S. secretary of the navy (1957-59) and secretary of defense (1959-61). In October 1953 he was appointed undersecretary of the navy. Upon the resignation of Charles S. Thomas as secretary of the navy, Gates was appointed to succeed him by Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower on March 1, 1957, and the Senate confirmed his appointment on March 22. Gates was instrumental in retiring battleships in favour of nuclear-powered submarines and in promoting nuclear missile experimentation. As secretary of defense, he overhauled Pentagon management procedures and helped the department's transition to modern tactics and weaponry, including supersonic jets, tactical atomic bombs, and long-range ballistic missiles. Gates was also remembered for authorizing the ill-fated U-2 reconnaissance flight of Francis Gary Powers. When the latter was shot down (May 1, 1960) deep inside the Soviet Union, Gates advised Eisenhower to accept responsibility for the mission. Eisenhower awarded Gates the Medal of Freedom. In 1976 Pres. Gerald Ford called Gates out of retirement to act as chief of the U.S. liaison mission in Beijing.

Gatete, Claver (b. May 23, 1962, Mbarara, Uganda), finance minister of Rwanda (2013-18). He has also been ambassador to the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Iceland (2005-09), governor of the National Bank (2011-13), minister of infrastructure (2018-22), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2022- ).

Gatt, Austin, byname of Agostino Pio Gatt (b. July 29, 1953), justice minister of Malta (1999-2003). He was also minister of information technology and investment (2003-04), investment, industry, and information technology (2004-08), and infrastructure, transport, and communications (2008-13).


Gatti, Gabriele (b. March 27, 1953, San Marino), secretary of state for foreign and political affairs (1986-2002) and for finance (2008-10) and captain-regent (2011-12) of San Marino.

Gauci, Victor J(oseph) (b. April 25, 1931, Sliema, Malta - d. Oct. 4, 2018, Malta), Maltese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1978-85), high commissioner to Australia (1987-91) and New Zealand (1988-92), and ambassador to Japan (1987-95), South Korea (1988-95), and China (1994-95).

Gauck, Joachim (b. Jan. 24, 1940, Rostock, Germany), president of Germany (2012-17). In 1990-2000 he was commissioner for the records of the former East German Ministry of State Security ("Stasi").

Gaudard, (Marie Antoine) Edmond, acting governor of Senegal (1909).

Gaudin, Michel (b. Aug. 9, 1948, Cosne-sur-Loire, Nièvre, France), prefect of police of Paris (2007-12). He was also prefect of Gard département (1998-2002).

Gauger, Robert (b. Feb. 2, 1925 - d. Feb. 8, 1995), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1974-78).

Gauke, David (Michael) (b. Oct. 8, 1971, Ipswich, Suffolk, England), British justice secretary (2018-19). He was also chief secretary to the Treasury (2016-17) and work and pensions secretary (2017-18).

C. de Gaulle
Gaulle, Charles (André Joseph Marie) de (b. Nov. 22, 1890, Lille, France - d. Nov. 9, 1970, Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, Haute-Marne, France), president of France (1959-69). At the outbreak of World War II he commanded a tank brigade attached to the French 5th Army. On June 6, 1940, he entered the government of Paul Reynaud as undersecretary of state for defense and war, and he undertook several missions to England to explore the possiblities of continuing the war. When the Reynaud government was replaced by that of Marshal Philippe Pétain, who intended to seek an armistice with the Germans, de Gaulle left for England. On June 18, he broadcast from London his first appeal to his compatriots to continue the war under his leadership. On Aug. 2, 1940, a French military court tried him and sentenced him in absentia to death. Broadcasts from London, the action of his Free French Forces, and the contacts of resistance groups in France either with his own organization or with those of the British secret services brought national recognition of his leadership. But full recognition by his allies came only after the liberation of Paris. On Sept. 9, 1944, he and his shadow government returned from Algiers to Paris. He headed two successive provisional governments but, on Jan. 20, 1946, abruptly resigned. In April 1947 he formed the Rally of the French People (Rassemblement du Peuple Français; RPF), a mass movement that grew rapidly in strength. He became dissatisfied with the RPF, however, and in 1953 severed his connection with it. In 1955 it was disbanded. He emerged again in 1958, becoming premier in June. On Dec. 21, 1958, he was elected president of the republic. He was reelected on Dec. 21, 1965, though only on the second ballot. On April 28, 1969, following his defeat in a referendum, he resigned.

