Index E

Eagle, James P(hilip) (b. Aug. 10, 1837, Maury county, Tenn. - d. Dec. 20, 1904, Little Rock, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1889-93).

Eagleburger, Lawrence (Sidney) (b. Aug. 1, 1930, Milwaukee, Wis. - d. June 4, 2011, Charlottesville, Va.), U.S. secretary of state (1992-93). He was also ambassador to Yugoslavia (1977-81). He was the first career Foreign Service Officer to serve as secretary of state.

Eagleton, Thomas (Francis) (b. Sept. 4, 1929, St. Louis, Mo. - d. March 4, 2007, St. Louis), U.S. politician. He was a senator from Missouri (1968-87). The initial Democratic vice presidential nominee in 1972, he withdrew after reports of receiving electroshock therapy for clinical depression.

Eanes, António dos Santos Ramalho (b. Jan. 25, 1935, Alcains, Portugal), president of Portugal (1976-86). He joined the army in 1953 and fought in the colonial wars in Africa. An opponent of Portugal's colonial policies, he supported the 1974 coup that ended the dictatorship. He returned to Portugal from Angola following the coup and served as the Armed Forces Movement's representative to the Portuguese television network. He retained that position until March 1975, when he was implicated in a counter-coup led by supporters of Gen. António de Spínola. Eanes was exonerated after an inquiry. He returned to the military and became an opponent of the nationalization program sponsored by the government of Premier Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves. He was instrumental in suppressing a far-left coup in November 1975 and for this role was promoted from a relatively unknown colonel to army chief of staff in December. On June 27, 1976, General Eanes was elected president. A non-party candidate supported by the Socialists, Popular Democrats, and Social Democrats, he won 61.5% of the vote. He was also chief of the armed forces general staff (1976-81) and president of the Council of the Revolution (1976-82). He was reelected as president on Dec. 7, 1980, with 56.4% of the vote. Legally barred from a third term, he was succeeded in 1986 by his former prime minister Mário Soares. During his presidency, Eanes upheld the new democratic regime amidst the debilitating squabbles of the political parties, and his honesty won him wide popular support. In 1986-87 he was leader of the Democratic Renewal Party.

Eardley, Richard R(oy) (b. Dec. 23, 1928, Denver, Colo. - d. June 30, 2012, Boise, Idaho), mayor of Boise (1974-86).

Earl, Anthony S(cully), byname Tony Earl (b. April 12, 1936, Lansing, Mich. - d. Feb. 23, 2023, Madison, Wis.), governor of Wisconsin (1983-87).

Earle, Sir Archdale (b. March 12, 1861 - d. Nov. 10, 1934), chief commissioner of Assam (1912-18); knighted 1911.

Earle, George H(oward, III) (b. Dec. 5, 1890, Devon, Pa. - d. Dec. 30, 1974, Bryn Mawr, Pa.), governor of Pennsylvania (1935-39). He was also U.S. minister to Austria (1933-34) and Bulgaria (1940-41).

Early, Peter (b. June 20, 1773, Culpeper [in present Madison] county, Va. - d. Aug. 15, 1817, Greene county, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1813-15).

Easley, Mike, byname of Michael Francis Easley (b. March 23, 1950, Nash County, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (2001-09).

East, Edward H(azzard) (b. Oct. 1, 1830, Davidson county, Tenn. - d. Nov. 12, 1904, Nashville, Tenn.), acting governor of Tennessee (1865).

East (Trevińo), Julio L(uis) (b. 1876, Lima, Peru - d. 1953), finance minister (1942-45) and prime minister (1944-45) of Peru.

East, Paul (Clayton) (b. Aug. 4, 1946, Opotiki, N.Z. - d. Feb. 27, 2023, Auckland, N.Z.), defence minister of New Zealand (1996-97). He was also attorney-general (1990-97) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1999-2002).

Eastland, James O(liver) (b. Nov. 28, 1904, Doddsville, Miss. - d. Feb. 19, 1986, Greenwood, Miss.), U.S. politician. He was a member (1928-32) of the state House of Representatives but entered national politics when he was appointed (1941) to fill a vacant Senate seat after the death of Sen. Pat Harrison. He won election to the seat in 1942. During his long tenure as Democratic senator, he was notable for his staunch opposition to desegregation and became one of the most powerful men on Capitol Hill as chairman of the Judiciary Committee for 22 years, a position he used in killing 127 civil-rights bills. He also served on the Agriculture and Forestry Committee, chaired the Immigration and Naturalization Subcommittee, was adviser to the Senate Appropriations Committee, and in 1972 was elected president pro tempore of the Senate. A staunch anti-Communist, Eastland maintained that Communists had infiltrated civil-rights organizations, and he was ardently in favour of U.S. involvement in Vietnam to "rattle the teeth of the Reds." When it became apparent that he could not rally the black vote for his reelection to the Senate, Eastland retired in 1978.

Eastman, (Theophilus) Ernest (b. March 27, 1927 - d. Feb. 28, 2011, Monrovia, Liberia), foreign minister of Liberia (1983-86). He was also ambassador to East Africa (resident in Nairobi; 1972-74) and the Far East (resident in Tokyo; 1974-77) and secretary-general of the Mano River Union (1977-83).

Eastman (Robledo), Jorge Mario (b. Feb. 5, 1967, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian diplomat; son of Jorge Mario Eastman (Vélez). He was ambassador to the Vatican (2019-22).

Eastman (Vélez), Jorge Mario (b. Aug. 1, 1936, Pereira, Colombia - d. April 6, 2022), interior minister of Colombia (1981-82). He was also minister of labour and social security (1970-71) and ambassador to Peru (1971-73).

Easton, John (b. 1617?, Wales - d. Dec. 12, 1705, Newport, Rhode Island), governor of Rhode Island (1690-95); son of Nicholas Easton.

Easton, Nicholas (b. 1593, Hertfordshire, England - d. Aug. 15, 1675, Newport, Rhode Island), president of Providence Plantations (1650-51, 1654) and governor of Rhode Island (1672-74).

Eastwood, Sir (Thomas) Ralph (b. May 10, 1890, Canterbury, Kent, England - d. Feb. 15, 1959, Cannes, France), governor of Gibraltar (1944-47); knighted 1943.

Eat Sophea (b. Dec. 16, 1964, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), Cambodian diplomat. She has been ambassador to Thailand (2014-17) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2023- ).

Eaton, Benjamin H(arrison) (b. Dec. 15, 1833, Coshocton county, Ohio - d. Oct. 29, 1904, Eaton, Colo.), governor of Colorado (1885-87).

Eaton, Horace (b. June 22, 1804, Barnard, Vt. - d. July 4, 1855, Middlebury, Vt.), governor of Vermont (1846-48).

Eaton, John H(enry) (b. June 18, 1790, near Scotland Neck, Halifax county, N.C. - d. Nov. 17, 1856, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of war (1829-31) and governor of Florida (1834-36). He was also minister to Spain (1836-40).

Eaton, Theophilus (b. August 1591, Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, England - d. Jan. 7, 1658, New Haven [now in Connecticut]), governor of New Haven colony (1639-58). He was sent by King Charles I as an agent to the court of Denmark, where he remained several years. When he returned to London from his residence in Copenhagen, he became interested in the settlement of New England. He was one of the original patentees of the Massachusetts Bay Company. Having adopted firm Puritan beliefs, he joined his boyhood friend John Davenport and several Puritan followers in migrating to New England in early 1637. The group arrived in Boston in June, and he was chosen to be a magistrate. But instead of settling in Massachusetts Bay, they determined to establish an independent colony. Accordingly they selected a place called Quinnipiac in April 1638, bought the land from the Indians for thirteen English coats, and named it New Haven. The next year Eaton was elected governor of the colony, and he was reelected annually until his death. In 1643 he became an original commissioner in the New England Confederation, and 12 years later he and Davenport drew up a new legal code for New Haven colony. As governor, Eaton also became involved in various mercantile endeavours, some of which provoked tensions with the Dutch in neighbouring New Netherlands, but he soon abandoned them for agriculture.

Ebaka, Jean-Michel (b. 193... - d. Oct. 16, 2019, Brazzaville, Congo), member of the Military Committee of the Congolese Labour Party (1977).

Eban, Abba, original name Aubrey Solomon Meir (b. Feb. 2, 1915, Cape Town, South Africa - d. Nov. 17, 2002, Petah Tikva, near Tel Aviv, Israel), foreign minister of Israel (1966-74). Brought up in England, he used the surname of his mother's second husband Isaac Eban. In 1946 he worked with the Jewish Agency as a political information officer to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. He also served as the liaison officer with the UN Special Committee on Palestine in 1947 and as a member of the delegation to the General Assembly that played a critical role in the passage of the UN resolution to partition Palestine. He adopted his Hebrew name Abba soon after Israel's independence in 1948. When the new state was admitted to membership in the UN in 1949, he became its permanent representative, and from 1950 he served concurrently as ambassador to the United States. He held both posts until 1959 when he was first elected to the Knesset and became a minister without portfolio. He was minister of education and culture in 1960-63 and deputy prime minister in 1964-65. As foreign minister, he sought to strengthen relations with the U.S. and to bring about Israeli association with the European Economic Community. When Israel was threatened with an Arab blockade in May 1967, he traveled to Paris, London, and Washington to seek a peaceful solution. When diplomacy proved fruitless, he supported the military decisions in the Six-Day War. His eloquent defense of Israel's actions before the UN Security Council and General Assembly was widely admired. He sat in the Knesset as a member of the Labour Party until 1988. He came out in favour of the establishment of a Palestinian state and berated right-wing Israeli politicians for believing they could hold onto the lands occupied in the 1967 war.

Ebanks, Donovan (W.F.) (b. 1947), acting governor of the Cayman Islands (2009-10). He was deputy governor in 2009-12.

Ebdalin, Franklin (M.) (b. June 8, 1943, Mambajao [now in Camiguin province], Philippines), acting foreign secretary of the Philippines (2003). He was undersecretary of foreign affairs in 2000-10.

Ebdane, Hermogenes, Jr., in full Hermogenes Edejer Ebdane (b. Dec. 30, 1948, Candelaria, Zambales, Philippines), defense secretary of the Philippines (2007). He has also been chief of the National Police (2002-04), national security adviser (2004-05), secretary of public works and highways (2005-07, 2007-09), and governor of Zambales (2010-16, 2019- ).

Ebeial, Tegi (b. 1939? - d. Dec. 16, 2003, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea), premier of Southern Highlands (1980-85).

Ebeid, Atef, Arabic in full `Atif Muhammad `Ubayd (b. April 14, 1932, Tanta, Gharbiya governorate, Egypt - d. Sept. 12, 2014), prime minister of Egypt (1999-2004). He was also minister of cabinet affairs and administrative development (1984-93), minister of the public business sector (1993-99), and minister of state for administrative development and environment affairs (1993-97). He kept the business portfolio, in which he spearheaded Egypt's privatization program, until Pres. Hosni Mubarak, on beginning a new six-year term, appointed him prime minister.

Ebels, Edzo Hommes (b. June 20, 1889, Nieuw Beerta, Groningen, Netherlands - d. Feb. 4, 1970, Groningen, Groningen), queen's commissioner of Groningen (1945-54).

Ebendeng Nsomo, Melanio (b. 1942, Becondogo-Esandon, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea]), defense minister of Equatorial Guinea (1990-2004). He was also ambassador to Venezuela (2012-16).

Ebenosi, William (Moyola) (b. March 12, 1961 - d. Nov. 6, 2018), home affairs minister of Papua New Guinea (2000-01). He was also minister of environment and conservation (1999), rural development (1999-2000), and social development (2001-02).

Eberhart, Adolph O(lson) (b. June 23, 1870, near Karlstad, Värmland, Sweden - d. Dec. 6, 1944, Savage, Minn.), governor of Minnesota (1909-15).

Eberlein, Werner (b. Nov. 9, 1919, Berlin, Germany - d. Oct. 11, 2002, Berlin), first secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Magdeburg district (1983-89). He was best known to East Germans as the chief interpreter and adviser during the rule of Walter Ulbricht, under whose government the Berlin Wall was built. He served on the Politburo in the 1980s, and was accused after German reunification in 1990 of manslaughter for failing to act against the "shoot to kill orders" issued to border guards. Eberlein, seriously ill and wheelchair-bound for 11 years, was never prosecuted.

Ebert, Friedrich (b. Feb. 4, 1871, Heidelberg [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. Feb. 28, 1925, Berlin, Germany), president of Germany (1919-25). In 1905 he became secretary general of the German Social Democratic Party, and he succeeded August Bebel as party chairman in 1913. On the day of the revolution when Emperor Wilhelm II abdicated (Nov. 9, 1918), Prince Max of Baden asked Ebert to replace him as chancellor. Ebert, who still hoped to establish a regency for the emperor, actually held office as chancellor for one day. On November 10 he set up an entirely Socialist government. Calling itself the Council of People's Representatives, the government derived its authority from the Workers' and Soldiers' Council, which claimed to speak for Germany and the German Republic but had been elected rather arbitrarily by the factories and regiments of Berlin alone. Ebert was determined to place power in the hands of a freely elected German parliament as soon as possible. Following the elections of January 1919, he was elected the first president of the republic. When, in January 1923, Germany was declared in default of coal deliveries under the reparations provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, France, wishing to settle the reparations question decisively, occupied the Ruhr territory. Ebert, like nearly all Germans, supported national resistance and the general strike in the Ruhr, which was directed toward ending foreign military control. But Germany suffered as a result of the strike. Inflation assumed staggering proportions, and the country experienced its most severe social and political crisis. Adolf Hitler nearly succeeded in seizing power in Bavaria. Chancellor Gustav Stresemann brought the crisis under control, yet much of the German right persisted in its defamation of Ebert. He died in office.

Ebert, Friedrich, byname Fritz Ebert (b. Sept. 12, 1894, Bremen, Germany - d. Dec. 4, 1979, East Berlin, East Germany), lord mayor of East Berlin (1948-67) and acting chairman of the Council of State of East Germany (1973); son of Friedrich Ebert (1871-1925).

Éboué, (Adolphe) Félix (Sylvestre) (b. Dec. 26, 1884, Cayenne, French Guiana - d. May 17, 1944, Cairo, Egypt), French colonial administrator. He was first sent to Oubangui-Chari (now the Central African Republic), where he spent most of his career. During an extended leave in the early 1920s, he broadened his contacts with leaders in France, including Blaise Diagne, the first African deputy to the French National Assembly. Although he eventually reached the rank of administrator in chief in 1930, his promotions were slow - not because of his being black, he believed, but because of the low status of Africa and its administrators in the French colonial empire. He served as acting governor of Martinique (1933-34) and of French Sudan (1935) and finally in 1936 he was made a full governor in Guadeloupe, becoming the first black man to reach the highest level of the French colonial administrative system. In Guadeloupe he introduced many reforms associated with the Popular Front government in France, but he also made enemies there who probably influenced his transfer in 1938 to Chad, one of the poorest countries in Africa. As chef de territoire there (1939-40) he became the key figure in rallying to Gen. Charles de Gaulle that strategically located colony as well as all of French Equatorial Africa. This step enabled a French army to be formed under Gen. Jacques Leclerc, who later led it across 1,600 km of desert to make contact with the British 8th Army in Libya. In return, de Gaulle named Éboué governor-general over the entire federation (1940) and further honoured him in 1944 by holding the Brazzaville Conference (to discuss postwar colonial reforms) in his capital; he died a few months later. In 1949 he became the only black to be buried in France's Panthéon of heroes in Paris. His widow Eugénie Éboué-Tell (1891-1972) was elected a French deputy and senator from Guadeloupe.

Ebouka-Babackas, Édouard (b. July 14, 1933, Mossaka, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), finance minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1963-68, 1991-92). He was also minister of transport and mines (1963) and ambassador to France (1968-69).

Ebouka-Babackas, Ingrid (Olga Ghislaine), Congo (Brazzaville) politician; daughter of Édouard Ebouka-Babackas. She has been minister of planning, statistics, and regional integration (2016- ) and transport, civil aviation, and merchant marine (2020-21).

Ebrahim, Fakhruddin G. (b. February 1928, Dhrol [now in Gujarat], India - d. Jan. 7, 2020, Karachi, Pakistan), governor of Sindh (1989-90). He was also attorney general (1993-94) and justice minister (1996) of Pakistan.

M. Ebrahim

Ebrahim, Murad, byname of Ahod Balawag Ebrahim (b. May 2, 1948, Maguindanao province, Philippines), chief minister of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (2019- ). He became chairman of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in 2003.

Ebrard Casaubón, Marcelo (Luis) (b. Oct. 10, 1959, Mexico City, Mexico), chief of government of the Distrito Federal (2006-12) and foreign minister of Mexico (2018-23).

Ebri, Clement (David) (b. Dec. 11, 1952, Ugep [now in Cross River state], Nigeria), governor of Cross River (1992-93).

Ebubekir Mümtaz Efendi (b. Sept. 25, 1810, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Feb. 9, 1871, Constantinople), finance minister of the Ottoman Empire (1861-62). He was also minister of waqfs (1861).



Eby, David (Robert Patrick) (b. July 21, 1976, Kitchener, Ont.), premier of British Columbia (2022- ).

Ebzeyev, Boris (Safarovich) (b. Feb. 25, 1950, Dzhangi-Dzher village, Frunze oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), president of Karachayevo-Cherkessia (2008-11).

Eça, António Júlio da Costa Pereira de (b. March 31, 1852, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Nov. 6, 1917, Lisbon), war minister of Portugal (1914) and governor-general of Angola (1915).

Eça, Vicente (Manuel de Moura Coutinho de) Almeida d' (b. July 31, 1918, Mindelo, Săo Vicente district, Cape Verde - d. October 2018), high commissioner of Cape Verde (1974-75).

Eccles, Marriner S(toddard) (b. Sept. 9, 1890, Logan, Utah - d. Dec. 18, 1977, Salt Lake City, Utah), chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (1934-48).

Ecemis, Muzaffer (b. 1938, Çamardi, Nigde, Turkey), interior minister of Turkey (2002). He was also governor of Çanakkale (1988-91), Diyarbakir (1991-92), and Manisa (1996-2001).

Ecevit, (Mustafa) Bülent (b. May 28, 1925, Constantinople [now Istanbul], Turkey - d. Nov. 5, 2006, Ankara, Turkey), prime minister of Turkey (1974, 1977, 1978-79, 1999-2002). He was elected to parliament as a Republican People's Party (RPP) member for Ankara (1957, 1961) and Zonguldak (1965, 1969). He was minister of labour in 1961-65 and in 1966 he became secretary-general of the RPP under Ismet Inönü, whose cooperation with the country's military government he opposed. He became RPP chairman in 1972 and prime minister in 1974. He declared an amnesty for all political prisoners and authorized (July 20, 1974) Turkey's military intervention in Cyprus after the Greek-led coup on that island. His request for a vote of confidence from the parliament in September 1974 failed. After further crises in 1977, during which he briefly formed a government, he was again prime minister in 1978, but acute economic and social difficulties led to the fall of this government in 1979. After a military coup in 1980 he was in detention and charged with "acts of treason" for failing to prevent nationwide street violence between the left and the right that led to the military intervention. He was imprisoned three times for continuing his political activities despite the ban, mainly through his wife Rahsan (1923-2020), a political force in her own right, who formed the Democratic Left Party (DSP) in 1985 and led it until 1987 reforms allowed him back into politics. In June 1997 he became deputy prime minister under Mesut Yilmaz and after the Yilmaz government was overturned on corruption allegations, Ecevit became prime minister again. His popularity was boosted in 1999 by the capture of Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Öcalan. In 2002 he became ill but resisted calls for his resignation, and his party was obliterated in elections. He resigned as party leader in July 2004.

Echandi Jiménez, Mario (José) (b. June 17, 1915, San José, Costa Rica - d. July 30, 2011), foreign minister (1950-52) and president (1958-62) of Costa Rica. He was also ambassador to the United States (1950) and an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1970 and 1982.

Echandía (Olaya), Darío (b. Oct. 13, 1897, Chaparral, Tolima, Colombia - d. May 7, 1989, Ibagué, Tolima), foreign minister (1934-35 [acting], 1944-45) and acting president (1943-44) of Colombia. He was also minister of the interior (1934-35, 1937, 1942-43, 1948-49), education (1935-37), and justice (1967-68), ambassador to the Vatican (1937-42, 1960-63, 1968-73) and the United Kingdom (1945-46), and governor of Tolima (1958-59).

Echarte, Roberto (Pedro) (b. 1927 - d. Aug. 14, 2015), public works minister of Argentina (1989).

Echaurren (García-Huidobro), Francisco (de Paula) (b. Oct. 21, 1824, Santiago, Chile - d. Nov. 15, 1909), war and marine minister of Chile (1868-70). He was also intendant of Valparaíso (1870-76).

Echavarría (Vélez), Luis Fernando (b. March 10, 1928, Medellín, Colombia - d. April 3, 2014, Vero Beach, Fla.), finance minister of Colombia (1973-74).

Echecopar García, Luis (Germán Toribio) (b. April 26, 1906, Lima, Peru - d. July 14, 1964, Lima), finance minister of Peru (1947-48).

Echegaray y Eizaguirre, José (b. April 19, 1832, Madrid, Spain - d. Sept. 4, 1916, Madrid), finance minister of Spain (1872-73, 1874, 1905). A leading dramatist who was awarded (with Frédéric Mistral) the 1904 Nobel Prize for Literature, he was also minister of development (1869-71, 1872) and president of the Royal Academy of Sciences (1901-16).

Echegoyen (Machicote), Martín R(ecaredo) (b. April 3, 1891 - d. May 18, 1974), president of the National Council of Government of Uruguay (1959-60). He was also president of the Council of State (1973-74).

Echenique (y Benavente), José Rufino (b. Nov. 16, 1808, Puno, Peru - d. June 16, 1887, Lima, Peru), president of Peru (1851-55); son-in-law of Pío de Tristán. He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1864-65) and the Senate (1868-72).

Echenique (Fonseca), Miguel (b. 1863, Lima, Peru - d. May 9, 1932, Chorrillos, Peru), second vice president of Peru (1912-14).

Echeverri Correa, Héctor (b. Aug. 30, 1937, Medellín, Colombia - d. February 2012, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was president of the Senate (1979-80).

Echeverri Cortés, Carlos (b. June 23, 1900, Bogotá, Colombia - d. March 14, 1974, Bogotá), Colombian politician. He was ambassador to Mexico (1946-47) and Peru (1947-49), minister of posts and telegraphs (1951), and chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (1952-53).

Echeverri Mejía, Gilberto (b. July 31, 1936, Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia - d. May 5, 2003, near Urrao, Antioquia), defense minister of Colombia (1997-98). He was also ambassador to Ecuador (1975-77), minister of economic development (1978-80), and governor of Antioquia (1990-91). He was kidnapped by FARC rebels in April 2002 and killed during a botched rescue attempt by government forces.

Echeverría, Juan Martín (b. Oct. 5, 1938 - d. June 10, 2015, Aruba), justice minister of Venezuela (1977-79).

L. Echeverría
Echeverría Álvarez, Luis (b. Jan. 17, 1922, Mexico City, Mexico - d. July 8, 2022, Cuernavaca, Mexico), president of Mexico (1970-76). He became the private secretary of the president of the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in 1940. He rose rapidly in political circles and held several important posts in government and the PRI, including director of press and propaganda and president of the Federal Electoral Commission. In 1957 he became minister of education, in 1958 subsecretary of the interior, and in 1964 Pres. Gustavo Díaz Ordaz appointed him secretary of the interior, a post he held until November 1969. He was severely criticized for his harsh handling of the 1968 student demonstrations that culminated in the "Tlatelolco massacre," in which more than 300 demonstrators were killed or wounded and thousands arrested. After becoming president, he moved sharply to the left, releasing most of the prisoners arrested in 1968, redistributing millions of acres among the landless peasantry, expanding social security, housing, and transportation programs, and pouring huge sums of money into public works. Reversing an earlier stand, he introduced a national family planning program to reduce population growth. His administration was plagued by runaway inflation, high unemployment, and illiteracy, and his leftist economic proposals alienated business interests, causing reduced domestic investment. A declining balance of trade forced the devaluation of the peso by 50% in 1976, producing insecurity and antagonism among his middle-class supporters. In foreign policy, he opened diplomatic relations with China and supported Latin American solidarity. He served as ambassador to Australia and New Zealand (1977-80) under his successor, Pres. José López Portillo. In 2004 a judge rejected a request for Echeverría's arrest on charges of genocide for allegedly ordering the killing of student demonstrators on June 10, 1971. On June 30, 2006, however, he was placed under house arrest on charges relating to his involvement in the 1968 massacre; he was released in 2009.

Echeverría Castellot, Eugenio (b. Nov. 19, 1924, Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, Mexico - d. 1999), governor of Campeche (1979-85). He was also mayor of Campeche (1958-61).

Echeverry (Garzón), Juan Carlos (b. Sept. 12, 1962), finance minister of Colombia (2010-12). He was also director of the National Planning Department (2000-02).

Eck, Lubbert Jan baron van (b. March 26, 1719, Velp, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. April 1, 1765, Colombo, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), governor of the Coromandel Coast (1758-61) and Ceylon (1762-65).

Eckardt, Felix von (b. June 18, 1903, Berlin, Germany - d. May 11, 1979, Capri, Italy), West German diplomat. He was permanent observer to the United Nations (1955-56).

Eckerberg, Per (Axel) (b. Aug. 17, 1913, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. March 22, 1990), governor of Östergötland (1956-80).

Eckmühl, Louis Nicolas Davout, duc d'Auerstaedt et prince d' (b. May 10, 1770, Annoux [now in Yonne département], France - d. June 1, 1823, Paris, France), war minister of France (1815). He was made a maréchal d'Empire in 1804 and was created duc d'Auerstadt in 1808 and prince d'Eckmühl in 1809.

Eda, Satsuki (b. May 22, 1941, Okayama, Japan - d. July 28, 2021, Okayama), justice minister of Japan (2011).

Edberg, Rolf (Filip) (b. March 14, 1912, Lysvik, Värmland, Sweden - d. Feb. 27, 1997), governor of Värmland (1967-77). He was also Swedish ambassador to Norway (1956-67).

É. Eddé
Eddé, Émile, Arabic Imil (Ibrahim) Iddi (b. 1886 - d. Sept. 28, 1949, Beirut), prime minister (1929-30) and president (1936-41, 1943) of Lebanon. A leading Maronite advocate, he became a senator in 1926 and as president it fell to him to sign the treaty with France ending the mandate. At the time of his death he was head of the National Bloc.

Eddé, Raymond (Émile), Arabic Raymun (Imil) Iddi (b. March 15, 1913, Alexandria, Egypt - d. May 10, 2000, Paris, France), Lebanese politician; son of Émile Eddé. His family had fled to Egypt after being condemned to death by the Ottoman authorities in the waning years of the empire. The family returned to Beirut in 1920. He succeeded his father as head of the National Bloc. A Christian, Eddé was a moderate who advocated coexistence with other political and religious groups in Lebanon. Eddé represented the Byblos district north of Beirut in the Lebanese parliament from 1953 to 1976, except for a one-year absence in 1964. He ran unsuccessful presidential campaigns in 1958 and 1976 and held various cabinet positions, including minister of interior, social affairs, and posts and telegraphs (1958-60) and of public works and agriculture (1968-69). Eddé went into self-imposed exile in 1976 after surviving three assassination attempts. He opposed all foreign interference in Lebanon, and said he would not return unless Israel and Syria withdrew their soldiers from southern Lebanon.

Edelcreutz, Daniel friherre, original surname Ahlberg (b. June 15, 1761, Ĺby socken, Kalmar, Sweden - d. Oct. 6, 1828, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Stockholm (1810-28) and Stockholm city (acting, 1818-28). He was ennobled under the name Edelcreutz in 1808 and made friherre (baron) in 1816.

Edelgeriyev, Abubakar (Said-Khusainovich), also called Ruslan Edelgeriyev (b. Dec. 4, 1974, Tsentaroy, Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R. [now in Chechnya]), prime minister of Chechnya (2012-18). In 2018 he was appointed adviser to the Russian president.

Edelstam, Gustaf, original surname Fahlander (b. Aug. 21, 1764, Värmdö socken, Stockholm county, Sweden - d. Aug. 14, 1825, Burträsk socken, Västerbotten, Sweden), governor of Uleĺborg (acting, 1804-05) and Västerbotten (1811-17). He was ennobled under the name Edelstam in 1809.

Edelstam, Gustaf Jakob (b. June 25, 1831, Stockholm, Sweden - d. May 6, 1892, Uppsala, Sweden), governor of Kalmar (1873-88); grandson of Gustaf Edelstam.

Edelstein, Yuli(-Yoel) (b. Aug. 5, 1958, Chernovtsy, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Chernivtsi, Ukraine]), Israeli politician. He was minister of immigrant absorption (1996-99), information and diaspora (2009-13), and health (2020-21) and speaker of the Knesset (2013-20).

Edelsvärd, Adolf, original surname Meinander (b. May 5, 1762 - d. March 4, 1804, Uleĺborg [now Oulu], Finland), governor of Uleĺborg (1802-04). He was ennobled under the name Edelsvärd in 1802.

Eden, Sir Anthony: see Avon, Anthony Eden, Earl of.

Eden, Sir Ashley (b. Nov. 13, 1831, Hertingfordbury, Hertfordshire, England - d. July 9, 1887, London, England), chief commissioner of British Burma (1871-75) and lieutenant governor of Bengal (1877-82); knighted 1878.

Eden, Charles (b. 1673, England - d. March 17, 1722, Eden House, North Carolina), governor of North Carolina (1714-22). He spent most of his appointed term as governor attempting to curb the threat of pirates, the most powerful of which at this time was Edward Teach ("Blackbeard"). Eden offered him the royal pardon if he would give himself up, whereupon he surrendered with twenty of his followers, but he soon returned to his old habits. Eden was rumoured to have a close personal relationship with Blackbeard and to have shared in his loot. Edward Mosely, a prominent colonist, declared that the governor could raise an armed posse to arrest honest men, but could not raise a similar force to apprehend Teach. For his accusations, Mosely was arrested, fined Ł100, and debarred from holding office for three years. Teach took over an island on the Carolina coast and set himself up as almost a prince, taxing the traders throughout his realm. The Carolinians despaired of help from their own governor, and got a small army from the governor of Virginia which killed Blackbeard in 1718. In 1719 Eden gave to the council a full account of his dealings with the pirate, which was approved by them. In 1718 Eden had been made landgrave of Carolina, a hereditary nobility provided for in the Fundamental Constitutions, written for the colony by John Locke.

Edén, Nils (b. Aug. 25, 1871, Piteĺ, Norrbotten, Sweden - d. June 16, 1945, Stockholm, Sweden), prime minister of Sweden (1917-20) and governor of Stockholm (1920-38). Also known as a historian, he was leader of the Liberal Party in 1917-23.

Eden, Sir Robert, (1st) Baronet (b. Sept. 14, 1741, Durham, England - d. Sept. 2, 1784, Annapolis, Md.), governor of Maryland (1769-76); son-in-law of Charles Calvert, (5th) Baron Baltimore. He was created baronet in 1776.

Edenhjelm, Gillis (b. May 6, 1778, Örby socken, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. April 29, 1862, Stockholm), governor of Göteborg och Bohus (1835-43).

Edenman, Ragnar (Hilding Leonard) (b. April 1, 1914, Uppsala, Sweden - d. Jan. 27, 1998), governor of Uppsala (1967-80). He was also Swedish minister of education and ecclesiastical affairs (1957-67).

Edgar, Henry Stephenson (b. 1848, Ireland - d. Oct. 31, 1937, Norfolk Island), acting administrator of Norfolk Island (1928, 1929).

J. Edgar
Edgar, Jim, byname of James Edgar (b. July 22, 1946, Vinita, Okla.), governor of Illinois (1991-99). The Republican won a seat in the state legislature in 1976, and in 1981, Gov. James Thompson appointed him secretary of state, where he garnered attention by pushing through an anti-drunk-driving law. In 1990, Edgar ran to succeed Thompson, with strong opposition from Democratic Attorney General Neil Hartigan. Ironically, Hartigan talked of cutting taxes and running government like a business; Edgar promised to make permanent the 1989 tax surcharge for education. Both favored an initiative requiring a 60% state House and Senate vote for a tax increase. Edgar narrowly won, 51%-48%. The first governor since the 1920s to have served in the legislature, he helped Republicans capture the state Senate in 1992. Entering 1994, Edgar did not seem invulnerable. But he won with a record margin, in part because of the issue stands of his opponent, Comptroller Dawn Clark Netsch. A lakefront liberal state senator for 18 years, Netsch proposed a big increase in state income taxes, together with property tax reductions, to finance education. Edgar bragged of increased education funding and a lower-than-national unemployment rate. Edgar won overwhelmingly, carrying 101 of 102 counties (losing one southern Downstate county by 3 votes), and saw Republicans sweep all the statewide offices and capture control of the state House. He entered 1995 in a position of political strength not equalled in the last three generations, hoping to cut state government employment further, implement tort reform, and try further reforms of the welfare system. In March 1995, he signed legislation that eliminated the AFDC program by 1999 and capped other welfare benefits.

Edge, Walter E(vans) (b. Nov. 20, 1873, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. Oct. 29, 1956, New York City), governor of New Jersey (1917-19, 1944-47); son-in-law of Harold M. Sewall. He was also U.S. ambassador to France (1929-33).

G.E. Edgerton
Edgerton, Glen E(dgar) (b. April 17, 1887, Parkerville, Kan. - d. 1976), administrator of the Panama Canal Zone (1940-44). Graduated from the Military Academy at West Point in 1908 and from the U.S. Army engineering school in 1910, he advanced through the grades to major general in 1942. Edgerton was assistant engineer of the Panama Canal from 1908 to 1909, then he was chief engineer of Alaska Road from 1910 to 1915, director of the War Department Sales from 1921 to 1923, chief of the Federal Power Commission from 1925 to 1929, and assistant professor of the Engineering School of the U.S. Military Academy in 1930. He returned to Panama as Panama Canal maintenance engineer from 1936 to 1940, then he was appointed governor of the Panama Canal Zone. During his tenure, several administrative changes occurred: the organization formerly known as the Bureau of Clubs and Playgrounds was designated the Panama Canal clubhouses; the special construction division and the special engineering division were consolidated under the title of the special engineer division. During his administration, also, the highway and railroad bridge across the canal at the existing Miraflores locks was officially opened to vehicular traffic in 1942, thus providing the first permanent bridge connection between the east and west banks of the canal since the canal was opened in 1914, and the excavation for the third locks project was initiated. Edgerton retired on April 30, 1949.

Edgerton, Sidney (b. Aug. 17, 1818, Cazenovia, N.Y. - d. July 19, 1900, Akron, Ohio), governor of Montana (1864-66).

Edhem Pasha, Ottoman official. He was governor of Kosovo (1892-93).

Edhem Pasha, Ibrahim (b. 1818, Chios island, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. March 20, 1893, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]), foreign minister (1856-57) and grand vizier (1877-78) of the Ottoman Empire. He was also minister of commerce (1860-61, 1863, 1865-66, 1871-72), public works (1863, 1871-72, 1874-75), and interior (1883-85), governor of Trikala (1866-67) and Ioannina (1867-68), ambassador to Germany (1876) and Austria-Hungary (1879-82), and head of the Council of State (1876-77).

Edis, Richard (John Smale) (b. Sept. 1, 1943 - d. April 10, 2002), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1988-91). He was also ambassador to Mozambique (1992-95), Tunisia (1995-98), and Algeria (2001-02).

Edison, Charles (b. Aug. 3, 1890, West Orange, N.J. - d. July 31, 1969, New York City), U.S. secretary of the Navy (1940) and governor of New Jersey (1941-44). He was a son of inventor Thomas Alva Edison.

Edmond, Bocchit (b. southwestern Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (2018-20). He was also chargé d'affaires in Panama (2004-11) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (2016-18) and the United States (2020-23).

Edmondson, J(ames) Howard (b. Sept. 27, 1925, Muskogee, Okla. - d. Nov. 17, 1971, Edmond, Okla.), governor of Oklahoma (1959-63).

Edmonstone, Sir George Frederick (b. April 11, 1813, Calcutta [now Kolkata], India - d. Sept. 24, 1864, Effingham, Surrey, England), lieutenant governor of the North-Western Provinces (1859-63); knighted 1863.

Edmunds, Joseph Edsel (b. July 1, 1935, Castries, Saint Lucia), Saint Lucian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1984-89) and ambassador to the United States (1984-97).

Edmunds, Newton (b. May 31, 1819, Hartland, N.Y. - d. Feb. 13, 1908, Yankton, S.D.), governor of Dakota (1863-66).

Edrees, Mohamed Fathi Ahmed (b. May 31, 1960), Egyptian diplomat. He was ambassador to Ethiopia (2011-15) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2018-21).

Edström, J(ohannes) Sigfrid (b. Nov. 21, 1870, Morlanda village, Västra Götaland county, western Sweden - d. March 18, 1964), president of the International Olympic Committee (1942-52). In 1903 he organized the Swedish national union of sports in which all the associations of different branches are united. He led all Swedish Olympic teams from 1906 to 1936 and organized the Olympic Games in Stockholm in 1912. He was also known as an industrialist, being a director (1903-33) and president of the board (1934-49) of the ASEA company.

Edusei, Krobo (b. 1915 - d. Feb. 13, 1984), Ghanaian politician. He belonged to a leading Ashanti family and joined Kwame Nkrumah's Convention People's Party when it was founded in 1949. Imprisoned by the British authorities, he became the party propaganda secretary; then, when Ghana gained independence in 1957, Edusei was appointed minister of the interior. He later became minister of transport and, in 1961, minister of industries. Nkrumah dismissed him in 1962 (when a scandal involving his wife's purchase of a Ł3,000 bed threatened his reputation) but later in the year brought him back into the government as minister of agriculture, a post he held until 1965, when he became chief of state protocol. After the fall of Nkrumah in 1966, Edusei lost office and in 1968 was sentenced to 18 months' imprisonment. After his release he played some part in political affairs through the People's National Party until the fall of Pres. Hilla Limann in 1981 led to a further term of imprisonment. He was released shortly before his death.

Edward VII
Edward VII, in full Albert Edward (b. Nov. 9, 1841, London, England - d. May 6, 1910, London), king of the United Kingdom (1901-10). The second child and eldest son of Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, he was soon after his birth created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (Dec. 4, 1841). In November 1858 he was made a knight of the garter and a colonel in the army. On March 10, 1863, he married Alexandra, eldest daughter of Prince Christian (later King Christian IX) of Denmark. Five children of this union survived to maturity (George, Duke of York, subsequently King George V, was the second son). The prince became a familiar figure in the sporting world. He was particularly given to racing, yachting, and game-bird shooting. His social activities involved him in several scandals. He succeeded to the throne as Edward VII following Victoria's death on Jan. 22, 1901, and was crowned on Aug. 9, 1902. His reign did much to restore lustre to a monarchy that had shone somewhat dimly during Victoria's long seclusion as a widow. In 1902 he resumed his tours of Europe. His geniality and felicitously worded addresses (conducted in French) during a state visit to Paris in 1903 helped pave the way, by winning popularity among French citizens of all ranks, for the Anglo-French Entente Cordiale of 1904. Relations with his nephew the German emperor Wilhelm II were not always easy, either officially or personally. Although incapable of prolonged mental exertion, Edward was fortunate in his judgment of men. His support for the great military reforms of the secretary of state for war, Richard Burdon (later Viscount) Haldane, and for First Sea Lord Sir John Fisher in his naval reforms did much to avert British unpreparedness when World War I started.

Edward VIII
Edward VIII, also called (from 1936) Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor, in full Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David (known as David within the royal family) (b. June 23, 1894, Richmond, Surrey, England - d. May 28, 1972, Paris, France), king of the United Kingdom (1936). The eldest child of George, Duke of York (later King George V), and Princess Mary of Teck (later Queen Mary), he became heir to the throne on the accession of his father (May 6, 1910), being created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on June 23, 1910. In 1930 the prince's friendship with Mrs. Wallis Warfield Simpson of the United States began. By 1934 he was deeply in love with her. George V died Jan. 20, 1936, and Edward was proclaimed king. His attempts to gain the royal family's acceptance of Mrs. Simpson, who obtained a preliminary decree of divorce on Oct. 27, 1936, met with firm opposition, backed by the Church of England (of which he was the head) and most politicians in both Britain and the Commonwealth. Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin attempted to impress upon the king the peril to the integrity of the monarchy caused by the private friendship with a divorcée. Discussions of a morganatic marriage were pursued, but on December 2 Baldwin assured him that this was impracticable. It was doomed by being somewhat hurriedly and forcibly put to the dominions and by the explosion of the whole matter in the press and Parliament on December 3. The king submitted his abdication on Dec. 10, 1936, the only British sovereign ever voluntarily to resign the crown. The instrument of abdication was endorsed by Parliament on December 11. The new king, George VI, created his older brother Duke of Windsor (effective March 8, 1937). On June 3, 1937, Edward was married to Mrs. Simpson by a clergyman of the Church of England at the Château de Candé, Monts, France. He was governor of the Bahamas in 1940-45. After 1945 he lived in Paris.

Edward Mutesa
Edward Mutesa II, also called Sir Edward (Frederick William David Walugembe Mutebi Luwangula) Mutesa (b. Nov. 19, 1924, Kampala, Uganda - d. Nov. 21, 1969, London, England), kabaka (ruler) of Buganda (1939-53, 1955-66) and president of Uganda (1963-66). He was the only son of Daudi Cwa II, 35th kabaka of Buganda, by his Christian wife, Irene Drusila Namaganda. During the 1940s Mutesa, called "King Freddie" by the Western press, was essentially controlled by the British resident and his katikkiro (prime minister) and was personally rather unpopular. In the "Kabaka crisis" of 1953, when loss of the privileged position of the kingdom of Buganda within the protectorate of Uganda seemed imminent, he took an unyielding stand in meetings with the governor of Uganda so as not to alienate his increasingly suspicious and anti-British subjects. His key demands were for separation of Buganda from the rest of Uganda and a promise of independence. When he refused to communicate British formal recommendations to his Lukiko (parliament), he was arrested and deported. Buganda leaders engineered his return in 1955, ostensibly as a constitutional monarch, but one with a great deal of influence in the Buganda government. When Uganda became independent, Prime Minister Milton Obote first hoped to placate the Ganda by encouraging Mutesa's election as president (a non-executive post) in 1963. A conflict over the role and over the continued integrity of the Buganda kingdom within Uganda followed. When he tried to foment discontent between the traditionally stateless northerners and the southern "kingdom" members, Obote suspended the constitution. The conflict escalated rapidly, and Mutesa was forced to flee to Britain in 1966, where he died in exile (of alcoholic poisoning, foul play being suspected by some).

Edwardes, George Warren (b. May 28, 1802 - d. Feb. 21, 1879, London, England), governor of Labuan (1856-61).

Edwards, Edward I(rving) (b. Dec. 1, 1863, Jersey City, N.J. - d. Jan. 26, 1931, Jersey City), governor of New Jersey (1920-23).