Gaulle, Pierre (Julien Joseph Marie) de (b. March 22, 1897, Paris, France - d. Dec. 26, 1959, Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris), president of the Municipal Council of Paris (1947-51); brother of Charles de Gaulle.

Gault, Charles Alexander (b. June 15, 1908 - d. Aug. 28, 1996), British political agent in Bahrain (1954-59).

Gaultier de la Richerie, (Louis) Eugène (b. June 12, 1820, Fort-de-France, Martinique - d. June 29, 1886, Lorient, Morbihan, France), governor (1858-60) and commandant (1860-64) of the French Settlements in Oceania and governor of New Caledonia (1870-74).

Gaunt, Sir Ernest Frederick Augustus (b. March 25, 1865 - d. April 20, 1940), commissioner of Weihaiwei (1898-99); knighted 1919.

Gaur, Babulal (b. June 2, 1930, Nogir village, Pratapgarh district, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Aug. 21, 2019, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India), chief minister of Madhya Pradesh (2004-05).

Gautam, Bamdev (b. June 1948, Pyuthan district, Nepal), a deputy prime minister and home affairs minister of Nepal (1997, 2008-09, 2014-15).

Gauthier de Rougemont, Nicolas Martial (Adolphe) (b. Sept. 28, 1794, Saint-Quentin, France - d. 18...), conservator of the French possessions on St. Helena (1858-67).

Gautier, Ange (Simon), interim commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1855-56).

Gautier, Georges Armand Léon (b. April 11, 1901, Boulogne-sur-Mer, France - d. April 27, 1987), resident-superior of Cambodia (1943-44).

Gautier, Jean-Élie (b. Oct. 6, 1781, Bordeaux, France - d. Jan. 30, 1858, Paris, France), finance minister of France (1839).

Gautret, Jean-Fernand (Edmé) (b. Jan. 5, 1862, Saint-Genis-de-Saintonge, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. Aug. 1, 1912, Paris, France), administrator of Kwangchowan (1906-08).

Gautrey, Peter (b. Sept. 17, 1918 - d. Feb. 7, 2014), British high commissioner of Brunei (1972-75). He was also high commissioner to Swaziland (1968-71) and Guyana (1975-78) and ambassador to Suriname (1976-78).

Gautsch von Frankenthurn, Paul Freiherr (Baron) (b. Feb. 26, 1851, Döbling [now part of Vienna], Austria - d. April 20, 1918, Vienna), prime minister of Austria (1897-98, 1904-06, 1911). He entered the imperial Ministry of Education (1874) and was director of the Theresianum military academy, where most of the officers of noble birth received their education. He served as Austrian minister of education (1885-93) in the cabinet of Eduard Graf Taaffe; when that cabinet resigned, he went back to the military academy as director until he again became minister of education in the cabinet of Kasimir von Badeni (1895-97). His title of baron was conferred in 1889. With the fall of Badeni, he was appointed prime minister (November 1897), but the failure of his proposed reform of the Bohemian language laws prompted his resignation (March 1898). After several years as president of the government accounting office, Gautsch von Frankenthurn was recalled to the post of prime minister (Dec. 31, 1904), but again his ministry foundered, this time because of suffrage reform (May 1906). He was recalled once more in June 1911, but his third ministry expired after a few months. Ever faithful to the imperial summons, he remained, until the death of the emperor Franz Joseph I, one of the most trusted servants of the crown.

Gauze, Guy-Alain (Emmanuel) (b. May 3, 1952, Ferkessédougou, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire] - d. Jan. 26/27, 2021, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire), Ivorian politician. He was minister of raw materials (1993-98) and promotion of external trade (1998-2000) and ambassador to the Benelux countries (2000-02).

Gava, Antonio (b. July 30, 1930, Castellammare di Stabia, Napoli province, Italy - d. Aug. 8, 2008, Rome, Italy), finance minister (1987-88) and interior minister (1988-90) of Italy; son of Silvio Gava. He was also minister without portfolio (relations with parliament) (1980-81) and minister of posts and telecommunications (1983-87).