E.W. Edwards
Edwards, Edwin W(ashington) (b. Aug. 7, 1927, Marksville, La. - d. July 12, 2021, Gonzales, La.), governor of Louisiana (1972-80, 1984-88, 1992-96). The Democrat was first elected to Congress after the incumbent was killed in a car accident. A charismatic populist, he was first elected governor in 1972 by a narrow margin over Bennett Johnston and David Treen. Treen succeeded Edwards in 1979, but Edwards came back and beat Treen in 1983, then spent much of 1986 and 1987 under trial for bribery charges. He was acquitted, but suffered significant political damage. In 1987 he was able to win only 28% against Buddy Roemer, and withdrew and left Roemer to win without a runoff. In 1991, he improved only slightly, winning 34% in the primary; both times his platform was vintage Edwards - a state lottery, casino gambling in New Orleans, one-man state budgeting. But the political misfortunes of Roemer and the rally against David Duke returned Edwards to the governorship. In his last term Edwards got the legislature to approve casino gambling in New Orleans, after it already allowed riverboat gambling and video poker. He switched from a flat rate to a percentage tax on oil and gas, started two new Mississippi River bridges, and attracted new business that helped the state grow economically in the early 1990s. He got a larger share of state spending dedicated to education. In June 1994 he announced he was not running again in 1995. He was indicted in November 1998 and convicted in May 2000 of racketeering, extortion, mail and wire fraud, and conspiracy for demanding hundreds of thousands of dollars from applicants for riverboat casino licenses. In January 2001 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison and given a $250,000 fine; his son Stephen Edwards was sentenced to 7 years and fined $60,000.

Edwards, Henry W(aggaman) (b. October 1779, New Haven, Conn. - d. July 22, 1847, New Haven), governor of Connecticut (1833-34, 1835-38).

Edwards, Sir Hughie (Idwal) (b. Aug. 1, 1914, Fremantle, W.Aus. - d. Aug. 5, 1982, Darling Point, Sydney, N.S.W.), governor of Western Australia (1974-75); knighted 1974.

Edwards, James B(urrows) (b. June 24, 1927, Hawthorne, Fla. - d. Dec. 26, 2014, Mount Pleasant, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1975-79) and U.S. secretary of energy (1981-82).

John Edwards
Edwards, John(ny Reid) (b. June 10, 1953, Seneca, S.C.), U.S. Democratic vice-presidential candidate (2004). A senator from North Carolina (1999-2005), he ran for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2004 and 2008.

Edwards, John Bel (b. Sept. 16, 1966, East Baton Rouge parish, La.), governor of Louisiana (2016-24).

Edwards, John C(ummins) (b. June 24, 1804, Frankfort, Ky. - d. Oct. 14, 1888, Stockton, Calif.), governor of Missouri (1844-48).

Edwards (Valdés), Jorge (b. July 29, 1931, Santiago, Chile - d. March 17, 2023, Madrid, Spain), Chilean diplomat. Primarily known as a writer (winner of the 1999 Cervantes Prize), he was chargé d'affaires in Cuba in 1970-71 before being expelled; this led him to write the "non-fiction novel" Persona non grata (1973). In 2010-14 he was ambassador to France.

Edwards, Laurence N. (b. Jan. 6, 1933), Marshall Islands diplomat. He was ambassador to Fiji (1988-91) and China (1991-94) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-99).

Edwards, Ninian (b. March 17, 1775, "Mount Pleasant" farm, Montgomery county, Maryland - d. July 20, 1833, Belleville, Ill.), governor of Illinois (1809-18, 1826-30). He was also a U.S. senator from Illinois (1818-24).

Edwards Argandońa, Alberto (b. 1848, La Serena, Chile - d. 19...), finance minister of Chile (1914-15).

Edwards Mac-Clure, Agustín (b. June 17, 1878, Santiago, Chile - d. June 18, 1941, Santiago), foreign minister (1903-04, 1905, 1909-10) and interior minister (1910) of Chile; son of Agustín Edwards Ross. He was also minister (1911-24) and ambassador (1935-38) to the United Kingdom and president of the Assembly of the League of Nations (1922-23).

Edwards Matte, Guillermo (b. Oct. 23, 1889, Santiago, Chile - d. Aug. 16, 1945, Santiago), foreign minister of Chile (1931); nephew of Augusto Matte, Eduardo Matte, Claudio Matte, and Ricardo Matte. He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1920) and minister of finance (1922, 1925), lands and colonization (1931), and justice (1931).

Edwards Ross, Agustín (b. Feb. 17, 1852, Valparaíso, Chile - d. Nov. 1, 1897), finance minister of Chile (1886-88, 1892). He was also minister of industry and public works (1891-92) and president of the Senate (1893-95).

Edwards Vives, (Luis) Alberto (b. Nov. 25, 1874, Valparaíso, Chile - d. April 3, 1932, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (1931); son of Alberto Edwards Argandońa. He was also minister of finance (1926-27), education (1930-31), and justice (1931).

Eechoud, J(an) P(ieter) K(arel) van (b. 1904 - d. 1958), acting governor of Netherlands New Guinea (1949-50).

Eede, Edouard van den (b. April 11, 1888 - d. March 7, 1947), Belgian resident of Urundi (191.-18) and Ruanda (1919-22).

Eekelen, Wim van, byname of Willem Frederik van Eekelen (b. Feb. 5, 1931, Utrecht, Netherlands), defense minister of the Netherlands (1986-88) and secretary-general of the Western European Union (1989-94).

Eekelers, Willem (b. Sept. 2, 1883, Berg, Belgium - d. May 18, 1954, Brussels, Belgium), interior minister of Belgium (1939). He was also acting mayor of Antwerp (1946-47).

Eenpalu, Kaarel, until 1935 Karl August Einbund (b. May 28, 1888, Vesneri rural municipality, Estonia - d. Jan. 27/28, 1942, Vyatka prison camp, Kirov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), state elder (1932) and prime minister (1938-39) of Estonia. He was also auditor-general (1919-20), interior minister (1920, 1921-24, 1924-26, 1934-38), and speaker of the Riigikogu (1926-32, 1933-34).

Eerens, Dominique Jacques de (b. March 17, 1781, Alkmaar, Netherlands - d. May 30, 1840, Buitenzorg, Netherlands East Indies [now Bogor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia]), war minister of the Netherlands (1830-34) and governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies (1836-40).

Efendiyev, Sultan Medzhid (Medzhid ogly) (b. May 26, 1887, Shemakha, Russia [now in Azerbaijan] - d. [executed] April 21, 1938), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1931-37) and co-chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1932-36). He was also people's commissar of agriculture (1921-24) and workers' and peasants' inspection (1924-27) of the Azerbaijan S.S.R.

Effah-Apenteng, Nana (b. Aug. 7, 1945, Bombata, Ashanti, Gold Coast [now in Ghana]), Ghanaian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2000-07).

Effiong, (Obong) Philip (b. Nov. 18, 1924 - d. Nov. 7, 2003, Uyo, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria), acting president of Biafra (1970).

Efi, Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese, earlier called Tupuola Taisi Tufuga Efi (b. March 1, 1938), prime minister and foreign minister (1976-82, 1982) and deputy prime minister (1985-88) of Western Samoa and head of state of Samoa (2007-17); son of Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole. He entered parliament in a by-election in 1965 but lost his seat in 1967. He returned in 1970, was minister of works, civil aviation, marine, and transport (1970-73), and in 1976, holding the minor tulafale (orator) title of Tupuola, defeated his first cousin and rival for the tama'aiga ("royal son") title of Tupua Tamasese, Lealofi IV, to become prime minister, the first non-tama'aiga titleholder to hold the office. In 1982, he was toppled by the newly created Human Rights Protection Party after mishandling a Public Service Association strike for better terms and conditions. He was elevated to the tama'aiga rank and to Tuiatua honours in 1986. He remained in parliament until 1991. In 2004 he was appointed to the Council of Deputies, the members of which perform state functions if the head of state is unavailable. After the death of Malietoa Tanumafili II, who held the post for life, he was elected to succeed him as head of state for a five-year term. Although he was a member of the Samoa National Development Party, he won the support of the ruling Human Rights Protection Party. In 2012 he was reappointed without opposition for another five years.

Efon, Vincent (b. Aug. 28, 1927, Santchou, French Cameroons [now in Western province, Cameroon] - d. Nov. 4, 2003), foreign minister of Cameroon (1972-75). He was also minister of commerce and industry (1967-68), planning and development (1968-70), and transport (1970-72).

Efrim, Oleg (b. Nov. 7, 1975, Cornesti, Moldavian S.S.R.), justice minister of Moldova (2011-15).

Eftaxias, Athanasios (b. Feb. 16, 1849, Dadi [now Amfikleia], Greece - d. Feb. 5, 1931, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1926). He was also minister of ecclesiastical affairs and public education (1893, 1897, 1899-1900), finance (1909-10, 1922), justice (provisional, 1909), interior (provisional, 1910), national economy (1915), and public treasury (provisional, 1922).

Eftaxias, Lampros (Ioannou) (b. June 18, 1905, Athens, Greece - d. Dec. 3, 1996, Athens), finance minister of Greece (1954-55); nephew of Athanasios Eftaxias. He was also minister of communications and public works (1955-56).

Ega, Manuel de Saldanha e Albuquerque, conde da (b. 1712 - d. Dec. 6, 1771), captain-general of Madeira (1754-56) and viceroy of Portuguese India (1756-65).

Egal, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim, Somali Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal (b. Aug. 15, 1928, Odweina, British Somaliland [now Oodweyne, Republic of Somaliland] - d. May 3, 2002, Pretoria, South Africa), prime minister and foreign minister of Somalia (1967-69) and president of Somaliland (1993-2002). He joined the Somali National League party in 1956 and became secretary-general in 1958. He was prime minister of (former British) Somaliland during its brief independence in 1960 before it merged with (former Italian) Somalia. He then became minister of defense (1960-61) and education (1961-62) of Somalia. He later joined the Somali Youth League and became prime minister, until his government was ousted in a military coup led by Muhammad Siad Barre. He remained in detention until 1975, was named ambassador to India in July 1976, but was rearrested in October 1976. Released again in February 1982, he subsequently became chairman of the Somali Chamber of Commerce, Industry, and Agriculture. In 1993 he became the second president of the self-styled Republic of Somaliland, which had seceded again in 1991. He and his administration managed to keep Somaliland relatively peaceful and stable as the rest of the Horn of Africa nation descended into chaos while clan-based political factions battled for power. But he never managed to secure international recognition for the republic.

Egan, Dennis (William) (b. March 3, 1947, Juneau, Alaska - d. June 28, 2022, Salem, Ore.), mayor of Juneau (1995-2000); son of William A. Egan.

T. Egan
Egan, Ted, byname of Edward Joseph Egan (b. July 6, 1932, Coburg, Melbourne, Vic.), administrator of the Northern Territory (2003-07). He is also known as a singer-songwriter.

Egan, William A(llen) (b. Oct. 8, 1914, Valdez, Alaska - d. May 6, 1984, Anchorage, Alaska), governor of Alaska (1959-66, 1970-74).

Egańa (Barroeta), Manuel R(afael) (b. Jan. 24, 1900, Zaraza, Guárico, Venezuela - d. Dec. 16, 1985, Caracas, Venezuela), acting finance minister of Venezuela (1936). He was also minister of development (1938-41, 1948-50, 1964), president of Congress (1944-45), and ambassador to Canada (1959-63).

Egardt, Peter (Arvid Nils) (b. Sept. 19, 1949, Lund, Sweden), governor of Uppsala (2010-16).

Egas Moniz, António Caetano de Abreu Freire (b. Nov. 29, 1874, Avanca, Portugal - d. Dec. 13, 1955, Lisbon, Portugal), foreign minister of Portugal (1918, 1918-19). He was also minister to Spain (1917-18). As a neurologist he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1949 (with Walter Hess).

Egbert, William (b. Feb. 25, 1857, Welland district, Canada West [now Ont.] - d. Oct. 15, 1936, Calgary, Alta.), lieutenant governor of Alberta (1925-31).



Egede, Múte B(ourup) (b. March 11, 1987, Nuuk, Greenland), prime minister (2021- ) and foreign minister (2021-22) of Greenland. He was also minister of raw materials (2016-18) and communes, hamlets, outer districts, infrastructure, and housing (acting, 2017).

Egeresi, Sandor (b. June 25, 1964, Backa Topola, Vojvodina, Serbia - d. Sept. 5, 2021), president of the Assembly of Vojvodina (2008-12).

Egerton, Sir Robert Eyles (b. April 15, 1857 - d. Sept. 30, 1912), lieutenant governor of Punjab (1877-82); knighted 1879.

Egerton, Sir Walter (b. 1858 - d. March 22, 1947), resident of Negeri Sembilan (1902-03), governor of Lagos (1904-06), high commissioner (1904-06) and governor (1906-12) of Southern Nigeria, and governor of British Guiana (1912-17); knighted 1905.

Eggenberger, Katrin (b. Sept. 8, 1982), foreign minister of Liechtenstein (2019-21).


Egger-Jenzer, Barbara, née Jenzer (b. Sept. 22, 1956, Steffisburg, Bern, Switzerland), president of the government of Bern (2004-05, 2008-09, 2014-15).

Eggerath, Werner (Karl Jakob) (b. March 16, 1900, Elberfeld [now part of Wuppertal], Germany - d. June 16, 1977, East Berlin), first secretary of the Socialist Unity Party (1946-47) and minister-president (1947-52) of Thüringen.

Eggers, Frank H(ague) (b. Feb. 22, 1901, Jersey City, N.J. - d. July 8, 1954, Jersey City), mayor of Jersey City (1947-49); nephew of Frank Hague.

Eggerz, Sigurdur (Pétursson) (b. Feb. 28/March 1, 1875, Bordeyri, Iceland - d. Nov. 16, 1945, Reykjavík, Iceland), minister (1914-15), finance minister (1917-20), and prime minister (1922-24) of Iceland; son-in-law of Kristján Jónsson.

Eggleton, Art(hur C.) (b. Sept. 29, 1943, Toronto, Ont.), mayor of Toronto (1980-91) and defence minister of Canada (1997-2002). He was also president of the Treasury Board and minister responsible for infrastructure (1993-96) and minister for international trade (1996-97).

Egi, Tasuku (b. April 24, 1873, Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan - d. Sept. 18, 1932, Tokyo, Japan), justice minister of Japan (1925-27). He was also minister of railways (1929-31).

Egídio, (Nuno Viriato Tavares de) Melo (b. Feb. 18, 1922 - d. Dec. 7, 2011, Lisbon, Portugal), governor of Macau (1979-81). He was the first governor to visit mainland China in 1980, about a year after Portugal and Beijing had resumed diplomatic relations. Back in Portugal he became head of the armed forces (1981-84).

Egli, Alphons (b. Oct. 8, 1924, Luzern, Switzerland - d. Aug. 5, 2016, Luzern), interior minister (1983-86) and president (1986) of Switzerland.

Eglinton, Archibald William Montgomerie, (13th) Earl of, (1st) Earl of Winton (b. Sept. 29, 1812, Palermo, Sicily [Italy] - d. Oct. 4, 1861, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1852, 1858-59). He succeeded as Earl of Eglinton in 1819 and was created Earl of Winton in 1859.

Egmont, John Perceval, (2nd) Earl of, (2nd) Viscount Perceval, of Kanturk in the County of Cork, (2nd) Baron Perceval, of Burton in the County of Cork, (1st) Baron Lovel and Holland, of Enmore in the County of Somerset, (6th) Baronet (b. Feb. 24, 1711, Westminster [now part of London], England - d. Dec. 4, 1770, London), British politician. He was first lord of the Admiralty (1763-66). He succeeded as Earl of Egmont, Viscount Perceval, and Baron Perceval in 1748 and was created Baron Lovel and Holland in 1762.

Ego-Aguirre (Dongo), Julio Enrique (b. June 19, 1865, Lima, Peru - d. June 12, 1941, Lima), prime minister of Peru (1922-24). He was also minister of development and public works (1909-11) and justice, worship, and education (1922-24).

Eguiguren (Escudero), Francisco J(osé) (b. Feb. 28, 1855, Piura, Peru - d. June 20, 1921), justice and education minister of Peru (1903-04). He was also president of the Supreme Court (1912-14).

Eguiguren (Escudero), Luis A(ntonio) (b. July 21, 1887, Piura, Peru - d. Aug. 15, 1967, Lima, Peru), Peruvian presidential candidate (1936); son of Francisco J. Eguiguren. He was also mayor of Lima (1930-31) and president of the Constituent Congress (1931-32) and the Supreme Court (1953-54). He was leading in the vote count in 1936, but the election was annulled by Pres. Óscar R. Benavides.

Eguiguren Praeli, Francisco (José) (b. April 12, 1953, Lima, Peru), justice minister of Peru (2011). He was also ambassador to Spain (2012-14).

Eguilior y Llaguno, Manuel de, conde de Albox (b. April 3, 1842, Limpias, Santander province [now Cantabria autonomous community], Spain - d. March 31, 1931, Madrid, Spain), finance minister of Spain (1890, 1902). He was also governor of the Bank of Spain (1897-99, 1916) and minister of education and fine arts (1905). He was created conde de Albox in 1905.

Egwu, Sam (Ominyi) (b. June 20, 1954, Ohaukwu [now in Ebonyi state], Nigeria), governor of Ebonyi (1999-2007). He was also Nigerian minister of education (2008-10).

Ehard, Hans (b. Nov. 10, 1887, Bamberg, Germany - d. Oct. 18, 1980, Munich, West Germany), minister-president of Bayern (1946-54, 1960-62). He was also chairman of the Christian Social Union (1949-55).

Ehate Tomi, Vicente (b. 1968, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea), prime minister of Equatorial Guinea (2012-16). He was also minister of transport, technology, posts and telecommunications (2010-11) and administrative coordination (2011-16).

Ehlers (Zurita), Freddy (Arturo) (b. Nov. 30, 1945, Quito, Ecuador), secretary-general of the Andean Community (2007-10). He was a presidential candidate in Ecuador in 1996 and 1998 and tourism minister in 2010-13.

Ehmke, Horst (Paul August) (b. Feb. 4, 1927, Danzig [now Gdansk, Poland] - d. March 12, 2017, Bonn, Germany), justice minister of West Germany (1969). He was also minister of special tasks (1969-72) and research and technology, post and communications (1972-74).

Ehouzou, Jean-Marie (b. September 1950), foreign minister of Benin (2008-11). He was ambassador to Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, and Djibouti in 2003-06 and permanent representative to the United Nations in 2006-08.

Ehrenberger, Vlastimil (b. Feb. 16, 1935, Svojanov, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. May 27, 2018), a deputy premier of Czechoslovakia (1973-74). He was also minister of fuel and energy (1974-88).

Ehrenbill, Ulrik Gottlieb (b. Dec. 17, 1733, Karlskrona, Blekinge, Sweden - d. Jan. 8, 1795, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Uppsala (1788-90, 1790-92).

Ehrenheim, Fredrik Wilhelm friherre, originally Fredrik Wilhelm von Ehrenheim (b. June 29, 1753, Bettna socken, Södermanland, Sweden - d. Aug. 2, 1828, Stockholm, Sweden), chancellery president of Sweden (1801-09). He was also minister to Denmark (1794-97). He was made friherre (baron) in 1805.

Ehrenkrona, Erik (Gammal) friherre (b. May 9, 1673, Jönköping, Sweden - d. July 31, 1737, Bisp-Motala, Östergötland, Sweden), governor of Östergötland (1727-36). He was made friherre (baron) in 1731.

Ehrenkrona, Paul (Gammal) friherre (b. Nov. 23, 1700 - d. Dec. 21, 1777, Stockholm, Sweden), Swedish diplomat; son of Erik friherre Ehrenkrona. He was minister to Poland and Saxony (1738-41).

Ehrenmalm, Lars Johan (b. June 14, 1688, Viborg, Finland [now Vyborg, Russia] - d. Sept. 21, 1774, Ĺbo [now Turku], Finland), governor of Ĺbo och Björneborg (1747-49).

Ehrenskiöld, Johan Nilsson (b. 1631, Finland - d. April 15, 1706, Korsholm, Finland), governor of Österbotten (1694-1706). He was ennobled under the name Ehrenskiöld in 1666.

Ehrenstrahl, Frans Joachim friherre, original surname Gerdes (b. July 25, 1670, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Oct. 9, 1735, Leksberg socken, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden), governor of Stockholm (1727-33) and Skaraborg (1733-35). Ennobled under the name Ehrenstrahl in 1698, he was made friherre (baron) in 1731.

Ehrensvan, Martin, original surname Svahn (b. 1714 - d. Feb. 12, 1765), governor of Västerbotten (1762-65). He was ennobled under the name Ehrensvan in 1759.

Ehrensvärd, Albert (Carl August Lars) greve (b. Jan. 10, 1821, Björkö socken, Sweden - d. Jan. 31, 1901, Tosterup, Sweden), governor of Göteborg och Bohus (1864-85) and foreign minister of Sweden (1885-89).

Ehrensvärd, Johan Jacob Albert greve (b. May 9, 1867, Göteborg, Sweden - d. March 6, 1940, Lund, Sweden), foreign minister of Sweden (1911-14); nephew of Albert greve Ehrensvärd. He was also minister to Belgium and the Netherlands (1908-10), the United States (1910-11), Switzerland (1915-18), and France (1918-34).

Ehringhaus, J(ohn) C(hristoph) B(lucher) (b. Feb. 5, 1882, Elizabeth City, N.C. - d. July 31, 1949, Raleigh, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1933-37).

Ehrlich, Robert L(eroy), Jr. (b. Nov. 25, 1957, Baltimore, Md.), governor of Maryland (2003-07).

Ehrlich, S(aul) Paul, Jr. (b. May 4, 1932, Minneapolis, Minn. - d. Jan. 6, 2005, Delray Beach, Fla.), acting U.S. surgeon general (1973-77).

Ehrlich, Simcha, also spelled Simha Erlich (b. Dec. 15, 1915, Lublin, Poland - d. June 19, 1983, Jerusalem), Israeli politician. He immigrated to Israel in 1934 and entered politics in 1969 as a Liberal member of the Knesset (parliament). He was a personal friend of Menachem Begin and, after the Likud victory in 1977, was appointed finance minister. Ehrlich implemented policies to encourage private enterprise and reduce government subsidies, but he was blamed for failing to control inflation. In 1979 he became a deputy prime minister, and in 1981 he became minister of agriculture as well and took over responsibility for settlement on the West Bank. But in most respects he was considered a moderate, and it was Ehrlich who led the attacks on former defense minister Ariel Sharon over the latter's conduct of the invasion of Lebanon in 1982. He died in office.

Ehrlichman, John D(aniel) (b. March 20, 1925, Tacoma, Wash. - d. Feb. 14, 1999, Atlanta, Ga.), U.S. political figure. He worked on two unsuccessful campaigns of Richard M. Nixon - the 1960 presidential and 1962 California gubernatorial races - and was a strategist in the successful 1968 presidential campaign, and in 1969 he went to the White House, first as counsel and then as domestic affairs adviser. Along with H.R. Haldeman, Ehrlichman became ensconced as one of Nixon's top advisers; the two became known as the "Berlin Wall" because they so successfully shielded the president from unwelcome intrusion. Ehrlichman also formed a group known as the "plumbers," charged with the task of plugging information leaks and obtaining political intelligence. When the plumbers were caught in a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington, the White House immediately engaged in a cover-up. The scandal that ensued when the involvement of Nixon and a number of his aides was uncovered eventually led to the resignation from government of several officials, including Ehrlichman and Haldeman (1973), Nixon's resignation from the presidency (1974), and the conviction (1975) and imprisonment of Ehrlichman and others. He was convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury, also on charges stemming from another break-in. He spent 18 months in prison until being released in April 1978.

Ehrnrooth, Leo (Reinhold) (b. March 10, 1877, Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland - d. July 26, 1951, Mösseberg, Sweden), interior minister of Finland (1943-44). He was also minister of trade and industry (1920).

Ehsa, John (b. Aug. 20, 1958, Madolenihmw, Ponape [now Pohnpei], Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands [now in Federated States of Micronesia] - d. Jan. 14, 2022), finance secretary of the Federated States of Micronesia (1996-2003) and governor of Pohnpei (2008-15).

Ehui Koutoua, Bernard (b. 1946, Etuéboué, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), Ivorian politician. He was minister of industry (1983-88) and youth and sports (1988-89) and ambassador to Ghana and Togo (2011-19).


Eichel, Hans (b. Dec. 24, 1941, Kassel, Hessen, Germany), minister-president of Hessen (1991-99) and finance minister of Germany (1999-2005). He was also lord mayor of Kassel (1975-91).

Eichelbaum, Sir (Johann) Thomas (b. May 17, 1931, Königsberg, Germany [now Kaliningrad, Russia] - d. Oct. 31, 2018, Wellington, N.Z.), acting governor-general of New Zealand (1990); knighted 1989. He was chief justice (1989-99).

Eichfeld, Johan, Russian Iogan (Gansovich) Eykhfeld (b. Jan. 25 [Jan. 13, O.S.], 1893, Paide, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. April 20, 1989, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian S.S.R. (1958-61). He was also president of the Academy of Sciences (1950-68).

Eichler, Stanislav (b. April 18, 1960, Turnov, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Liberecký kraj (2008-12).

A. Eichmann
Eichmann, (Otto) Adolf (b. March 19, 1906, Solingen [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. May 31, 1962, Tel Aviv, Israel), German Nazi official. In November 1932 he became a member of Heinrich Himmler's SS elite organization and from January to October 1934 he was attached to an SS unit at Dachau and then was appointed to the SD central office in Berlin, where he was attached to the section that dealt with Jewish affairs. He advanced steadily in the SS hierarchy and, after the annexation of Austria (March 1938), was sent to Vienna with the mission of ridding the city of Jews. One year later, with a similar mission, he was sent to Prague. When in 1939 Himmler formed the Reichssicherheitshauptamt, Eichmann was transferred to its Jewish section in Berlin. In January 1942, at Wannsee, near Berlin, a conference of Nazi high officials was convened to organize schedules and logistics arrangements necessary to implement the "final solution" of the Jewish problem. Eichmann was to coordinate these arrangements; thus, although the fact that the "final solution" was mass execution had not become generally known, Eichmann had in effect been named chief executioner. Thereupon he organized the identification, assembly, and transportation of Jews from all over occupied Europe to their final destinations at Auschwitz and other death camps. Following the war, Eichmann was captured by U.S. troops, but in 1946 he escaped from the prison camp. Assuming the name Ricardo Klement, he moved to Argentina in 1950. He was arrested by Israeli secret service agents near Buenos Aires on May 11, 1960; nine days later he was smuggled out of the country and taken to Israel. The Israeli government arranged his trial before a special three-judge court in Jerusalem (April 11-Dec. 15, 1961), and he was sentenced to be hanged.

Eichmann, Franz August (b. March 29, 1793, Berlin, Prussia [Germany] - d. Aug. 14, 1879, Berlin), Oberpräsident of Rheinland (1845-48, 1848-50) and Preussen (1850-68) provinces and interior minister of Prussia (1848).


Eide, Espen Barth (b. May 1, 1964, Oslo, Norway), defense minister (2011-12) and foreign minister (2012-13, 2023- ) of Norway. He was also minister of climate and environment (2021-23).

Eidesgaard, Jóannes (Dan) (b. April 19, 1951, Tvřroyri, Faeroe Islands), finance minister (1994-96, 2008-11) and prime minister (2004-08) of the Faeroe Islands. He was also minister of health, labour, and social affairs (1991-94).

Eigenmann, Guido (b. May 3, 1910, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland - d. Sept. 1, 2003, Sankt Gallen), Landammann of Sankt Gallen (1964-65).

Eijlbracht, Johannes Philippus (d. Feb. 2, 1756), commander of Bonaire (1750-56).

Ein, Ernst (Heinrich) (b. Dec. 28, 1898, Tartu, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. Oct. 16, 1956, Claremont, Calif.), interior and justice minister of Estonia (1933).

L. Einaudi
Einaudi, Luigi (Numa Lorenzo) (b. March 24, 1874, Carrů, Piemonte, Italy - d. Oct. 30, 1961, Rome, Italy), president of Italy (1948-55). His career was almost entirely literary and academic until 1919, when he was nominated to the Italian Senate, an honorary body, in which he urged a liberal economic policy, free from protectionism. A staunch anti-Fascist, he fled to Switzerland in 1943, where, along with other exiled Italians, he advocated the idea of a European federation. Returning to Italy in 1945, he was appointed governor of the Bank of Italy. He was a member of the Constituent Assembly (1946-48) and in 1947 became deputy prime minister and minister of the budget, a new post in which he successfully curbed inflation and stabilized the currency. He was totally devoted to his cause during those strenuous times, so much that he would refuse to leave a cabinet meeting for any reason lest in his absence, even for a few minutes, some other minister might suggest a new expenditure which the treasury could not cover. In 1948 he became a member of the Senate of the Italian republic and on May 11 was elected president of the republic. His seven-year term ended in 1955 but, though 81 years of age, he offered himself for reelection. In the event he was overwhelmingly defeated by Giovanni Gronchi. He was then appointed senator for life, although he retired to private life.

L.R. Einaudi
Einaudi, Luigi R(oberto) (b. March 1, 1936, Cambridge, Mass.), acting secretary-general of the Organization of American States (2004-05); grandson of Luigi Einaudi. He was also permanent representative of the U.S. to the OAS (1989-93).

Einem, Caspar (b. May 6, 1948, Salzburg, Austria - d. Sept. 9, 2021, Vienna, Austria), interior minister of Austria (1995-97). He was also minister of science and transport (1997-2000).

Eirefelt, (Jan) Christer (b. May 4, 1942, Falkenberg, Halland, Sweden), governor of Gävleborg (2003-07).

D.D. Eisenhower
Eisenhower, Dwight D(avid)1, byname Ike (b. Oct. 14, 1890, Denison, Texas - d. March 28, 1969, Washington, D.C.), president of the United States (1953-61). He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1915. In 1933 he became an aide to Douglas MacArthur, army chief of staff. Eisenhower was made chief of staff of the 3rd Army in 1941. During World War II, he became commander of the Allied forces in Europe (June 1942) and directed the Allied invasions of North Africa (1942) and Italy (1943). As supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force, he planned the invasion of Europe that began when he ordered the landing in Normandy (June 1944) and ended after the Allies crossed the Rhine (March 1945), and Germany surrendered in May. He was named chief of staff in November 1945. He directed the demobilization of the wartime army and worked to unify the armed services. In May 1948 he left active duty. In the fall of 1950 Pres. Harry Truman asked him to become supreme commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and in early 1951 he flew to Paris to assume his new position. In June 1952 he retired from the army, returned to the United States, and began his presidential campaign actively. At the Republican convention in July, he won the nomination on the first ballot. His running mate was Sen. Richard M. Nixon of California. Democrats nominated Gov. Adlai E. Stevenson. The Eisenhower-Nixon ticket won handily, carrying 39 states and winning the electoral vote 442-89. In 1956, the Republican convention unanimously endorsed the Eisenhower-Nixon ticket on the first ballot, and Democrats again selected Stevenson. Eisenhower's great personal popularity brought about an even more decisive victory (457-73).
1 Eisenhower's given name at birth was David Dwight, but his mother insisted that he be referred to as Dwight. When Eisenhower registered at West Point on June 14, 1911, as Dwight David Eisenhower the revised order of names had been long in use and may be regarded at that point as having become official.

Eisenhower, John (Sheldon Doud) (b. Aug. 3, 1922, Denver, Colo. - d. Dec. 21, 2013, Trappe, Md.), U.S. diplomat; son of Dwight D. Eisenhower. He was ambassador to Belgium (1969-71).

Eisner, Kurt (b. May 14, 1867, Berlin, Prussia [Germany] - d. [assassinated] Feb. 21, 1919, Munich, Germany), minister-president and foreign minister of Bavaria (1918-19).

Eitan, Rafael, byname Raful Eitan (b. Jan. 11, 1929, Moshav Tel Adashim, Palestine [now in Israel] - d. Nov. 23, 2004, Ashdod, Israel), Israeli politician. He served in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) since its establishment in 1948. A graduate of the National Defense College, he served as a paratrooper officer in 1956 Sinai campaign and the 1967 Six-Day War, and was a divisional commander on the Golan Heights in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. His tenure as IDF chief of staff (1978-83) was tainted by Israel's 1982 invasion of Lebanon, during which Christian militiamen slaughtered hundreds of Palestinian refugees in camps surrounded by Israeli soldiers. Although censured for indirect responsibility in the incident, he was allowed to serve out his term before retiring from the army. He turned to politics in 1983, founding the Tzomet Party, and was elected to the Knesset in 1984. Known for his bluntness, he once said Arabs should be placed in a bottle like drugged cockroaches. He was agriculture minister in 1990-91, and deputy prime minister and agriculture and environment minister in 1996-99. Thereafter he left politics. Eitan, who was supervising construction of a breakwater at the Ashdod port, drowned after a wave apparently knocked him over.

Eitel, Tono, byname of Antonius Eitel (b. June 5, 1933, Münster, Germany - d. June 25, 2017, Münster), (West) German diplomat. He was ambassador to Lebanon (1982-87) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1995-98).

Ejoor, David (Akpode) (b. Jan. 10, 1932, Ovu [now in Delta state], Nigeria - d. Feb. 10, 2019, Lagos, Nigeria), governor of Midwest Region (1966-67). He was also Nigerian chief of army staff (1972-75).

Ek Proeung (b. 1933, Svay Rieng, Cambodia), interior (and religious affairs, general mobilization, pacification, and security) minister of Cambodia (1974-75).

Ek Yi Oun (b. 1910, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. 2013), prime minister of Cambodia (1958). He was also president of the National Assembly (1956-58).

Ekanayake, (Ekanayake Mudiyanselage Mahinda) Nandimithra (b. Dec. 26, 1943, Hendala, Wattala, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), chief minister of Central province (1999-2000). He has also been Sri Lankan minister of forestry and environment (1997-99) and provincial councils and local government (2000-01) and ambassador to Myanmar (2018- ).

Ekanayake, Niluka, governor of Central (2016-18) and Sabaragamuwa (2018-19) provinces, Sri Lanka. According to the Colombo Telegraph website, she was born as a man, named Sattambige Don Neil Sriyaratne. Sriyaratne (b. 1960?) was in the news in 1997 as being arrested for impersonation, having been named Sri Lanka's female entrepreneur of 1995. Ekanayake would have been the first transgender person not just to hold a Sri Lankan governorship, but probably in any similar position globally. She denied the reports, however, noting she was a married mother of a child.

Ekandjo, Jerry (b. March 17, 1947, Windhoek, South West Africa [now Namibia]), home affairs minister of Namibia (1995-2005). He was also minister of lands and resettlement (2005-08), regional and local government, housing, and rural development (2008-12), youth, national service, sport, and culture (2012-15), and youth, national service, and sport (2015-18).

Ekangaki, (Joseph) Nzo (b. March 22, 1934, Nguti, British Cameroons [now in South West province, Cameroon] - d. June 3, 2005, Yaoundé, Cameroon), secretary-general of the Organization of African Unity (1972-74). Previously, he served as public health and population minister (1964-65) and labour and social welfare minister (1965-72) in the government of Pres. Ahmadou Ahidjo. His tenure at the OAU ended in disgrace after he named a British mining firm, the London and Rhodesian Mining and Land Company, which had links to the apartheid regimes in Rhodesia and South Africa, as a consultant to the organization in 1974. The resulting scandal cost him his post. After his resignation from the OAU, he retired from politics.

Ekblom, Olle, byname of Olof Ekblom (b. Jan. 2, 1892, Munktorp, Västmanland, Sweden - d. Feb. 26, 1978), governor of Jönköping (1938-57).

Ekeberg, Arne (b. 1925, Fusa, Hordaland [now in Vestland], Norway), governor of Sogn og Fjordane (1971-76).

Ekeberg, (Lars) Birger (b. Aug. 10, 1880, Uppsala, Sweden - d. Nov. 30, 1968), justice minister of Sweden (1920-21, 1923-24). He was also marshal of the realm (1947-59).

Ekeblad, Claes greve (b. Feb. 20, 1669 - d. Feb. 23, 1737, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Närke och Värmland (1714-19). He was made friherre (baron) in 1711 and greve (count) in 1719.

Ekeblad, Claes greve (b. March 30, 1708, Elblag, Poland - d. Oct. 9, 1771, Stockholm, Sweden), chancellery president of Sweden (1761-65, 1769-71); son of the above. He was also minister to France (1742-44).

Ekeblad, Claes Julius greve (b. Sept. 8, 1742, Stockholm, Sweden - d. June 19, 1808, Strö, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden), governor of Uppsala (1784) and Skaraborg (1784-96); son of Claes greve Ekeblad (1708-1771).

Ekelund, Daniel (b. July 26, 1859, Karlstad, Värmland, Sweden - d. Dec. 16, 1935), acting governor of Stockholm (1919-20).

Eketebi (Moyidiba Mondjolomba), Laurent (Gabriel) (b. May 13, 1936, Coquilhatville, Belgian Congo [now Mbandaka, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. February 2006), Congo (Léopoldville/Kinshasa)/Zaire politician. He was president of Équateur (1960-62) and Moyen-Congo (1963-64), ambassador to Tanzania (1969-70), and minister of transport and communications (1972-75).

Ekila Liyonda, (Adrienne) (b. Oct. 16, 1948, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. June 22, 2006, Uccle, Brussels-Capital region, Belgium), foreign minister of Zaire (1987-88). She also served as minister of social affairs and the status of women (1983-85), ambassador to the Benelux countries (1985-87), and minister of information and press (1988-90).

Ekis, Ludvigs (b. Sept. 11, 1892, Dobele parish, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. July 7, 1943, Washington, D.C.), finance minister (1934-38) and acting foreign minister (1936) of Latvia. He was also minister to Lithuania (1934) and ambassador to Poland and Hungary (1938-39), Romania (1939-40), and Turkey (1940).

Eklo, Yao Kunale, until 1974 Michel Eklo (b. 1931, Tomegbe, Togo - d. June 2008), interior minister of Togo (1975-77). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-72) and minister of information, press, radio, and television (1973-75).

Eklund, Sigvard (b. June 19, 1911, Kiruna, Sweden - d. Jan. 30, 2000, Vienna, Austria), director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (1961-81).

Ekman, Axel (b. Aug. 2, 1869, Risinge socken, Östergötland, Sweden - d. Dec. 11, 1939, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Skaraborg (1917-35).

Ekman, Carl Gustaf (b. Oct. 6, 1872, Munktorp, Västmanland, Sweden - d. June 15, 1945, Stockholm, Sweden), prime minister (1926-28, 1930-32), finance minister (1926), and defense minister (1930-31) of Sweden. He was leader of the Liberal People's Party (1924-32).

Ekoh (Ngyema), Jean-Marc (b. Nov. 12, 1929, Nkok Oloa, near Bitam, Gabon - d. Jan. 3, 2022, Bitam), foreign minister of Gabon (1964). He was also minister of social affairs and labour (1957), education, youth, and sports (1961-63), youth, sports, cultural affairs, and tourism (1968), public health and population (1968-69), and agriculture and animal husbandry (1969-70).

Ekorn, Per Adolf (b. Jan. 17, 1758, Strängnäs, Södermanland, Sweden - d. Aug. 8, 1819, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Norrbotten (1810-16) and Älvsborg (1816-17).

Ekra, Vangah Mathieu (b. Feb. 27, 1917, Bonoua, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire] - d. Feb. 22, 2015, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire), interior minister of Ivory Coast (1974-77). He was also minister of public service (1961-63), information (1961-63, 1965-70), tourism (1971-74), and reform of state enterprises (1977-81), a minister of state (1970-90), and ombudsman (2000-11).

Ekren, Nazim (b. Dec. 4, 1956, Istanbul, Turkey), a deputy prime minister of Turkey (2007-09).

Eksteen, Jacobus Adriaan, byname Riaan Eksteen (b. Oct. 31, 1942, Volksrust, Transvaal [now in Mpumalanga], South Africa), South African diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires (1977-79) and permanent representative (1979-81) to the United Nations and ambassador to Namibia (1990-91) and Turkey, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, and Kyrgyzstan (1995-97).

Ekström, Carl Rudolf (b. Jan. 11, 1818, Stockholm, Sweden - d. May 13, 1903, Stockholm), governor of Värmland (1864-70) and Jönköping (1870-88).

Ekwona, Pres Nimes (b. June 22, 1948), foreign minister of Nauru (1986). He was also minister of health and education (1986), works and community services (1986), and education (1992-95) and speaker of parliament (1986-87).

Ekwueme, Alex (Ifeanyichukwu) (b. Oct. 21, 1932, Oko [now in Anambra state], Nigeria - d. Nov. 19, 2017, London, England), vice president of Nigeria (1979-83).

El Aissami (Maddah), Tareck (Zaidan) (b. Nov. 12, 1974, El Vigía, Mérida, Venezuela), interior and justice minister (2008-12) and executive vice president (2017-18) of Venezuela and governor of Aragua (2012-17). He was also minister of industry and national production (2018-21) and petroleum (2020-23).

El-Amine, Souef Mohamed (b. July 28, 1962, Moroni, Comoros), foreign minister of the Comoros (1999-2002, 2002-05, 2017-20). He was also ambassador to Egypt (1995-98).

Abbas El Fassi

El Ghazouani
El Fassi, Abbas, Arabic `Abbas al-Fasi (b. Sept. 18, 1940, Berkane, Morocco), prime minister of Morocco (2007-11). Earlier he was minister of housing (1977-81), minister of handicraft and social affairs (1981-85), ambassador to Tunisia and to the Arab League (1985-90), ambassador to France (1990-94), and minister of employment, professional training, social development, and solidarity (2000-02).

El Fassi, (Muhammad) Allal (b. Jan. 10, 1910, Fčs, Morocco - d. May 13, 1974, Bucharest, Romania), Moroccan politician. Founder of what in 1943 became the Istiqlal party, he was minister of Islamic affairs (1961-63).

El Ghaouth, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould (b. Dec. 20, 1952, Kiffa, Mauritania), Mauritanian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2005).

El Ghazouani, Mohamed (Ould Cheikh Mohamed Ahmed) Ould Cheikh (b. Dec. 31, 1956, Boumdeid, Mauritania), president of Mauritania (2019- ). He has also been army chief of staff (2008-18), defense minister (2018-19), and chairman of the African Union (2024- ).

El Goulli, Slaheddine (b. June 22, 1919, Sousse, Tunisia), Tunisian diplomat. He was ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (1962-69), the Netherlands (1962-69, 1976-78), the United States and Mexico (1970-73), and Venezuela (1972-73) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1969).

El Hacen, El Khalil, Mauritanian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2020).

El Haycen, Mohamed Lemine (b. 1954), Mauritanian diplomat. He was ambassador to the United States (2010-15) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2016-17).