Gava, Silvio (b. April 25, 1901, Vittorio Veneto, Italy - d. Dec. 23, 1999, Rome, Italy), treasury minister of Italy (1953-56). He was also minister of industry and commerce (1953, 1957-58, 1970-72) and justice (1968-70) and minister without portfolio (reform of public administration) (1972-74).

Gavai, R(amkrishnan) S(uryabhan) (b. Oct. 30, 1929, Darapur, Amravati district, Bombay province [now in Maharashtra state], India - d. July 25, 2015, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India), governor of Bihar (2006-08) and Kerala (2008-11).

Gavard, Alexandre (b. March 25, 1845, Perly-Certoux, Genève, Switzerland - d. Nov. 29, 1898, Nice, Alpes-Maritimes, France), president of the Council of State of Genève (1883-84, 1885-86, 1887-88, 1897-98) and president of the Council of States of Switzerland (1887-88).

Gaven, Yury (Petrovich), original name Yan (Ernestovich) Dauman, Latvian Janis Daumanis (b. March 18 [March 6, O.S.], 1884, Bikern hamlet, Livonia province, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. [executed] Oct. 4, 1936), provisional chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Crimean S.S.R. (1919) and chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Crimean A.S.S.R. (1921-24).

Gavidia Arrascue, José Luis (b. 1958?), defense minister of Peru (2022).

Gavillet, André (b. Sept. 25, 1924, Lausanne, Switzerland - d. July 14/15, 2014, Lausanne), president of the Council of State of Vaud (1975).

Gavira (Castro), Gabriel (b. March 18, 1867, Mexico City, Mexico - d. July 15, 1956, Mexico City), governor of San Luis Potosí (1915), Durango (1916-17), and Baja California (1936).

Gaviria Díaz, Carlos (b. May 8, 1937, Sopetrán, Antioquia, Colombia - d. March 31, 2015, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian presidential candidate (2006).

Gaviria Muñoz, Simón (b. Nov. 24, 1980, Pereira, Colombia), Colombian politician; son of César Gaviria Trujillo and Ana Milena Muñoz de Gaviria. He was president of the Chamber of Representatives (2011-12).

Gaviria T.
Gaviria Trujillo, César (Augusto) (b. March 31, 1947, Pereira, Colombia), president of Colombia (1990-94). He entered politics in 1970 as a Pereira councillor. He became mayor of Pereira in 1974 and during the same year was elected representative for Risaralda. His first cabinet experience came in 1978, when Pres. Julio César Turbay Ayala appointed him vice-minister of development. In 1985-86 Gaviria managed the election campaign for Virgilio Barco Vargas and was rewarded with the post of minister of finance and public credit. Having ensured the passage of agrarian-reform and tax-reform bills through Congress, he was appointed minister of the interior in 1987. In that post he gained direct experience in dealing with terrorism, negotiating the demobilization of the M-19 guerrilla group and its participation in legal politics. In February 1989 he resigned to be presidential campaign manager for Luis Carlos Galán of the Liberal Party. He was thrust into the limelight when he took over the mantle of Galán, who was assassinated Aug. 18, 1989, at a political rally. He was elected the candidate for the Liberal Party on March 11, 1990. On May 27, he was elected president with 47% of the vote and an ample margin of 1.3 million votes over his nearest rival. However, the campaign had been marred by violence and murder; three presidential candidates lost their lives as a result of the terrorism that gripped the country. Nevertheless, there was enthusiasm for Gaviria, who at 43 was the youngest president of Colombia in decades. In a reversal of previous policy, he offered drug traffickers immunity from extradition to the U.S. and large reductions in prison sentences if they surrendered to the authorities. After his presidency he was secretary-general of the Organization of American States (1994-2004).

Gavric, Miroslav (b. Jan. 15, 1971, Brcko, Bosnia and Herzegovina), mayor of Brcko (2011-12).

Gavriil I, secular name Grigory (Fyodorovich) Kremenetsky (b. Dec. 1 [Nov. 20, O.S.], 1711 [or 1708?], Nosovka, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Aug. 20 [Aug. 9, O.S.], 1783, Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine]), metropolitan of St. Petersburg (1762-70) and Kiev (1770-83). He was also bishop of Kolomna (1749-55) and Kazan (1755-62).