El Othmani

El Waghef
El Othmani, Saadeddine, Arabic Sa`d al-Din al-`Uthmani (b. Jan. 16, 1956, Inzeggane, near Agadir, Morocco), foreign minister (2012-13) and prime minister (2017-21) of Morocco. He was also secretary-general of the Justice and Development Party (2004-08, 2017-21).

El Waghef, Yahya Ould Ahmed, Arabic Yahya walad Ahmad al-Waqaf (b. 1960, Moudjeria, Mauritania), prime minister of Mauritania (2008).

El-Yachroutu (Mohamed), Caabi (b. 1948?), prime minister (1995-96), interim president (1995-96), vice president (2002-06), and finance minister (2002-04) of the Comoros. He resigned in 2006 to make a bid for the presidency, but he only came fourth in the election.

Elahi, Chaudhry Pervaiz (b. Nov. 1, 1945, Gujrat, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan]), chief minister (2002-07, 2022-23) and acting governor (2018) of Punjab (Pakistan). He was also Pakistani minister of defense production (2011-12) and industries (2011-13) and deputy prime minister (2012-13).

Eland, Kornelis (b. Sept. 15, 1838, Klundert, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. Aug. 8, 1927, Utrecht, Netherlands), war minister of the Netherlands (1897-1901). He was also acting navy minister (1897-98).

Elbegdorj, Tsakhiagiyn (b. March 30, 1963, Zereg, Hovd province, Mongolia), prime minister (1998, 2004-06) and president (2009-17) of Mongolia. He set up the Mongolian Democratic Union, the first non-party democratic group set up in 1989 to nurture change. Mongolians remember him as a young political radical standing on a chair to address pro-democracy crowds and hunger strikers in Ulaanbaatar's main square in 1990. He was elected to parliament in 1990 and 1992, but resigned his seat in protest in 1994 after being cleared of charges that he had stolen and publicized state secrets. He became chairman of the National Democratic Party (NDP) in April 1996. A public opinion poll conducted at the beginning of June 1996 showed 40% of respondents regarded Elbegdorj as the public official they approved of most. He was again elected to parliament in 1996. He was barred from joining the government under laws that prevented members of parliament from being elected to the cabinet. Those laws were changed in 1998, and in April the Democratic Union Coalition, of which the NDP was the largest party, decided that the head of its majority party should be prime minister. His term was cut short by a banking scandal, which resulted in a no-confidence motion. When in 2004 neither the incumbent Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) nor the opposition Motherland Democratic Coalition won enough seats to form a government on their own, both sides agreed to form a "grand coalition government" with Elbegdorj as prime minister and MPRP chairman Nambaryn Enkhbayar as parliament speaker. The MPRP ended this coalition in 2006 and formed a government with the support of smaller parties. He was elected president in 2009 on promises to distribute the country's mining wealth more fairly and crack down on graft.

Elbert, Samuel H(itt) (b. April 3, 1833, Logan county, Ohio - d. Nov. 27, 1899, Galveston, Texas), governor of Colorado (1873-74); son-in-law of John Evans.

Elchibey, Abulfez, Azeri Äbülfez Elçibäy, pseudonym of Äbülfez Qadirqulu oglu Äliyev (b. June 7, 1938, Nakhichevan - d. Aug. 22, 2000, Ankara, Turkey), president of Azerbaijan (1992-93). He was elected the Caspian Sea oil state's second president in 1992. His rule saw massive battleground defeats in the war with the breakaway region of Nagorno-Karabakh, which ended with Karabakh Armenians controlling both the province and huge swathes of Azerbaijan proper. Around a million people were made homeless by the conflict and 35,000 people died. Elchibey fled a military revolt in which rogue units marched on Baku in 1993. Heydar Aliyev, then parliamentary speaker, took over as interim leader under the constitution and was then voted in as leader; he soon signed a ceasefire with Karabakh. Elchibey, who spent four years in internal exile in his native village in the country's remote Nakhichevan region before returning to Baku in late 1997, accused Aliyev of usurping power. He and his pro-nationalist Popular Front political movement never recognized his rule. In 1999 Elchibey went on trial for accusing Aliyev of helping found the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), but charges were dropped.

Eldarkhanov, Tashtemir (Elzhurkayevich) (b. April 1 [March 20, O.S.], 1870, Gekhi, Terek oblast [now in Chechnya republic], Russia - d. 1934), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Mountain A.S.S.R. (1921-...) and chairman of the Executive Committee (1921-23, 1924-25), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee (1922-...), and chairman of the Revolutionary Committee (1923-24) of the Chechen national okrug/autonomous oblast.

Eldarova, Roza (Abdul-Basyrovna) (b. Dec. 21, 1923, Kapchugay, Dagestan A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. - d. July 4, 2021), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Dagestan A.S.S.R. (1962-67).

Eldem, (Mehmet) Necat (b. 1928, Mardin, Turkey - d. Nov. 18, 2016), justice minister of Turkey (1983-86). He was also governor of Çankiri (1974-75), Burdur (1975-78), and Yozgat (1978).

Elders, Joycelyn, original name Minnie Lee Jones (b. Aug. 13, 1933, Schaal, Ark.), U.S. surgeon general (1993-94). She was fired in December 1994 after saying at a United Nations AIDS conference that discussion of masturbation should be part of sex education in schools.

Eldersch, Matthias (b. Feb. 24, 1869, Brünn, Austria [now Brno, Czech Republic] - d. April 20, 1931, Vienna, Austria), interior and education minister (1919-20) and acting justice minister (1920) of Austria. He was also president of the National Council (1930-31).

Eldjárn, Kristján (Thórarinsson) (b. Dec. 6, 1916, Tjörn, Iceland - d. Sept. 13, 1982, Cleveland, Ohio), president of Iceland (1968-80). Having been director of the National Museum of Iceland in Reykjavík for over 20 years and the host of a long-running television series on archaeology, he was elected by a large majority to the presidency in 1968 and was returned unopposed in 1972 and 1976.

Eldon, John Scott, (1st) Earl of (b. June 4, 1751, Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland, England - d. Jan. 13, 1838, London, England), British lord chancellor (1801-06, 1807-27). He was also solicitor general (1788-93) and attorney general (1793-99). He was knighted in 1788 and created Baron Eldon in 1799 and Earl of Eldon and Viscount Encombe in 1821.

Eldridge, Charles Monroe (b. 1825 - d. Oct. 8, 1888, Basseterre, St. Christopher), president of Nevis (1872-73), Dominica (1873-82), and Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla (1883-88) and acting governor of the Leeward Islands (1885).

Eldstierna, Lars (Larsson) friherre (b. 1626, Östergötland, Sweden - d. Dec. 15, 1701, Linköping, Östergötland), governor of Ösel (1689-90), Älvsborg (1690-93), and Östergötland (1693-1701). He was made friherre (baron) in 1691.

Elegbede, Muftau (Adegoke Babatunde) (b. Aug. 13, 1942, Ibadan, Nigeria - d. [assassinated] June 19, 1994, Lagos, Nigeria), administrator of Cross River (1978-79). He was Nigerian chief of naval staff in 1993-94.

Eleta Almarán, Fernando (b. Aug. 10, 1921, Panama City, Panama - d. Aug. 13, 2011, Panama City), finance minister (1958-60) and foreign minister (1964-68) of Panama.

Elfving, (Oskar) Gösta (Charles) (b. Sept. 2, 1908, Ludvika, Kopparberg [now Dalarna], Sweden - d. Aug. 31, 1992), governor of Kopparberg (1957-73).

Elgin, James Bruce, (8th) Earl of, (12th) Earl of Kincardine (b. July 20, 1811, London, England - d. Nov. 20, 1863, Dharmsala, India), governor of Jamaica (1842-46) and Canada (1847-54) and viceroy of India (1862-63); son of Thomas Bruce, Earl of Elgin. He was also British special commissioner to China (1857-59, 1860-61) and postmaster general (1859-60). He succeeded as earl in 1841.

Elgin, Thomas Bruce, (7th) Earl of, (11th) Earl of Kincardine (b. July 20, 1766, Broomhall, Fife, Scotland - d. Nov. 14, 1841, Paris, France), British diplomat. He was minister to Prussia (1795-99) and ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1799-1803). He acquired the Greek sculptures now known as the Elgin Marbles. He succeeded as earl in 1771.

Elgin, Victor Alexander Bruce, (9th) Earl of (b. May 16, 1849, Monklands, near Montreal, Canada - d. Jan. 18, 1917, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland), British politician; son of James Bruce, Earl of Elgin. He was viceroy of India (1894-99) and secretary of state for the colonies (1905-08). He succeeded as earl in 1863.

Elguera (Fonseca), Buenaventura (b. July 14, 1818, Lima, Peru - d. ...), interior, police, and public works minister of Peru (1879).

Elguera (Delgado), César A. (b. March 28, 1874, Lima, Peru - d. 1936), foreign minister of Peru (1925-26). He was also ambassador to Chile (1928-30).

Elguera (Barrera), Juan Ignacio (b. 1824, Lima, Peru - d. Dec. 16, 1907, Lima), finance minister of Peru (1868, 1874-76).

Elhouderi, Ali Ahmed, Libyan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1991-94).

Eliás, Alois (b. Sept. 29, 1890, Prague, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. [executed] June 19, 1942, Prague), prime minister of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939-41).

Elias, Burchard Joan (b. July 12, 1799, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. May 1, 1871, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of the Dutch West Indies (1842-45).

Elías (de la Quintana), Carlos M(aría) (b. Nov. 4, 1841, Ica, Peru - d. Aug. 20, 1907, Lima, Peru), prime minister (1887, 1892-93), foreign minister (1887), and interior, police, and public works minister (1892-93) of Peru; son of Domingo Elías.

Elías (y Carbajo), Domingo (b. Dec. 18, 1805, Ica, Peru - d. Dec. 3, 1867, Lima, Peru), political and military chief (1844) and finance minister (1844-46, 1855-56) of Peru. He was also minister to Bolivia (1847).

E. Elias
Elias, Edna (Ekhivalak) (b. 1955?), commissioner of Nunavut (2010-15).

Elías, Francisco S(uárez) (b. 1882, Tecoripa, Sonora, Mexico - d. 1963, Hermosillo?, Sonora), governor of Sonora (1929-31). He was also interim governor of Sonora three times during the nominal term of office of Adolfo de la Huerta (July 4, 1921-May 3, 1922; June 4, 1922-Jan. 17, 1923; Feb. 19-April 3, 1923). He was secretary of agriculture and development of Mexico from Oct. 21, 1931, to Nov. 30, 1934.

Elias, Henri Alexander (b. March 21, 1829, Batavia, Netherlands East Indies [now Jakarta, Indonesia] - d. Feb. 26, 1903, The Hague, Netherlands), governor of the Dutch Gold Coast (1862-65); son of Burchard Joan Elias.

S. Elias
Elias, Dame Sian (Seerpoohi) (b. March 12, 1949, London, England), acting governor-general of New Zealand (2001, 2006, 2011, 2016). Appointed a Queen's Counsel in 1988, she became a judge of the High Court in 1995 and the first female chief justice in 1999, retiring in 2019. She was knighted (GNZM) in 1999.

Elias, Taslim Olawale (b. Nov. 11, 1914, Lagos, Nigeria - d. Aug. 14, 1991, Lagos), president of the International Court of Justice (1981-85). He was also Nigerian justice minister (1960-66), attorney general (1960-72), and chief justice (1972-75).

Elías Aparicio, (Manuel) Ricardo (b. April 3, 1906, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru - d. Sept. 13, 1979, Lima, Peru), interior minister of Peru (1960-62); son of Ricardo Leoncio Elías Arias. He was also minister of labour and indigenous affairs (1956-58, 1958-59).

Elías Arias, Ricardo Leoncio (b. Sept. 12, 1874, Pisco, Ica, Peru - d. March 19, 1951, Callao, Peru), chairman of the Transitional Junta of Peru (1931); grandson of Domingo Elías. He was president of the Supreme Court (1931-32).

Elías Calles, Plutarco: see Calles, Plutarco Elías.

Elías Calles (Chacón), Rodolfo (b. May 1900, Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico - d. June 1965, Rochester, Minn.), governor of Sonora (1931-34); son of Plutarco Elías Calles. He was also Mexican minister of communications and public works (1934-35).

Elías Laroza, Enrique (b. Feb. 1, 1937, Callao, Peru - d. July 3, 2001), justice minister of Peru (1981-82).

Elías Náder, Jorge Ramón (b. Aug. 23, 1935, Sahagún, Córdoba, Colombia - d. July 17, 2015, Montería, Córdoba), Colombian politician. He was governor of Córdoba (1990-91) and president of the Senate (1993-94).

Eliasson, (Elis) Ingemar (b. March 30, 1939, Visnums-Kil, Värmland, Sweden), governor of Värmland (1990-2002). He was also Swedish minister of labour (1980-82) and energy (1981-82).

J. Eliasson
Eliasson, Jan (Kenneth) (b. Sept. 17, 1940, Göteborg, Sweden), president of the United Nations General Assembly (2005-06) and foreign minister of Sweden (2006). He earlier served as Sweden's permanent representative to the UN (1988-92) and ambassador to the United States (2000-05). In 2012-16 he was UN deputy secretary-general.

Eliasson, Lars (Magnus) (b. Dec. 8, 1914, Söderbärke, Kopparberg [now Dalarna], Sweden - d. June 5, 2002), governor of Kronoberg (1971-77).

Eliava, Shalva (Zurabovich) (b. Sept. 30 [Sept. 18, O.S.], 1883, Ganiri, Kutaisi province, Russia [now in Georgia] - d. [executed] Dec. 3, 1937), member of the Union Council of Transcaucasia (1922-23) and chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Georgian S.S.R. (1924-29) and the Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1927-31). He was also Russian ambassador to Persia (1920) and Turkey (1920-21) and Georgian people's commissar of war and navy (1921-22).

Elibank, (Charles) Gideon Murray, (2nd) Viscount, (11th) Baron Elibank of Ettrick Forest, (11th) Baronet (b. Aug. 7, 1877 - d. March 12, 1951, Cape Town, South Africa), administrator of Saint Vincent (1909-15) and Saint Lucia (1915-18). He succeeded as viscount in 1927.

Elice (Navarro), José (Manuel Antonio) (b. April 7, 1960, Lima, Peru), interior minister of Peru (2020-21); cousin of Carlos Ferrero Costa and Eduardo Ferrero Costa. He was also secretary-general of the presidency (2000-02, 2020).

Elieisar, Kandhi A. (b. April 18, 1957, Namoluk island, Truk [now Chuuk], Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), foreign secretary of the Federated States of Micronesia (2019-23).

Elifas, Filemon, in full Filemon Shuumbwa yElifas lyaShindondola (b. Oct. 10, 1932 - d. [shot] Aug. 16, 1975, Onamagongwa, Ondangwa area, Namibia), chief of Ondonga and chief minister of Ovamboland (1972-75).

Elikana, Tingika (b. Nov. 5, 1961, Pukapuka, Cook Islands), foreign minister of the Cook Islands (2024- ).

Elío (Bustillos), Tomás Manuel (b. March 25, 1886, La Paz, Bolivia - d. Jan. 31, 1971), foreign minister of Bolivia (1927-28, 1928-29, 1935, 1936, 1942-43, 1947-48). He was also minister of finance and industry (1927) and interior (1934-35) and minister to Argentina (1936-38).

Eliot, Sir Charles (Norton Edgecumbe) (b. Jan. 8, 1862, Sibford Gower, Oxfordshire, England - d. March 16, 1931, on board the Hakone Maru, in the Strait of Malacca), British colonial administrator. He served in diplomatic posts in Russia (1885), Morocco (1892), Turkey (1893), and Washington, D.C. (1899). In 1899 he was selected for the post of high commissioner and consul-general for the international commission which the three protecting powers (Britain, the U.S., and Germany) appointed to report upon the existing troubles and future administration of the Samoan Islands. In 1900 he was knighted (K.C.M.G.) and appointed commissioner for the East African Protectorate (now Kenya) and consul-general for Zanzibar. He initiated a policy of white supremacy, collaborating with the farmers there (notably Lord Delamere, to whom he ceded 100,000 acres [40,500 ha] of land) and encouraging European immigration by the wholesale award of land concessions to European settlers. By 1903 he was encountering opposition from the Colonial Office, which felt he was proceeding too rapidly. In 1904, after being criticized for granting a concession on land previously reserved for the Masai, he resigned his position. In 1918 he reentered the service of the Foreign Office when he accepted the post of high commissioner and consul-general in Siberia, when Adm. Aleksandr Kolchak was making his fruitless effort to stem the Soviet march eastwards. In 1920 he became ambassador in Tokyo. He retired in 1926 but continued to live in Japan.

Eliot, Edward Carlyon (b. April 18, 1870 - d. Jan. 1, 1940, Beverley, St. Lawrence, Barbados), resident commissioner of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1913-21) and administrator of Dominica (1924-31); brother of Sir Charles Eliot.

Elisaia, Ali'ioaiga Feturi (b. 1954), Samoan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations, ambassador to the United States, and high commissioner to Canada (2003-20). In 2021 he was appointed high commissioner to Fiji.

Elizabeth II, in full Elizabeth Alexandra Mary (b. April 21, 1926, London, England - d. Sept. 8, 2022, Balmoral Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland), queen of the United Kingdom (1952-2022). She was the elder daughter of Albert, Duke of York, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (great-great-granddaughter of Richard Colley Wellesley, Marquess Wellesley, and of William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Bentinck, Duke of Portland). As the child of a younger son of King George V, the young Elizabeth had little prospect of acceding to the throne until her uncle, Edward VIII, abdicated in her father's favour on Dec. 11, 1936, at which time her father became King George VI and she became heir presumptive. She married Philip Mountbatten (who was made Duke of Edinburgh; 1921-2021) on Nov. 20, 1947. Their first child, Prince Charles, was born Nov. 14, 1948. King George VI died on Feb. 6, 1952, and Elizabeth, who was on an official visit to Kenya at the time, flew back to London to be greeted as the new queen. Her coronation was held at Westminster Abbey on June 2, 1953. On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, her son Prince Charles became heir apparent. The queen's other children were Princess Anne (Elizabeth Alice Louise), b. Aug. 15, 1950; Prince Andrew (Albert Christian Edward), b. Feb. 19, 1960, and created Duke of York in 1986; and Prince Edward (Anthony Richard Louis), b. March 10, 1964, created Duke of Edinburgh in 2023. All these children have the surname "of Windsor," but in 1960 Elizabeth decided to create the hyphenated name Mountbatten-Windsor for other descendants not styled prince or princess and royal highness. Elizabeth's first grandchild (Princess Anne's son) was born on Nov. 15, 1977. The queen seemed increasingly aware of the modern role of the monarchy, allowing, for example, the televising of the royal family's domestic life in 1970 and condoning the formal dissolution of her sister's marriage in 1978. Celebrating her golden jubilee in 2002, she succeeded in retaining public confidence in an era of rapid social change and intense media scrutiny. Many British colonies achieved independence during her reign, and several of them retained her as queen, so that she was finally queen of 15 independent countries.1 In September 2015 she surpassed Queen Victoria's record to become Britain's longest-reigning monarch. From October 2016 she was the world's longest-serving current head of state.
1 Namely, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and the United Kingdom.

Elizalde, Joaquin Miguel (b. Aug. 2, 1896, Manila, Philippines - d. Feb. 9, 1965, Washington, D.C.), foreign secretary of the Philippines (1952-53). He was also ambassador to the United States (1946-52).

Elizalde (Gómez), Rafael H(éctor) (b. May 31, 1872, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. Aug. 1, 1952, Guayaquil), foreign minister of Ecuador (1914-16). He was also chargé d'affaires (1904-06), minister-resident (1906-07), and minister (1907-12, 1924-27) to Chile and minister to the United States (1917-24) and Argentina (1927-30).

Elizondo, Eduardo A., in full Eduardo Ángel Elizondo Lozano (b. Dec. 7, 1922, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. Feb. 24, 2005, San Pedro Garza García, Nuevo León), governor of Nuevo León (1967-71).

Elizondo, Joaquín, finance, war, and navy minister of Nicaragua (1879-87).

F. Elizondo
Elizondo Barragán, Fernando (b. Jan. 6, 1949, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (2003); son of Eduardo A. Elizondo. He was also Mexican minister of energy (2004-05).

Elizondo Torres, Rodolfo (b. July 18, 1946, Durango, Durango, Mexico), Mexican politician. He was mayor of Durango (1983-86) and minister of tourism (2003-10).

Elkins, Stephen B(enton) (b. Sept. 26, 1841, Perry county, Ohio - d. Jan. 4, 1911, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of war (1891-93).

Ellauri (Obes), José Eugenio (b. Nov. 15, 1834, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. 1894, Montevideo), foreign minister (1868-72) and president (1873-75) of Uruguay.

Ellawala, Mohan Saliya (b. Nov. 9, 1948 - d. May 12, 2009, Colombo, Sri Lanka), chief minister (2001-04) and governor (2008-09) of Sabaragamuwa.

Ellawala, Surangani (b. Aug. 14, 1939 - d. March 14, 2016, Kandy, Sri Lanka), governor of Central province, Sri Lanka (2015-16).

Ellefsen, (Joen) Pauli (Hřjgaard) (b. April 20, 1936, Midvágur, Faeroe Islands - d. Aug. 24, 2012), prime minister of the Faeroe Islands (1981-85).

Ellemann (Kloch), Karen, during former marriage Karen Ellemann Kharabian (b. Aug. 26, 1969, Charlottenlund, Denmark), interior minister of Denmark (2009-10, 2015-16); daughter of Uffe Ellemann-Jensen. She was also minister of environment and Nordic cooperation (2010-11), social affairs (2015-16), equality and Nordic cooperation (2016-18), and fisheries (2017-18).

Ellemann-Jensen, Jakob (b. Sept. 25, 1973, Hřrsholm, Denmark), deputy prime minister (2022-23) and defense minister (2022-23) of Denmark; son of Uffe Ellemann-Jensen. He was also minister of environment and food (2018-19) and economy (2023) and leader of Venstre (2019-23).

U. Ellemann-Jensen
Ellemann-Jensen, Uffe (b. Nov. 1, 1941, Haarby, Denmark - d. June 19, 2022, Copenhagen, Denmark), foreign minister of Denmark (1982-93). He was also leader of Venstre (1984-98) and president of the European Liberals (1995-2000).

Ellenberger, Jules (b. Jan. 16, 1871, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. Aug. 20, 1973), resident commissioner of Bechuanaland (1923-27); brother-in-law of Sir James Comyn Macgregor.

Ellenborough, Edward Law, (1st) Baron (b. Nov. 16, 1750, Great Salkeld, Cumberland, England - d. Dec. 13, 1818, London, England), British acting chancellor of the exchequer (1806). He was also attorney general (1801-02) and lord chief justice (1802-18). He was created baron in 1802.

Ellenborough, Edward Law, (1st) Earl of, (1st) Viscount Southam (of Southam), (2nd) Baron Ellenborough (of Ellenborough) (b. Sept. 8, 1790, London, England - d. Dec. 22, 1871, Southam Delabere, Gloucestershire, England), governor-general of India (1842-44); son of Edward Law, Baron Ellenborough; brother-in-law of Henry Hardinge, Viscount Hardinge. He was also British lord privy seal (1828-29) and first lord of the Admiralty (1846). He succeeded as baron in 1818 and was made earl and viscount in 1844.

Ellerbe, William H(aselden) (b. April 7, 1862, Marion, S.C. - d. June 2, 1899, Marion county, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1897-99).

Ellertsdóttir, Bergdís (b. 1962), Icelandic diplomat. She has been ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (2014-18), the Netherlands and Switzerland (2015-18), and the United States (2019- ) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2018-19).

Ellesmere, Francis Egerton, (1st) Earl of, originally Francis Leveson-Gower (b. Jan. 1, 1800, London, England - d. Feb. 18, 1857, London), British secretary at war (1830). He assumed the name Egerton in 1833 and was created Earl of Ellesmere and Viscount Brackley in 1846.

Ellice, Edward (b. Sept. 12, 1783, London, England - d. Sept. 17, 1863, near Invergarry, Inverness-shire, Scotland), British secretary at war (1833-34); brother-in-law of Charles Grey, Earl Grey.

Ellicott, Robert James, byname Bob Ellicott (b. April 15, 1927, Moree, N.S.W. - d. Oct. 31, 2022), attorney general (1975-77) and home affairs minister (1977-81) of Australia.

Ellingsgĺrd, Kĺre (b. Dec. 1, 1926, Ingřy, Mĺsřy municipality, Finnmark, Norway - d. June 26, 2017, Molde, Mřre og Romsdal, Norway), governor of Mřre og Romsdal (1972-77).

Ellington, (Earl) Buford (b. July 27, 1907, near Lexington, Miss. - d. April 3, 1972, Boca Raton, Fla.), governor of Tennessee (1959-63, 1967-71).

Elliot, Charles Sinclair (b. Sept. 26, 1853, India - d. March 30, 1915, Largs Bay, S.Aus.), chief magistrate of Norfolk Island (1907-13).

Elliot, Edward King (b. 1811 - d. Oct. 11, 1865, Nasirabad, North-Western Provinces [now in Rajasthan], India), chief commissioner of Nagpur/Central Provinces (1861-64).

Elliot, Hugh (b. April 6, 1752 - d. Dec. 10, 1830, London, England), governor of the Leeward Islands (1810-13) and Madras (1814-20); brother of Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, Earl of Minto. He was also British minister to Bavaria (1774-76), Prussia (1777-82), Denmark (1783-89), Saxony (1791-1803), and Naples (1803-06).

Elliott, Andrew Charles (b. 1828, Ireland - d. April 9, 1889, San Franciso, Calif.), premier of British Columbia (1876-78). In 1860 he was appointed county court judge for the district of Yale and Hope. The following year he was given the prestigious position of "gold commissioner" in the prominent mining town of Lillooet, and fulfilled a variety of the town's municipal duties. After the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia united in 1866, he became high sherriff, then police magistrate in Victoria. In 1875 he decided to run for a seat in the provincial legislature, and was elected in the key Victoria riding. Though his initial year in government was mired with controversy, his fellow MLAs saw potential in his leadership, and appointed him leader of the opposition. When Premier George Anthony Walkem lost a vote of confidence in 1876, Lieutenant Governor Sir Joseph William Trutch asked Elliott and his opposition party to form a government. As premier, he inherited a province that was becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the federal government. While not a fevered separatist himself, Elliott found himself "guilty by association" in the eyes of the prime minister and governor-general, and received little help in calming his rebellious province. He tried to satisfy the B.C. isolationists by suspending construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, but this move was not popular, and further enforced the image of Elliott as a "traitor" to the Canadian dominion. In 1878 he was soundly defeated by Walkem's opposition forces, and failed to even win his own seat. He sought reelection in 1884, but was once again unsuccessful.

Elliott, Sir Charles Alfred (b. Dec. 8, 1835, Brighton, England - d. May 28, 1911, Wimbledon, Surrey [now part of London], England), chief commissioner of Assam (1881-85) and lieutenant governor of Bengal (1890-95); knighted 1887.

Elliott, Sir Hugh (Francis Ivo), (3rd) Baronet (b. March 10, 1913 - d. Dec. 21, 1989), administrator of Tristan da Cunha (1950-52). Known as an ornithologist and conservationist, he succeeded his father as baronet in 1961.

Elliott, John C. (b. Jan. 30, 1919, Los Angeles, Calif. - d. April 13, 2001, San Marino, Calif.), governor of American Samoa (1952).

Elliott, Roger (b. c. 1665, London, England, or Tangier, Morocco - d. May 15, 1714, Barnes, Surrey, England), governor of Gibraltar (1707-11); half-brother of Alexander Spotswood.

Ellis, Abraham George (b. Aug. 26, 1846, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname] - d. Nov. 29, 1916, Amsterdam, Netherlands), acting foreign minister of the Netherlands (1905, 1905); grandson of Abraham de Veer. He was also minister of the navy (1903-05).

Ellis, Francis Robert (b. May 5, 1849 - d. Nov. 24, 1915), governor of North Borneo (1911-12).

Ellis, John W(illis) (b. Nov. 23, 1820, Jersey Settlement, Rowan [now in Davidson] county, N.C. - d. July 7, 1861, Red Sulphur Springs, Va. [now in W.Va.]), governor of North Carolina (1859-61).

Ellison, Robert Eldon (b. Oct. 7, 1895, Kingstown, near Dublin, Ireland - d. Sept. 3, 1959, Surrey, England), British political agent and consul in Muscat and Oman (1948-49).

Ellison-Macartney, Sir William Grey, original surname (until 1859) Ellison (b. June 7, 1852, Dublin, Ireland - d. Dec. 4, 1924, London, England), governor of Tasmania (1913-17) and Western Australia (1917-20); knighted 1913.

O. Ellsworth
Ellsworth, Oliver (b. April 29, 1745, Windsor, Connecticut - d. Nov. 26, 1807, Windsor), U.S. politician; nephew-in-law of Roger Wolcott. In 1777 he was chosen as one of Connecticut's representatives in the Continental Congress. He served on various committees during six annual terms until 1783. As a member of the Committee of the Pay Table, he was one of the five men who supervised Connecticut's war expenditures. In 1779 he assumed greater duties as a member of the Council of Safety, which, with the governor, controlled all military measures for the state. Thereafter he served on the state Superior Court (1784-89). When the Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia in 1787 he once again represented Connecticut and took an active part in the proceedings. In 1789 he became one of Connecticut's first two U.S. senators and the acknowledged Federalist leader in the Senate. He was a principal draftsman of the conference report on the first 12 proposed amendments to the Constitution (accepted by Congress in September 1789; 10 amendments - the Bill of Rights - were ratified by the states and became effective in December 1791). Ellsworth was commissioned as U.S. chief justice on March 4, 1796, and sworn in on March 8. While presiding over the U.S. Circuit Court for Connecticut, he ruled, in United States v. Isaac Williams (1799), that a U.S. citizen could not expatriate himself without the consent of the government. He resigned late in 1800 because his health had been permanently impaired on an arduous trip to France to negotiate a treaty.

Ellsworth, William W(olcott) (b. Nov. 10, 1791, Windsor, Conn. - d. Jan. 15, 1868, Hartford, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1838-42); son of Oliver Ellsworth.

Elmajerbi, Elmahdi S. (b. Dec. 12, 1952), Libyan diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2016-20).

Elmen, Daniil (Semyonovich), original surname Semyonov (b. Dec. 16 [Dec. 4, O.S.], 1885, Ismendery, Kazan province, Russia - d. Sept. 3, 1932, Ilyinka, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Executive Committee (1920-21) and executive secretary of the Communist Party committee (1920 [interim], 1922-24) of Chuvash autonomous oblast. He was also chairman of the Chuvash Revolutionary Committee (1920).

Elmhirst, Sir Thomas (Walker) (b. Dec. 15, 1895 - d. Nov. 6, 1982), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1953-58); knighted 1946.

Elmi, Hassan Nur (b. Nov. 12, 1926, Obbia, Somalia), Somali politician; brother of Hussein Nur Elmi. He was governor of Mijertein, Hiran, and Benadir (1956-59), permanent representative to the United Nations (1961-65), and ambassador to Tanzania (1965-69) and West Germany (1969-70).

Elmi, Hussein Nur (b. April 1, 1926, Obbia, Somalia), Somali politician. He was governor of Hiran (1959-60) and Benadir (1960-62), ambassador to Tanzania (1963-65), Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg (1965-68), and Italy (1974-76) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-74).

Elmore (Fernández de Córdoba), Alberto (Augusto Federico) (b. Aug. 28, 1844, Lima, Peru - d. June 7, 1916, Lima), foreign minister (1887-88, 1890-91, 1904) and prime minister (1891, 1904) of Peru; brother of Juan Federico Elmore. He was also president of the Supreme Court (1905-07).

Elmore (Fernández de Córdoba), Juan Federico (b. 1841, Lima, Peru - d. 1909?, New York), foreign minister of Peru (1891-92). He was also minister to China (1878-81) and the United States (1881-86).

Elmquist, Aage (Ludvig Holberg) (b. May 18, 1889, Aalborg, Denmark - d. Sept. 20, 1962, Svendborg, Denmark), justice minister of Denmark (1945-47).

Elmquist, (Gustaf) Henning (b. Dec. 5, 1871, Eskilstuna, Södermanland, Sweden - d. Aug. 23, 1933, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Örebro (1925-28) and Stockholm city (1928-33). He was also Swedish minister to Finland (1921-25).

Elmsäter-Svärd, Catharina (Sabine Maria Laurine), née Elmsäter (b. Nov. 23, 1965, Järfälla, Stockholm county, Sweden), acting defense minister of Sweden (2012). She was minister of infrastructure (2010-14).

Elmstedt, Claes (Yngve) (b. March 31, 1928, Ronneby, Sweden - d. Feb. 14, 2018, Karlskrona, Sweden), governor of Gotland (1984-91). He was also Swedish minister of communications (1981-82).

Elorduy Walther, Eugenio (b. Nov. 21, 1940, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico - d. Sept. 23, 2023), governor of Baja California (2001-07). He was also mayor of Mexicali (1995-98).

Elout, Cornelis Theodorus (b. March 22, 1767, Haarlem, Netherlands - d. May 3, 1841, The Hague, Netherlands), finance minister of the Netherlands (1821-24). He was also minister of national industry and colonies (1824-25) and navy and colonies (1825-29).

Elphinstone, Mountstuart (b. Oct. 6, 1779, Dunbartonshire, Scotland - d. Nov. 20, 1859, Hookwood, near Limpsfield, Surrey, England), governor of Bombay (1819-27).

Elrington, Wilfred (Peter), byname Sedi Elrington (b. Nov. 20, 1948, Belize, British Honduras [now Belize City, Belize]) foreign minister of Belize (2008-20). He was also attorney general (2008-10, 2012-15).

Elrod, Samuel H(arrison) (b. May 1, 1856, Coatesville, Ind. - d. July 13, 1935, Watertown, S.D.), governor of South Dakota (1905-07).

Elslande, Renaat (Antoon Joseph Cornelis) van (b. Jan. 21, 1916, Boekhoute, Belgium - d. Dec. 21, 2000, Ukkel, Brussels-Capital region, Belgium), Belgian politician. Although a member of the Christian People's Party (CVP) and not of one of the traditional Flemish nationalist parties, he was a major advocate of the Flemish cause in Francophone-dominated Belgium in the 1960s and '70s. He was minister-undersecretary of state for cultural affairs (1960-61), assistant minister for national education and culture (1961-62), minister of culture and assistant minister of national education (1962-65), minister of European affairs and Dutch culture (1966-68), home affairs (1972), foreign affairs (1973-77; after more than 140 years of Belgian independence the first member of the Flemish majority to hold this post), and justice (1977-80), a deputy prime minister (1978-79), and minister of state (a honorific title; 1992-2000).

Elster, Christen (b. April 2, 1763, Strřmsř [now part of Drammen], Norway - d. March 11, 1833, Vćrdalen [now Verdal], Nordre Trondhjems amt [now in Trřndelag fylke], Norway), governor of Nordlands amt (1811-15) and Nordre Trondhjems amt (1815-33).

Elthon, Leo (Hobson) (b. June 9, 1898, Fertile, Iowa - d. April 16, 1967, Mason City, Iowa), governor of Iowa (1954-55).

Elvan, Lütfi (b. March 12, 1962, Karaman, Turkey), a deputy prime minister (2015-16) and finance minister (2020-21) of Turkey. He was also minister of transport, maritime affairs, and communications (2013-15) and development (2016-18).

Elvidge, Ford Quint (b. Nov. 30, 1892, Oakland, Calif. - d. July 14, 1980), governor of Guam (1953-56).

Elvir Sierra, César (b. March 23, 1935, Potrerillos, Cortés department, Honduras - d. Feb. 14, 2020), foreign minister of Honduras (1980-82).

Elvira Quesada, Juan Rafael (b. April 11, 1958, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican politician. He was mayor of Uruapan (1999-2001) and minister of environment (2006-12).

Elwyn-Jones, (Frederick) Elwyn Jones, Baron (b. Oct. 24, 1909, Llanelli, Wales - d. Dec. 4, 1989, Brighton, England), British lord chancellor (1974-79). He was also attorney general (1964-70). He was knighted in 1964 and made a life peer in 1974.

Ely, Hamoud Ould (b. 1946), Mauritanian diplomat/politician. He was ambassador to Ivory Coast, Liberia, and Ghana (1981-85), France, the United Kingdom, Italy, and Switzerland (1986-87), China, Cambodia, and South Korea (1991-94), Cuba (1994-96), Germany, Austria, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland (1996-2001), and Italy and Malta (2001-04), minister of equipment (1987-88) and rural development (1988-90), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-96).

Ely, Joseph B(uell) (b. Feb. 22, 1881, Westfield, Mass. - d. June 13, 1956, Westfield), governor of Massachusetts (1931-35).

Ély, Paul (Henri Romuald) (b. Dec. 17, 1897, Salonika, Ottoman Empire [now Thessaloniki, Greece] - d. Jan. 16, 1975, Paris, France), commissioner-general of French Indochina (1954-55). He was also French armed forces chief of staff (1953-54, 1956-58, 1958-59) and defense chief of staff (1959-61).

H. Eman

M. Eman
Eman, Henny, byname of Jan Hendrik Albert Eman (b. March 20, 1948), prime minister of Aruba (1986-89, 1994-2001).

Eman, Mike, byname of Michiel Godfried Eman (b. Sept. 1, 1961, Oranjestad, Aruba), prime minister of Aruba (2009-17); brother of Henny Eman.

Emanuel, David (b. 1744, Pennsylvania - d. Feb. 19, 1808, Burke county, Ga.), acting governor of Georgia (1801).

Emanuel, Rahm (Israel) (b. Nov. 29, 1959, Chicago, Ill.), White House chief of staff (2009-10) and mayor of Chicago (2011-19). He launched his political career in the early 1980s, serving on Paul Simon's successful 1984 U.S. Senate campaign. By 1989, when he was chief fund-raiser for Richard M. Daley's mayoral race in Chicago, he had established a reputation as a hard-nosed political operator. In 1992 he joined Bill Clinton's presidential campaign as finance director, and he became one of Clinton's most trusted political advisers. He advanced such items on the Clinton agenda as the North American Free Trade Agreement and the 1994 assault-weapons ban. He left politics in 1998, returning to run, successfully, for the House of Representatives in 2002. After a disappointing showing for Democrats in the 2004 congressional elections, he was named head of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee in 2005. The 2006 midterm elections saw the Democrats pick up 30 seats and secure a majority in the House for the first time in 12 years. In 2007, at the start of the new congressional session, he was elected Democratic caucus chair. After the 2008 elections, in which Democrats won another 21 seats, one of President-elect Barack Obama's first appointments was to name Emanuel as his chief of staff. He quickly became one of the most powerful men in Washington, playing a significant role in the negotiations that led to the $787 billion stimulus package as well as the Affordable Care Act. In October 2010 he resigned in order to run for mayor of Chicago. He won the February 2011 election and took office in May. His first term was characterized by a controversial decision to shutter dozens of public schools and by the city's first teachers' strike in 25 years. As a result, in the 2015 election a strong showing by a candidate backed by the teachers' union, Jesús García, prevented Emanuel from securing an outright majority and forced the city's first-ever mayoral runoff, in which Emanuel emerged victorious. His second term was dominated by controversy over the shooting of Laquan McDonald, an African-American teenager, by a Chicago police officer. Emanuel's support among the city's black community evaporated. In September 2018 he announced that he would not seek a third term. In 2022 he became ambassador to Japan.

Emanuels, Severinus Désiré (b. Feb. 27, 1910, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. Aug. 27, 1981, The Hague, Netherlands), finance minister (1952-55) and prime minister (1958-63) of Suriname. In 1968-74 he was Dutch ambassador to Trinidad and Tobago.


Embaló, Umaro (El Mokhtar) Sissoco (b. Sept. 23, 1972, Bissau, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), prime minister (2016-18), president (2020- ), and defense minister (2023- ) of Guinea-Bissau. In 2022-23 he was chairman of the Economic Community of West African States.

Embel, Philemon (Teiel) (b. Oct. 10, 1962), justice minister of Papua New Guinea (1992-94). He was also minister of health (1996-97), transport and civil aviation (1997), mining and energy (1997-98), public service (1999-2002), and sports (2009-11).

Emein, Cletus (Komena) (b. Nov. 24, 1948), administrator of Niger state, Nigeria (1993-96).

Emelee, (Claude) Christophe (Antoine) (b. Jan. 9, 1958), internal affairs minister of Vanuatu (2014, 2022-23). He has also been minister of justice and community services (2014), agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and biosecurity (2015-16), infrastructure and public utilities (2018-20), and education (2023, 2023- ) and deputy prime minister (2015-16).

Emerencia, Lydia (Angela) (b. Oct. 2, 1954, Aruba), administrator of Bonaire (2012-14).

C. Emerson

D. Emerson
Emerson, Craig (Anthony) (b. Nov. 15, 1954, Baradine, N.S.W.), acting foreign minister of Australia (2012). He was minister of small business, independent contractors, and the service economy (2007-10), competition policy and consumer affairs (2009-10), trade (2010-12), trade and competitiveness (2012-13), and tertiary education, skills, science, and research (2013).

Emerson, David (Lee) (b. Sept. 17, 1945, Montreal, Quebec), foreign minister of Canada (2008). He was also minister of industry (2004-06) and international trade (2006-08).

Emerson, Frank C(ollins) (b. May 26, 1882, Saginaw, Mich. - d. Feb. 18, 1931, Cheyenne, Wyo.), governor of Wyoming (1927-31).

Emerson, Sir Herbert (William) (b. June 1, 1881, West Kirby, Cheshire, England - d. April 12, 1962, Orpington, Kent [now part of London], England), governor of Punjab (1933-38); knighted 1933.

Emerson, Lee E(arl) (b. Dec. 19, 1898, Hardwick, Vt. - d. May 21, 1976, Berlin, Vt.), governor of Vermont (1951-55).

Emery, George W. (b. Aug. 13, 1830, Penobscot, Maine - d. July 10, 1909, Marshfield, Mass.), governor of Utah (1875-80).

Emiliani Román, Raimundo (b. Dec. 12, 1914, Cartagena, Bolívar, Colombia - d. Oct. 2, 2005, Bogotá, Colombia), justice minister of Colombia (1965). He was also minister to Uruguay (1951-52), minister of labour (1953, 1957-59), and ambassador to Cuba (1953-54), Switzerland (1959-61), and the Vatican (1979-80).

Emiliano, Michele (b. July 23, 1959, Bari, Italy), president of Puglia (2015- ). He was also mayor of Bari (2004-14).

Emiliou, Nicholas (b. June 14, 1963, Famagusta, Cyprus), Cypriot diplomat. He was ambassador to Ireland (1999-2002) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2012-17).

Emilson (b. Jan. 27, 1952), governor of Fianarantsoa (2001-02). He was sentenced to five years in prison on March 25, 2003, for "setting up economic blockades and attacking the interior safety of the state." On Dec. 15, 2003, he was further sentenced to three years in prison for proclaiming the independence of his province during the 2002 political crisis.