Gavriil II, secular name Pyotr (Petrovich) Petrov-Shaposhnikov (b. May 29 [May 18, O.S.], 1730, Moscow, Russia - d. Feb. 7 [Jan. 26, O.S.], 1801, Novgorod [now Veliky Novgorod], Russia), metropolitan of St. Petersburg (1770-99). He was also bishop of Tver (1763-70) and metropolitan of Novgorod (1799-1800).

Gavriil II, secular name Grigory (Grigoryevich) Benulesku-Bodoni, Romanian Grigorie Banulescu-Bodoni (b. 1746, Bistrita, Transylvania [now in Romania] - d. April 11 [March 30, O.S.], 1821, Kishinev, Russia [now Chisinau, Moldova]), metropolitan of Kiev (1799-1803). He was also bishop of Bendery (1792) and Yekaterinoslav (1793-99), exarch of Moldavia, Walachia, and Bessarabia (1792, 1808-13), and metropolitan of Kishinev (1813-21). He was canonized by the Orthodox Church of Moldova in 2016.

Gavril (b. 1921 - d. March 4, 1996, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), archbishop of Ohrid, head of the Macedonian Orthodox Church (1986-93). He attempted to resign on several occasions beginning in December 1991, but his resignation was not officially accepted by the Holy Synod until June 1993.

Gavrilita, Natalia (b. Sept. 21, 1977, Malaesti, Moldavian S.S.R. [now in Transnistria, Moldova]), finance minister (2019-20) and prime minister (2021-23) of Moldova.

Gavrilovic, Mihailo (b. May 8, 1868, Aleksinac, Serbia - d. Nov. 1, 1924, London, England), acting foreign minister of Serbia (1918). He was also minister to Montenegro (1910-14), the Vatican (1914-17), Russia (1917-18), and the United Kingdom (1919-24).

Gavriyski, Svetoslav (Veleslavov) (b. Dec. 18, 1948, Svishtov, Bulgaria), finance minister of Bulgaria (1997). He was also governor of the Bulgarian National Bank (1997-2003).

Gawler, George (b. July 21, 1795, Devon, England - d. May 7, 1869, Southsea, Portsmouth, Hampshire, England), governor of South Australia (1838-41).

Gay, Francisque (b. May 8, 1885, Roanne, Loire, France - d. Oct. 23, 1963, Paris, France), French politician. He was a minister of state (1945-46, 1946) and a deputy prime minister (1946).

Gaya, Kabiru (Ibrahim) (b. 1953), governor of Kano (1992-93).

Gayama, Pascal, Congo (Brazzaville) diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-08).

Gayan, Anil (Kumarsingh) (b. Oct. 22, 1948, Triolet, Mauritius), foreign minister of Mauritius (1983-86, 2000-03); nephew of Sir Satcam Boolell. He was also minister of tourism and leisure (2003-05), health and quality of life (2014-17), and tourism (2017-19).

Gaye, Amadou Karim (b. Nov. 8, 1913, Saint-Louis, Senegal - d. Oct. 2, 2000), foreign minister of Senegal (1968-72) and secretary-general of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (1975-80). He was also minister of education and culture (1959), planning (1959-60), development and technical cooperation (1960-61), assistance and technical cooperation (1961-62), civil service and labour (1962), rural economy (1962-65), and the armed forces (1965-68).

Gayevsky, Valery (Veniaminovich) (b. Dec. 11, 1958), governor of Stavropol kray (2008-12).

Gayl, Wilhelm Freiherr von (b. Feb. 4, 1879, Königsberg, Germany [now Kaliningrad, Russia] - d. Nov. 5, 1945, Potsdam, Germany), interior minister of Germany (1932).

Gaylani, Rashid Ali al-, Arabic Rashid `Ali al-Kaylani (b. 1892, Baghdad, Ottoman Empire [now in Iraq] - d. Aug. 28, 1965, Beirut, Lebanon), prime minister (1933, 1940-41, 1941), justice minister (1924-25, 1935-36), and interior minister (1925, 1926-28, 1935-36, 1940-41, 1941) of Iraq.

Gaylani, Saiyid Abdul Rahman al-Haydari al-, Arabic Sayyid `Abd al-Rahman al-Haydari al-Kaylani (b. 1841, Baghdad, Ottoman Empire [now in Iraq] - d. June 13, 1927), chairman of the Council of State (1920-21) and prime minister (1920-22) of Iraq.