Emiridze, Guram (Khuseynovich) (b. 1937), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Adzhar A.S.S.R. (1986-90).


Emmerová, Milada (b. Nov. 4, 1944, Plzen, Bohemia and Moravia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Plzenský kraj (2008-10). She was health minister of the Czech Republic in 2004-05.

Emmerson, Louis L(incoln) (b. Dec. 27, 1863, Albion, Ill. - d. Feb. 4, 1941, Mount Vernon, Ill.), governor of Illinois (1929-33).

Emminger, Erich (Franz) (b. June 25, 1880, Eichstätt, Bayern, Germany - d. Aug. 30, 1951, Munich, West Germany), justice minister of Germany (1923-24).

Emminger, Otmar (Erich Anton) (b. March 2, 1911, Augsburg, Bayern, Germany - d. Aug. 3, 1986, Manila, Philippines), West German official; son of Erich Emminger. He was president of the Bundesbank (1977-79).

Emomali, Rukhshona, originally Rukhshona (Emomaliyevna) Rakhmonova, Tajik diplomat; daughter of Emomali Rakhmon. She was appointed ambassador to the United Kingdom in 2021.

Emomali, Rustam, originally Rustam (Emomaliyevich) Rakhmonov (b. Dec. 19, 1987, Dangara district, Kulyab oblast, Tadzhik S.S.R. [now Danghara district, Khatlon viloyat, Tajikistan]), Tajik politician; son of Emomali Rakhmon. He has been mayor of Dushanbe (2017- ) and chairman of the National Assembly (2020- ).

Empey, Reg(inald Norman Morgan) Empey, Baron (b. Oct. 26, 1947, Belfast, Northern Ireland), Northern Irish politician. A Belfast city councillor from 1985, he was lord mayor in 1989-90 and 1993-94. In the Northern Ireland Executive he was minister for enterprise, trade, and investment (1999-2002) and employment and learning (2007-10) and acting first minister (2001). In 2005-10 he was leader of the Ulster Unionist Party. He was knighted in 1999 and made a life peer in 2011.

Emran bin Bahar, Haji (b. Aug. 9, 1961, Brunei), Bruneian diplomat. He was ambassador to Cambodia (2004-06), Russia (2009-12), and Laos (2012-16) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-08).

Emsis, Indulis (b. Jan. 2, 1952, Salacgriva, Limbazi district, Latvian S.S.R.), prime minister of Latvia (2004). He was also state minister of environment (1993-98) and speaker of the Saeima (2006-07).

Emvula, Wilfried (Inotira) (b. Dec. 11, 1952, Oniimwandi, South West Africa [now Namibia]), Namibian diplomat. He has been ambassador to France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain (1999-2006) and Ethiopia (2006-10) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2010-16).

Enache, Marin (b. July 24, 1934, Vacaresti, Dâmbovita county, Romania), a deputy prime minister of Romania (1983-84). He was also minister of metallurgical industry (1985-89).

Ename Ename, Samson (b. May 7, 1942, Sangmélima, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon]), territorial administration minister of Cameroon (1997-2000). He was also prefect of the départements of Haut-Nyong (1983-89), Moungo (1989-92), and Mfoundi (1992-96) and interim governor of Adamaoua province (1996-97).

Enander, (Stig) Göran (b. Sept. 1, 1955, Gällstad, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden), governor of Skĺne (acting, 2016) and Uppsala (2016- ).


Encinas Johnson, Luis (b. Oct. 23, 1912, Hermosillo, Mexico - d. April 27, 1992), governor of Sonora (1961-67).

Encinas Rodríguez, Alejandro (de Jesús) (b. May 13, 1954, Mexico City, Mexico), chief of government of the Distrito Federal (2005-06) and acting interior minister of Mexico (2023).

Enckell, Carl (Johan Alexis) (b. June 7, 1876, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. March 26, 1959, Helsinki, Finland), foreign minister of Finland (1918-19, 1922, 1924, 1944-50). He was also ambassador to France (1919-27).

Enckell, (Carl Fredrik) Ralph (Alexander) (b. May 13, 1913, Helsinki, Finland - d. May 18, 2001, Helsinki), Finnish diplomat; son of Carl Enckell. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1959-65) and ambassador to Sweden (1965-69), France (1972-76), and Poland (1976-80).

Endalkachew Makonnen (b. 1927, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia - d. [executed] Nov. 24, 1974), prime minister of Ethiopia (1974); son of Makonnen Endalkachew. He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1959-61), minister of commerce and industry (1961-66) and communications, telecommunications, and posts (1969-74), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1966-69).

Endara (Galimany), Guillermo (David) (b. May 12, 1936, Panama City, Panama - d. Sept. 28, 2009, Panama City), president of Panama (1989-94). He was a prominent labour lawyer who served as an aide to former president Arnulfo Arias and was minister of planning and political economy in Arias' short-lived presidency of 1968. He was in exile in 1971-77. With Arias he refounded the Panamanist Party in 1978 to continue organized opposition to the military regime; as the regime recognized minority factions of the party, it changed its name to Authentic Panamanist Party in 1984 and Authentic Liberal Party in 1988. As leader of the latter, he was chosen by the Democratic Alliance of Civic Opposition, a broad coalition of opposition groups, to run as their candidate in the May 1989 presidential elections. He handily defeated the government's nominee, Carlos Duque Jaén, but the regime of Gen. Manuel Noriega annulled the elections. Endara was installed as president on Dec. 21, 1989, following the U.S. invasion of Panama and the ouster of Noriega's regime. One of Endara's first priorities was the disbandment of the Panama Defense Forces, which had propped up the Noriega regime; security became entrusted to a national police force. In 1990 he undertook a hunger strike in solidarity with the most needy of Panamanians at a time of severe economic crisis. Though ridiculed at first, the ploy had the desired effect and within a year the U.S. and other countries pledged $1 billion in aid. However, economic and social distress remained prevalent. Barred from running for reelection in 1994, he was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2004 and 2009.

Endecott, John, also spelled Endicott (b. 1588?, Drewston, Chagford, Devonshire, England - d. March 15, 1665, Boston), governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1628 Endecott, as one of the six grantees of the New England Company for a Plantation in Massachusetts, was chosen manager and governor of their settlement. In that year Endecott and about 30 settlers left on the ship Abigail from the port of Weymouth near Dorchester on June 20, 1628, and landed on Sept. 6, 1628, at Naumkeag, a location already occupied by a group of seceders from Plymouth who were led by Roger Conant. According to tradition, the establishment of good relations between the two groups prompted the change of the name of the settlement to Salem (from the Hebrew word shalom, "peace"). When the jurisdiction of the New England Company was supplanted by that of the Massachusetts Bay Company (1629), Endecott briefly served as the local governor (April 1629-June 1630) of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was succeeded in 1630 by John Winthrop, with whom he worked in harmony despite strong religious differences. In 1636 Endecott led a punitive expedition against the Algonquin in Connecticut which led to the Pequot War. Endecott almost continuously occupied prominent official positions in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He again served as governor in 1644-45, 1649-50, 1651-54, and 1655-64 and was deputy governor in 1641-44, 1650-51, and 1654-55.

Endeley, Emmanuel (Mbela Liffafe) (b. April 10, 1916, Buea, Cameroon - d. June 1988), premier of British Cameroons (1954-59).

Ender, Otto (b. Dec. 24, 1875, Altach, Vorarlberg, Austria - d. June 25, 1960, Bregenz, Vorarlberg), chancellor of Austria (1930-31). A member of the Christian Social Party, he served (1918-30, 1931-34) as Landeshauptmann (governor) of the state of Vorarlberg, on the Swiss border, and after World War I he negotiated unsuccessfully for the incorporation of Vorarlberg in the Swiss confederation. Despite his leadership of the Vorarlberg Heimwehr (rightist paramilitary defense force), his allegiances were considered to be democratic and anti-fascist. He was appointed chancellor of Austria in December 1930 and held office through six months of economic depression, marked notably by the collapse of the Creditanstalt, the most important Austrian banking house. Later, as minister without portfolio in the government of Engelbert Dollfuss, he supervised the drafting of a new corporative constitution for Austria (1933-34). He headed the Austrian Rechnungshof (audit office) in 1934-38. Imprisoned by the Nazis after the Anschluss (Austria's incorporation into Germany in 1938), he was later confined at Dachau, Germany, and finally released during the Allied liberation (1945).

Enderlein, Hendrik Johannes (b. March 7, 1821, Alkmaar, Netherlands - d. Dec. 28, 1898, The Hague, Netherlands), war minister of the Netherlands (1875-76).

Endicott, William C(rowninshield) (b. Nov. 19, 1826, Salem, Mass. - d. May 6, 1900, Boston, Mass.), U.S. secretary of war (1885-89); descendant of John Endecott.

Endo, Kaname (b. Oct. 31, 1915, Miyagi prefecture, Japan - d. June 20, 2010), justice minister of Japan (1986-87).

Endresen, Egil (b. April 28, 1920, Stavanger, Norway - d. May 10, 1992, Sirdal, Vest-Agder [now in Agder], Norway), justice minister of Norway (1970-71).

Endziulaitis, Antanas (b. Nov. 17, 1895, Gaisriai, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. [executed] Dec. 10, 1942, Sverdlovsk, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Yekaterinburg, Russia]), interior minister of Lithuania (1925-26).

Enembe, Lukas (b. July 27, 1967, Mamit, Tolikara regency, Irian Barat [now in Papua Pegunungan], Indonesia - d. Dec. 26, 2023, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Papua (2013-18, 2018-23).

Eneme Ovono, Santiago (b. Feb. 17, 1958, Acoacam, Equatorial Guinea), foreign minister of Equatorial Guinea (1989-92); cousin of Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo. Later he was ambassador to Cameroon.

Enestam, Jan-Erik (b. March 12, 1947, Vestanfjärd [now part of Kimitoön], Finland), defense minister (1995, 1999-2003) and interior minister (1995-99) of Finland.

Eneström, (Rakel) Anna Karin (b. Nov. 17, 1961, Karlstad, Värmland, Sweden), Swedish diplomat. She has been ambassador (2007-09) and special envoy (2009-10) to Pakistan and Afghanistan and permanent representative to the United Nations (2020- ).

Eneyev, Magomed (Aliyevich) (b. 1897 - d. [suicide] 1928, Rostov-na-Donu, Russian S.F.S.R.), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Chechen autonomous oblast (1923-25?). He was also chairman of the Executive Committee of Balkar national okrug (1921-22).

Eng Hun (b. April 8, 1924, Kompong Thmar, Kompong Thom province, Cambodia), finance minister of Cambodia (1959-60). He was also minister of industry (1959) and trade (1959-60).

Engberg, (Jonas) Arthur (b. Jan. 1, 1888, Hassela socken, Gävleborg, Sweden - d. March 27, 1944, Härnösand, Västernorrland, Sweden), governor of Västernorrland (1940-44). He was also Swedish minister of ecclesiastical affairs (1932-36, 1936-39).

Engelbrecht, Willem Bernard (b. Aug. 11, 1881, Batavia, Netherlands East Indies [now Jakarta, Indonesia] - d. Jan. 7, 1955, Utrecht, Netherlands), commissioner of Utrecht (1941-45).

Engelgardt, Sergey (Petrovich) (b. Sept. 25, 1795 - d. 1870), governor of Mogilyov (1839-44) and Kovno (1863).

Engelhard, Alberto (b. March 25, 1879, Belém, Pará, Brazil - d. Dec. 9, 1955, Belém), governor of Pará (1950-51).

Engelhard, Hans A(rnold) (b. Sept. 16, 1934, Munich, Germany - d. March 11, 2008, Munich), justice minister of (West) Germany (1982-91).

Engelhart, Thomas von Westen (b. Oct. 6, 1850, Vinger [now part of Kongsvinger municipality], Hedemarkens amt [now in Innlandet fylke], Norway - d. Aug. 3, 1905, Ĺsgĺrdstrand [now part of Borre municipality], Jarlsberg og Larvik amt [now Vestfold fylke], Norway), governor of Bratsberg amt (1898-1902) and Jarlsberg og Larvik amt (1902-05). He was also Norwegian minister of auditing (1891-92) and interior (1895-97).

Engell, Hans (b. Oct. 8, 1948, Copenhagen, Denmark), defense minister (1982-87) and justice minister (1989-93) of Denmark. He was also leader of the Conservative People's Party (1993-97).

Engels, Alphonse (b. Jan. 7, 1880, Schaerbeek, Belgium - d. Aug. 31, 1962, Uccle, Belgium), deputy governor-general of Équateur (1919-21) and deputy governor-general (1922-29) and governor (1925-29) of Congo-Kasaď.

F. Engels
Engels, Friedrich (b. Nov. 28, 1820, Barmen [now part of Wuppertal], Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany] - d. Aug. 5, 1895, London, England), German socialist. He attempted to convert various émigré German worker groups - among them a socialist secret society, the League of the Just - as well as leading French socialists to his and Karl Marx's views. When the league held its first congress in London in June 1847, Engels helped bring about its transformation into the Communist League. Marx and he together persuaded a second Communist Congress in London to adopt their views. The two men were authorized to draft a statement of Communist principles and policies, which appeared in 1848 as the Manifest der kommunistischen Partei (Communist Manifesto). The revolution of 1848, precipitated by the attempt of the German states to replace an authoritarian political system with a constitutional, representative form of government, was a momentous event in the lives of Marx and Engels. It was their only opportunity to participate directly in a revolution and to demonstrate their flexibility as revolutionary tacticians with the aim of turning the revolution into a Communist victory. After the failure of the revolution, Engels and Marx reorganized the Communist League and drafted tactical directives for the Communists in the belief that another revolution would soon take place. Engels wrote Herrn Eugen Dührings Umwälzung der Wissenschaft (1878; Herr Eugen Dühring's Revolution in Science), the book that probably did most to promote Marxian thought. It destroyed the influence of Eugen Dühring, a Berlin professor who threatened to supplant Marx's position among German Social Democrats. After Marx's death (1883), Engels served as the foremost authority on Marx and Marxism.

Engen, Hans (Kristian) (b. Aug. 22, 1912, Ringebu, Kristians amt [now in Innlandet fylke], Norway - d. April 6, 1966, Nord-Fron, Oppland [now in Innlandet]), Norwegian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1952-58) and ambassador to the United States (1963-66).

Enger, Anne, until 2006 Anne Enger Lahnstein (b. Dec. 9, 1949, Trřgstad, Řstfold, Norway), Norwegian politician. Chairman of the Centre Party in 1991-99, she successfully led the "No" campaign ahead of a 1994 referendum on membership of the European Union, earning the nickname "No Queen." She was deputy prime minister and culture minister in 1997-99; in 1998 she was acting prime minister for some weeks when Prime Minister Kjell Magne Bondevik took a sick leave. In 2004-15 she was governor of Řstfold.

Engeström, Jakob von (b. Nov. 1, 1735, Lund, Sweden - d. Nov. 14, 1802, Bälinge socken [now part of Uppsala municipality], Uppsala, Sweden), acting governor of Uppsala (1783-84).

Engeström, Lars greve von (b. Dec. 24, 1751, Lund, Malmöhus [now in Skĺne], Sweden - d. Aug. 19, 1826, Jankowice, Poland), chancellery president (1809) and prime minister for foreign affairs (1809-24) of Sweden; brother of Jakob von Engeström. He was also chargé d'affaires in Austria (1782-87) and Poland (1787-88) and minister to Poland (1788-92), Great Britain (1793-95), and Prussia (1798-1803). He was made friherre (baron) in 1809 and greve (count) in 1813.

Enggaard, Knud (b. June 4, 1929, Odder, Denmark), interior minister (1978-79, 1986-87) and defense minister (1988-93) of Denmark. He was also minister of energy (1982-86), economic affairs (1987-88), and Nordic cooperation (1992-93) and president of the Nordic Council (1976, 1981, 1996).

Engholm, Björn (b. Nov. 9, 1939, Lübeck, Germany), German politician. He joined the Social Democratic Party in 1962, and he was first elected to the National Assembly (Bundestag) in 1969, winning reelection successively thereafter. In 1981-82 he was minister of education and science in the government of his mentor, the Social Democratic leader Helmut Schmidt. After the Schmidt government fell from power in 1982, Engholm ran unsuccessfully for minister-president of his home state of Schleswig-Holstein in 1983 and 1987. Revelations about dirty campaign methods employed by the Christian Democrats in the latter election led to new elections in 1988, and Engholm became minister-president. In 1990 Engholm was chosen to succeed Hans-Jochen Vogel as chairman of the Social Democratic Party, and his appointment as its leader was confirmed in a party conference in 1991. In May 1993 he resigned all his political positions when it turned out he was informed of the activities directed against him before the 1987 state election.

J. Engler
Engler, John (Mathias) (b. Oct. 12, 1948, Mount Pleasant, Mich.), governor of Michigan (1991-2003). The Republican was elected to the state legislature in 1970, at 22, and remained there 20 years till he was elected governor. Most of that time he was in the minority. Even as Senate majority leader after 1983, when Republicans used recalls to seize control of the state Senate, Engler operated in a climate where liberals controlled most institutions. In 1990 he ran for governor and lagged behind Democrat James Blanchard in polls all through November. But his call for increasing education spending and cutting property taxes 20% was popular, and when Blanchard came forward with his own property tax cut, Engler effectively ridiculed it as saving a nickel a week per taxpayer. He won 50%-49%. Engler cut general assistance (welfare for non-parents) and aid to the arts; he privatized services and started seeking federal waivers for welfare reform. In 1994, Howard Wolpe won the Democratic primary and spent much on ads attacking Engler for approving a nuclear power plant and closing a mental health clinic. Engler's attacks on Wolpe's liberal House voting record were not diminished by Wolpe's attacks on Engler for a September 1994 prison break at Detroit's Ryan Correctional Facility, in which 10 prisoners escaped. Engler won 61%-38%, carrying all but two counties. He continued to pursue tax cuts and welfare reform. He stood clearly in command of state politics, and his experiments in Michigan's laboratory of reform made him a national political and governmental figure as well, one who became a close adviser and role model to Speaker Newt Gingrich and the new Republican majority. In 1998 he defeated his Democratic opponent Geoffrey Fieger by 62%-38%.

S. Engler
Engler, Stefan (b. May 30, 1960), president of the government of Graubünden (2003, 2008).

Englis, Karel (b. Aug. 17, 1880, Hrabin, Austria [now Hrabyne, Czech Republic] - d. June 13, 1961, Hrabyne), finance minister of Czechoslovakia (1920-21, 1925-28, 1929-31). He was also rector of Masaryk University (1919-20) and Charles University (1947-48) and governor of the National Bank (1934-39).

B. English
English, Sir Bill, byname of Sir Simon William English (b. Dec. 30, 1961, Lumsden, N.Z.), finance minister (1999, 2008-16), treasurer (1999), and prime minister (2016-17) of New Zealand; knighted 2018. He was also health minister (1996-99) and leader of the National Party (2001-03, 2016-18).

English, James E(dward) (b. March 13, 1812, New Haven, Conn. - d. March 2, 1890, New Haven), governor of Connecticut (1867-69, 1870-71).

Engman, Gerd (Birgitta), née Humla (b. Sept. 20, 1942, Munkfors, Värmland, Sweden - d. May 17, 2019, Örebro, Sweden), governor of Örebro (1995-2004).

Engone, Jean (b. Jan. 1, 1932, Libreville, Gabon), finance minister (1964-65) and foreign minister (1965-67) of Gabon.

Engqvist, Lars (Fredrik) (b. Aug. 13, 1945, Karlskrona, Blekinge, Sweden), governor of Jönköping (2004-10). He was also mayor of Malmö (1990-92) and Swedish minister of interior and integration (1998) and health and social affairs (1998-2004) and deputy prime minister (2004).

Engström, Gunvor (Margareta) (b. Dec. 29, 1950, India), governor of Blekinge (2008-11).

Engström, Odd (Erik Lennart) (b. Sept. 20, 1941, Silbodal, Värmland, Sweden - d. May 18, 1998), acting finance minister of Sweden (1990).

Engulu Baangampongo Bakokele Lokanga, until 1972 (and again used after 1997) Léon Engulu (b. April 1, 1934, Coquilhatville, Belgian Congo [now Mbandaka, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Feb. 4, 2023, Kinshasa, Congo [Kinshasa]), president (1962-65) and governor (1965-66) of Cuvette Centrale and governor of Équateur (1966-67), Kivu (1967-68), and Katanga (1968-70). He was also minister of public works (1970-74), political affairs (1974-77), territorial administration (1977-79, 1990-91), and agriculture and rural development (1979-80) of Congo (Kinshasa)/Zaire.

Engur, Yekosofati (Atoke) (b. 1919, Inomo, Lango district, Uganda - d. [killed following arrest] February 1977, Kampala, Uganda), Ugandan politician. He was ambassador to the Soviet Union (1964-69) and minister of culture and community development (1971-72).

Enkhbayar, Nambaryn (b. June 1, 1958, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), prime minister (2000-04) and president (2005-09) of Mongolia. His political career began in 1990, when he became first vice chairman of the government's Culture and Art Development Committee. In 1992, following the collapse of the Communist regime, he was elected to the State Great Khural (parliament) and became minister of culture (1992-96). In 1996 he was elected chairman of the former-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP); he held the post until 2005. With the party's victory in parliamentary elections in 2000 he became prime minister. After the MPRP failed to win a majority in the 2004 elections, he was elected chairman of the State Great Khural. The following year he was elected president of Mongolia. In this role he presided over a volatile political situation including violent protests over government corruption; he declared a state of emergency that lasted for several days in July 2008. In the 2009 presidential election he was defeated by Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj. In 2010 he founded a new MPRP after the old one renamed itself Mongolian People's Party. In 2012 he was detained on corruption charges that stemmed from his time as president and which he claimed were politically motivated. He was sentenced to four years in prison, but he was pardoned by Elbegdorj in 2013, while remaining barred from holding office until late 2017. In July 2018 he was reelected leader of the MPRP.