Gaymard, Hervé (b. May 31, 1960, Bourg-Saint-Maurice, Savoie, France), French politician. He was minister of agriculture, food, and rural affairs (2002-04) and of economy, finances, and industry (2004-05). He resigned the latter post after it was revealed that he was renting a 600-sq-m apartment just off the Champs-Élysées in Paris for €14,000 ($18,460) a month at taxpayer's expense.

Gayoom, Maumoon Abdul (b. Dec. 29, 1937, Male, Maldives), president of Maldives (1978-2008). His first important government appointment was that of manager of the republic's Shipping Department, after which he was appointed director of the Telephone Department. By 1974 he had established his reputation as an able administrator and was appointed special undersecretary in the office of the prime minister. He was then sent as a deputy ambassador to neighbouring Sri Lanka. In 1976, he was appointed Maldives' permanent representative to the United Nations. On his recall to Male in 1977, he was appointed minister of transport, and in 1978 was nominated as presidential candidate by the Citizens' Majlis (parliament), winning a record 92.9% of the popular vote in the referendum. He was reelected in 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998, and 2003, but defeated in 2008. He was also defense and finance minister (1978-2004).

Gayoso, Antonio de Brito Souza (b. 1828? - d. February 1866), president of Piauí (1861-62).

Gayrbekov, Muslim (Gayrbekovich) (b. 1911 - d. June 20, 1971, Grozny, Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Organizing Committee (1957-58) and of the Council of Ministers (1958-71) of the Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R.

Gaysanov, Rashid (Yakhyayevich) (b. Sept. 17, 1972, Gamurziyevo, Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Ingushetia, Russia]), prime minister of Ingushetia (2008-09).

Gayzer, Vyacheslav (Mikhailovich) (b. Dec. 28, 1966, Inta, Komi A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the republic of Komi (2010-15).

Gazcón Mercado, Julián (b. 1925, Tepic, Nayarit), governor of Nayarit (1964-69).

Gazioglu, Beytullah Mehmet (b. 1944, Orhaneli, Bursa, Turkey), interior minister of Turkey (1993). He was also a minister of state (1993).

Gazizullin, Farit (Rafikovich) (b. Sept. 20, 1946, Zelenodolsk, Tatar A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), a deputy prime minister of Russia (1997-98). He was also minister of state property (1997-2000) and property relations (2000-04).

Gazzani (y García del Real), J(uan) Fernando (b. May 30, 1863, Lima, Peru - d. Feb. 13, 1945, Lima), foreign minister of Peru (1914-15). He was also president of the Central Reserve Bank (1939-44).

Gazzayev, Aleksey (Parsadanovich) (b. 1904 - d. ...), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars/Council of Ministers of the North Ossetian A.S.S.R. (1944-52).

Gazzayev, Vladimir (Isakovich) (b. 1918), chairman of the Executive Committee of the South Ossetian autonomous oblast (1961-62?).

Gbadebo I (b. 1854 - d. May 28, 1920), Alake of Abeokuta (1898-1920).

Gbadebo II, Adesiinan Samuel (b. 1908 - d. Oct. 26, 1971), Alake of Abeokuta (1963-71); son of Gbadebo I.

Gbadebo III, Adedotun Aremu (b. Sept. 14, 1943), Alake of Abeokuta (2005- ); grandson of Gbadebo I; nephew of Adesiinan Samuel Gbadebo II.

Gbagbo, Laurent (Koudou) (b. May 31, 1945, Mama village, near Gagnoa, central Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), president of Côte d'Ivoire (2000-11). He was arrested on March 31, 1971, for being involved in unauthorized political activities. After his release in January 1973, he was posted to work in the education department. Stung by the political "bug," he secretly formed the Ivorian Popular Front (FPI) in 1982 before he went into exile in France where he was granted asylum in 1985. In 1988, he returned to Côte d'Ivoire for the FPI inaugural congress during which he was elected secretary general. In the October 1990 presidential race, Gbagbo was thoroughly defeated by the country's post-independence leader, Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who obtained 89% of the vote. Gbagbo received 11%. He won a seat to the National Assembly during the November 1990 parliamentary elections. He was arrested in Abidjan on Feb. 18, 1992, following a demonstration organized by his party against government actions, which degenerated into riots. He was tried under the anti-riot law, and sentenced to three years imprisonment but was granted a presidential pardon six months later. In October 1995, Gbagbo refused to run for the presidency, saying it "lacked transparency." In October 2000, he won elections over incumbent Robert Guéi, who tried to proclaim himself the winner but after street protests had to give up power. A rebellion by soldiers who were recruited during Guéi's rule started in September 2002. Although Guéi was killed in the capital, the rebels were successful in the north. They said Gbagbo's government had treated them like "slaves" and they were rebelling against "dictatorship hiding under the guise of democracy." French troops and UN peacekeepers were deployed, but the conflict continued. His presidential term was prolonged for five years, until new elections were finally held in October-November 2010. This time it was him who dubiously insisted he won, while the consensus of the international community was that he lost to Alassane Ouattara, who set up a parallel government. Gbagbo maintained himself in power until being captured by Ouattara forces (supported by French and UN troops) in April 2011. He was charged with economic crimes in August. In November he was transferred to the International Criminal Court in The Hague on charges of crimes against humanity; his trial began Jan. 28, 2016, and he was acquitted Jan. 15, 2019 (upheld on appeal March 31, 2021). His wife Simone was sentenced by a domestic court to 20 years for her role in the post-election violence in 2015 but granted amnesty in 2018, being meanwhile acquitted of crimes against humanity and war crimes charges in 2017.

Gbedemah, Komla Agbeli, byname Afro Gbede (b. June 17, 1913, Warri, Nigeria - d. July 11, 1998), finance minister of Gold Coast/Ghana (1954-61). He was also minister of health and labour (1951), commerce and industry (1952-54), and health (1961).

Gbèdo, (Akouavi) Marie-Elise (Christiana) (b. Dec. 29, 1954, Mankono, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), justice minister of Benin (2011-13). She was also minister of commerce, crafts, and tourism (1998-99) and industry and commerce (2013) and a minor presidential candidate (2001, 2006, 2011, 2016).

Gbegan, Antoine Alabi (b. June 1946), interior minister of Benin (1993-96). He was also minister of civil service and administrative reform (1991-93).

Gbehanzin, French Béhanzin (throne name), personal name Kondo, praise name Xadakogundo (b. 1844 - d. Dec. 10, 1906, Blida, Algeria), king of Danhome (1889-94). He was deposed by the French on Dec. 3, 1893, but only captured on Jan. 26, 1894.

Gbeho, (James) Victor (b. Jan. 12, 1935, Keta, Gold Coast [now Ghana]), foreign minister of Ghana (1997-2001) and president of the Commission of the Economic Community of West African States (2010-12). He was permanent representative of Ghana to the United Nations in 1980-90.

Gbenou, Grégoire Gilbert (b. Feb. 13, 1926, Adjohoun, Dahomey [now Benin]), justice minister of Dahomey (1966-67).

Gbenye, Christophe (b. 1927, Bas-Uélé district, Orientale province, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Feb. 2/3, 2015, Kinshasa, Congo [Kinshasa]), interior minister (1960, 1961-62, and in the Antoine Gizenga rebel government in 1960-61) and deputy prime minister (1962-63) of Congo (Léopoldville), and president (1964-65) and chairman of the Revolutionary Government (1965) of the People's Republic of the Congo. He fled the Congo in November 1964 and lived in exile in Kampala, Uganda, in 1966-71.

Gbezera-Bria, Michel (b. 1946, Bossangoa, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), foreign minister (1977-78, 1988-90, 1996-97) and prime minister (1997-99) of the Central African Empire/Republic. He was also minister of civil service, labour, and social security (1976-77), public works and social security (1978-79), justice (1987-88), and presidential affairs (1999-2001), permanent representative to the United Nations (1983-87), and ambassador to France (2015-22).

Gbian, Jonas (Aliou) (b. March 25, 1965, Ina, Borgou département, Dahomey [now Benin]), finance minister of Benin (2012-14). He was also minister of energy, water, and mines (2011-12).

Gbujama, Shirley (Yema) (b. Sept. 20, 1936), foreign minister of Sierra Leone (1996-97). She was also ambassador to Ethiopia (1972-76), permanent representative to the United Nations (1976-78), and minister of tourism and culture (1996) and social welfare, gender, and children's affairs (1998-2007).