M. Enkhbold
Enkhbold, Miyeegombo (b. July 19, 1964, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), prime minister of Mongolia (2006-07). He joined the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) in 1990 and served as the chairman of the MPRP's council in Ulaanbaatar from 1997. He was elected mayor of Ulaanbaatar in 1999. In 2005 he was elected MPRP chairman, replacing Nambaryn Enkhbayar who was elected president of Mongolia. He resigned as prime minister when he lost his position as party chairman to Sanj Bayar. He again was leader of the party, meanwhile renamed Mongolian People's Party, in 2013-17. He was chairman of the State Great Khural in 2016-19, being dismissed from this post over accusations he was involved in the corrupt sale of government positions.

Enkhbold, Nyamaa (b. Jan. 6, 1957, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), foreign minister (2006-07) and defense minister (2017-20) of Mongolia.

Enkhsaikhan, Jargalsaikhan (b. Sept. 4, 1950, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), Mongolian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-2003) and ambassador to Austria (2008-12).

M. Enkhsaikhan
Enkhsaikhan, Mendsaikhany (b. June 4, 1955, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), prime minister (1996-98) and foreign minister (1996) of Mongolia. Two years as a department head in the Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade (1987-89) convinced the young Communist that Mongolia's ailing economy was in desperate need of a dose of the free market if it was to revive. He joined a group of young economists who met to discuss radical new reforms. When Mongolians took to the streets in 1990 in demonstrations for more democracy that heralded the end of Communist rule, he took charge of the new Research Centre on Market Economy. When the opposition Democratic Party was formed, he found a job as one of its main architects of economic policy. In July 1990, he was elected on a Democratic Party ticket to the Little Khural (upper house of parliament) in Mongolia's first free general elections. There he headed the standing committee on economics where the first radical plans for Mongolia's transition from decades of Stalinist central planning to the free market were laid. He soon won fame through his pressure for privatization, new banking systems and drastic economic reforms. In 1992 elections for a new unicameral parliament, or Great Khural, he was one of just six democrats who made it to the 76-seat house. The former Communists (MPRP) swept all 70 other seats. However, he resigned the following year to become head of the president's office. When the National Democratic Party (NDP) and the Social Democratic Party (SDP) agreed to bury their differences and to join forces against the former Communists for the 1996 elections, he was chosen as the leader most able to narrow their differences. The Democratic Union Coalition captured 50 seats in a shock victory over the MPRP, and he became prime minister. In 2005 he was a presidential candidate. Later he was deputy prime minister (2006-07), minister without portfolio (2014-16), and ambassador to Sweden (2017-18).

Enkhtaivan, Nyamtseren (b. 1970), foreign minister of Mongolia (2020-21).

Enkhtsetseg, Ochir (b. Nov. 26, 1961, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), Mongolian diplomat. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-12).


Ennaceur, Mohamed (b. March 21, 1934, El Jem [now in Mahdia governorate], Tunisia), interim president of Tunisia (2019). He was governor of Sousse (1972-73), minister of social affairs (1974-77, 1979-85, 2011), and speaker of parliament (2014-19).

Ennery, Victor Thérčse Charpentier, comte d' (b. March 24, 1732, Paris, France - d. [assassinated] Dec. 13, 1776, Port-au-Prince, Saint-Domingue [now Haiti]), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1775-76).

Eno, Umo (Bassey) (b. April 24, 1964, Enugu, Nigeria), governor of Akwa Ibom (2023- ).

H. Enoksen
Enoksen, Hans (b. Aug. 7, 1956, Itivdleq [now Itilleq], Sisimiut region, Greenland), prime minister of Greenland (2002-09). He has also been minister of fisheries, hunting, and settlements (2001-02) and chairman of Inatsisartut (parliament) (2018, 2021- ).

Enoksen, Odd Roger (b. Sept. 25, 1954, Andřy, Nordland, Norway), defense minister of Norway (2021-22). He was also minister of local government and regional development (1999-2000) and petroleum and energy (2005-07) and chairman of the Centre Party (1999-2003).

Enomoto, Takeaki (also called Buyo Enomoto), in full (from 1887) Shishaku (Viscount) Takeaki Enomoto (b. Oct. 5, 1836, Edo [now Tokyo], Japan - d. Oct. 26, 1908, Tokyo), foreign minister of Japan (1891-92). He was also minister to China (1882-85) and minister of communications (1885-89), agriculture and commerce (1888-89, 1894-97), and education (1889-90). In 1869 he was president of the Republic of Ezo (now Hokkaido), resisting the Meiji restoration, following which he spent three years under house arrest.

Enraght-Moony, Francis (Herbert Greenock) (b. April 9, 1865 - d. Dec. 14, 1943, Jersey), resident commissioner of Swaziland (1902-07).

Enrile, Juan Ponce,1 original name Juanito Furagganan (b. Feb. 14, 1924, Gonzaga, Cagayan province, Philippines), Philippine politician. He joined the Ferdinand Marcos government in the mid-1960s as acting commissioner of customs, later becoming secretary of justice (1968-70) and secretary of defense (1970-71, 1972-86). In the defense post, he administered martial law between 1972 and 1981. At the same time, he, like other Marcos ministers, accumulated great wealth. His ambition grew, but before he could become a competitor for the presidency, Marcos reduced his power. Enrile was more complicated than the average politician in authoritarian government. Although he had presided over the 1972 arrest and eight-year detention of opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr., Enrile reportedly cried upon seeing the assassinated man's body in August 1983. Among the Marcos inner circle, he was the only one who tried to attend Aquino's funeral. On Feb. 22, 1986, he left the people of the Philippines rubbing their eyes when he barricaded himself and his military supporters inside defense headquarters and announced he was abandoning the Marcos government to support Corazon Aquino, Benigno's widow, who, just weeks before, had lost to Marcos in an apparently rigged election. By February 25 Enrile's rebellion and Aquino-inspired street demonstrations had broken Marcos's 20-year stranglehold on the presidency. He was retained as defense minister by new president Aquino, but just weeks after helping her come to power, he began scorning her policies, particularly that of negotiating with the country's Communist insurgents. By late 1986 Manila was buzzing with rumours of an impending, Enrile-led coup, but it was not Aquino who blinked. On November 23 she removed him from her cabinet. In 2008-13 he was president of the Senate.
1 Technically the family name is Ponce Enrile (inherited from his father when legitimized), but in short he is just known as Enrile.

Enríquez (Siqueiros), Ignacio C(eferino) (b. Aug. 26, 1889, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico - d. May 30, 1974, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Chihuahua (1918 [provisional], 1920-24).

Enriquez, Salvador (M.), also called Salvador Enriquez, Jr. (b. March 21, 1934 - d. June 2, 2021), finance secretary of the Philippines (1998). He was also secretary of budget and management (1992-98).

Enríquez Gallo, (Gil) Alberto (b. July 24, 1895, Tanicuchí, Cotopaxi province, Ecuador - d. July 13, 1962, Quito, Ecuador), defense minister (1935-37) and supreme head of state (1937-38) of Ecuador. He was a presidential candidate in 1948.

Enríquez-Ominami (Gumucio), Marco (Antonio) (b. June 12, 1973, Santiago, Chile), Chilean presidential candidate (2009, 2013, 2017, 2021).

Ensour, Abdullah, Ensour also spelled Nsur (b. 1939, Salt, Transjordan [now Jordan]), foreign minister (1991) and prime minister and defense minister (2012-16) of Jordan. He was also minister of planning (1984-88), industry and commerce (1991-93), higher education (1996-97), administrative development (1997-98), and information (1998).

Enström, Karin (Märta Elisabeth), née Landerholm (b. March 23, 1966, Uppsala, Sweden), defense minister of Sweden (2012-14).

Entezam, Nasrollah (b. Feb. 16, 1900, Tehran, Iran - d. Dec. 19, 1980), Iranian politician. He began his career in the ministry of foreign affairs in 1918. Between 1926 and 1929 he was secretary to the Iranian legations in Paris, Warsaw, and London. He represented his country at the World Economic Conference in London in 1933. From 1934 to 1938 he was chargé d'affaires at Bern, Switzerland. On his return to Iran he became director of the political department of the ministry of foreign affairs. In 1942 he was appointed grand master of ceremonies at the shah's palace and the following year became minister of health. Subsequently he held office as minister of posts and telegraphs, minister of transport, and, in 1944-45, minister of foreign affairs. Entezam represented Iran at the San Francisco conference in 1945 and from 1947 was permanent Iranian representative to the United Nations. On Sept. 19, 1950, he was elected president of the UN General Assembly by 32 votes of the 59 valid ballots.

Entrecasteaux, Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni, chevalier d' (b. Nov. 8, 1737, Aix-en-Provence, France - d. July 20, 1793, aboard La Recherche, near Hermit Islands [now in Papua New Guinea]), governor-general of Île de France (1787-89).

Envela-Makongo, Gustavo (Bodjedi) (b. June 6, 1926, Bolondo, Río Benito district, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea] - d. July 25, 2005, Oregon, U.S.), Equatorial Guinean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-70). He moved to Oregon in 1970.

Enver Pasha, (Ismail) (b. Nov. 22, 1881, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Aug. 4, 1922, near Baldzhuan, Bukhara [now in Tajikistan]), war minister of the Ottoman Empire (1914-18); grandson-in-law of Abdülmecit I. He entered the Turkish army as a subaltern without money or influence but gained admission to the staff college at Constantinople, and from there went to Salonika, the headquarters of the Young Turk movement. He fought with Bulgarian and Greek guerrilla bands, coming meanwhile in contact with the representatives of the new ideas, and finding a like-minded politician in Mehmed Talat. In 1908 he was one of the instigators of a revolt in Macedonia, demanding the restoration of the Ottoman constitution of 1876. Sultan Abdülhamit II professed to yield and Enver entered Constantinople as a feted hero. He was sent to Berlin as military attaché and there (1909-11) pursued his military studies, only interrupted by a return to Salonika in 1909 when he undertook a campaign against reactionaries who hoped to regain control under Abdülhamit; he then took the capital, deposed Abdülhamit, and returned to Berlin. He held commands in the Italo-Turkish War (1911) and the First Balkan War (1912-13), without much success. In January 1913 his group assassinated the war minister, turned out the grand vizier, and forced the sultan to fill all offices with "Young Turks." After the assassination of the new vizier in June 1913 the group, led by the three pashas Enver, Talat, and Cemal, purged all opposition elements. He put himself at the head of the troops in the Second Balkan War and in July made a triumphal entry into Adrianople, which had been evacuated by the Bulgarians. Making himself minister of war in 1914, he played a key role in the Ottoman entry into World War I on the side of Germany and became the megalomaniacal absolute ruler of the country to whom no one dared offer advice. He took a number of ill-thought-out measures such as altering the Turkish script with the result that officers were unable to read their orders. When the collapse came, he fled in disgrace to Germany. In 1919 he was condemned to death in contumaciam and went to Russia, where he first helped "White" commander Anton Denikin in the Caucasus, then in 1920-21 worked with the Bolsheviks, but finally attempted to organize the Turkic peoples of Central Asia against the Soviets and was killed.

Enwerem, Evan (b. Oct. 29, 1935 - d. Aug. 2, 2007, Abuja, Nigeria), governor of Imo (1992-93). He also served as president of the Nigerian Senate (1999).

Eoe, Maverick, Nauruan politician. He was minister of justice, border control, and sports (2019-22).

S. Eoe
Eoe, Soroi (Marepo) (b. Dec. 24, 1954, Harevavo village, Gulf district [now province], Papua and New Guinea [now Papua New Guinea]), foreign minister of Papua New Guinea (2019, 2020-22). He has also been minister of community development, youth, and religion (2017-19), public service (2019-20), commerce and industry, justice, Bougainville affairs, petroleum, and tourism (2022), and provincial and local government affairs (2022- ).

Eon, Michel (Gaston Joseph) (b. June 9, 1927, Paris, France - d. early June 2012), interior minister of Monaco (1984-93). He was also prefect of the French département of Yonne (1981-84).

Eouagnignon, Nicolas Amoussou (b. Dec. 4, 1915, Savalou, Dahomey [now Benin]), Dahomeyan politician. He was minister of public health (1957-59) and ambassador to Haiti (1962-64) and West Germany, Switzerland, and Scandinavian countries (1964-69).

Ephrem Teweldemedhin, Blattengeta (b. 1894 - d. May 1983, Asmara, Ethiopia [now in Eritrea]), acting foreign minister of Ethiopia (1942-43). He was also minister to the United States (1943-45).

Epine, Charles, baron de l' (b. Nov. 24, 1887 - d. 19...), interim resident of Urundi (1930).

Epp, Dominik (b. Dec. 23, 1776, Altdorf, Uri, Switzerland - d. June 11, 1848, Altdorf), Landammann of Uri (1815-17).

Epp, Dominik (b. Feb. 8, 1810, Altdorf, Uri, Switzerland - d. April 9, 1885, Altdorf), Landammann of Uri (1870-74); son of Dominik Epp (1776-1848).

Eppelmann, Rainer (b. Feb. 12, 1943, Berlin, Germany), defense minister of East Germany (1990). He was also a minister without portfolio (1990) and chairman of Democratic Awakening (1990).

Epshtein, Moisey (Solomonovich) (b. 1890, Ruzhany, Grodno province, Russia [now in Belarus] - d. [executed] Sept. 3, 1938), executive secretary of the Communist Party of the Turkestan A.S.S.R. (1922-23).

Epureanu, Manolache Costache (b. Aug. 22, 1820, Iasi, Moldavia [now in Romania] - d. Sept. 7, 1880, Wiesbaden, Germany), prime minister of Moldavia (1859-60), Walachia (1860-61), and Romania (1870, 1876). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1865-66) and the Constituent Assembly (1866) and minister of interior (1870), justice (1872-73), and agriculture, commerce, and public works (1876) of Romania.

Eralp, Orhan (b. June 28, 1915, Smyrna, Ottoman Empire [now Izmir, Turkey] - d. [suicide] June 6, 1994, Istanbul, Turkey), Turkish diplomat. He was ambassador to Sweden (1957-59), Yugoslavia (1959-64), and France (1976-78) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1964-69, 1978-80).

Erańa, Mariano (Alba) (b. Sept. 30, 1899, Manila, Philippines - d. Jan. 15, 1983, Crystal River, Fla.), justice, labor, and welfare secretary of the Philippines (1944-45).

Erasmus, F(rançois) C(hristiaan) (b. Jan. 19, 1896, Merweville, Cape Colony [now in Western Cape province, South Africa] - d. Jan. 7, 1967, Bredasdorp, Cape province [now in Western Cape], South Africa), defense minister (1948-59) and justice minister (1959-61) of South Africa. In 1961-65 he was ambassador to Italy.

Erbakan, Necmettin (b. Oct. 29, 1926, Sinop, northern Turkey - d. Feb. 27, 2011, Ankara, Turkey), prime minister of Turkey (1996-97). Elected to the legislature as an independent in 1969, the next year he formed an Islamic party, but it was banned by the military government in 1971. He re-formed the party in 1972 and served as a deputy prime minister (1974, 1975-77, 1977-78). In 1980 the military again banned his party and briefly put him in prison. He was prohibited from engaging in politics from 1980 to 1987. His third attempt to form a political party was more successful, and the Welfare (Refah) Party became especially well organized on the local level, where it opposed what many saw as the arrogant corruption of the leaders of the established parties. In the 1995 campaign Erbakan advocated withdrawing from NATO, abrogating agreements with Israel, and developing closer ties with Middle Eastern nations like Syria and Iran. His proposals were particularly unsettling to Western leaders, who had long depended on a friendly secular government in Turkey as a basis for their Middle East policy. Welfare won the December 1995 elections, becoming the first Islamic party ever to win a general election in Turkey. Early in 1996 Erbakan tried but failed to form a coalition government. A centre-right coalition of the True Path and Motherland parties was brought down by internal disagreements in June. Erbakan was again asked to try to form a coalition, and this time, when Tansu Çiller agreed to join him, he succeeded. He was forced out of office in 1997 after months of wrangling with the strictly secularist military after attempting to introduce mild religious reforms into public life. In February 1998 he lost his seat in parliament as the Welfare Party was disbanded. He was barred from political leadership until 2003.

Erbe, Norman A(rthur) (b. Oct. 25, 1919, Boone, Iowa - d. June 8, 2000, Urbandale, Iowa), governor of Iowa (1961-63).

Erckert, Karl (b. June 2, 1894, Meran, Tirol, Austria [now Merano, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy] - d. Dec. 15, 1955, Bolzano, Trentino-Alto Adige), president of Bolzano-Alto Adige (1948-55).

Erdan, Gilad (Menashe) (b. Sept. 30, 1970, Ashkelon, Israel), interior minister of Israel (2014-15). He has also been minister of environmental protection (2009-13), communications (2013-14), and public security, strategic affairs, and information (2015-20), permanent representative to the United Nations (2020- ), and ambassador to the United States (2021).

Erdei, Ferenc (b. Dec. 24, 1910, Makó, Hungary - d. May 11, 1971, Budapest, Hungary), interior minister of Hungary (1944-45). He was also minister of agriculture (1949-53, 1954-55) and justice (1953-54) and a deputy premier (1955-56).

Erdély, Sándor (b. Aug. 1, 1839, Köröskisjenö, Hungary [now Ineu, Romania] - d. May 15, 1922, Budapest, Hungary), justice minister of Hungary (1895-99).

Erdem, (Ismet) Kaya (b. Sept. 10, 1928, Safranbolu, Turkey), finance minister (1980-82) and deputy prime minister (1983-89) of Turkey. He was also speaker of the Grand National Assembly (1989-91).


Erdenebat, Jargaltulga (b. July 17, 1974), finance minister (2014-15) and prime minister (2016-17) of Mongolia. He was also governor of Selenge province (2008-12).

Erdenechuluun, Luvsangiyn (b. Oct. 10, 1948, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), foreign minister of Mongolia (2000-04); son of Sonomyn Luvsan. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-96).

Erdogan, Recep Tayyip (b. Feb. 26, 1954, Istanbul, Turkey), prime minister (2003-14) and president (2014- ) of Turkey. His political career began in 1984, when he was elected chairman of the Welfare Party's office in Beyoglu; in 1985 he was elected head of the party's Istanbul branch, and a member of the party's executive board. Elected mayor of Istanbul in 1994, he was credited for improving sanitation and the environment in the city, and working to prevent crime. He banned the sale of alcohol in cafés, however, an act which displeased secularists. His devout adherence to Islamic values led to his conviction in 1998 for inciting religious hatred. He had read a poem in 1997 that included the lines, "the mosques are our barracks, the domes our helmets, the minarets our bayonets, and the faithful our soldiers." He served four months in prison and was barred from running for, or holding, political office. He became leader of the reformist wing of the Virtue Party after the banning of the Welfare Party in 1998. When the Virtue Party was outlawed in July 2001, he was involved in founding the Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi; AKP) in August of that year and was elected its leader. The AK swept the parliamentary elections of November 2002, winning 363 of 550 seats. Erdogan, still unable to stand for office, remained leader of the AK while Abdullah Gül was named prime minister. In February 2003, parliament amended the constitution, allowing Erdogan to be a candidate in parliamentary by-elections. He was elected MP from Siirt on March 9 and became prime minister on March 14. Erdogan, who had moderated his advocacy for Islamic values since his founding of the AKP, kept religion largely off the agenda as prime minister and campaigned to get his country admitted to the European Union, which he had formerly characterized as a "Christian club." He reduced the influence of the military and won strong victories in the 2007 and 2011 elections but the increasingly authoritarian character of his government led to widespread protests in 2013. In 2014 he won Turkey's first direct presidential elections. The failure of an attempted military coup in 2016 was seen as strengthening his position; he used the opportunity to conduct massive purges in all areas. In a 2017 constitutional referendum, he obtained 51% support for a strong presidential system. He was reelected in 2018 and 2023.

Erdös, André (b. May 18, 1941, Algiers, Algeria), Hungarian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-94, 1997-2002) and ambassador to France (2002-06).

Ereaut, Sir (Herbert) Frank (Cobbold) (b. May 6, 1919 - d. Sept. 11, 1998), bailiff of Jersey (1975-85); knighted 1976. He was earlier solicitor general (1958-62), attorney general (1962-69), and deputy bailiff (1969-74).

Eren, Orhan (b. 1922, Nallihan, Ankara province, Turkey - d. Sept. 28?, 2017), interior minister of Turkey (1980).

Erer, (Mehmet) Rasit, until Jan. 1, 1935, Mehmed Rasid Bey (b. 1868, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. 1952), finance minister of the Ottoman Empire (1920-21). He was also minister of education (1921) and waqfs (1922).

Ereshov, Batyr (Narkuliyevich), Turkmen Batyr (Narkulyýewiç) Eresow (b. June 13, 1966, in present Garashsyzlyk etrap, Lebap velayat, Turkmenistan - d. May 3, 2017), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (2014-17). He was also minister of construction (2013-14) and construction and architecture (2014).

Erez, (Ali) Mesut (b. July 1, 1922, Kütahya, Turkey - d. Feb. 6, 2011, Kütahya), finance minister (1969-71) and a deputy prime minister (1971) of Turkey. He was also minister of agriculture (1969) and industry and technology (1971-73).

Ergenekon, Yilmaz (b. 1929, Adapazari, Turkey - d. July 8, 1983, Ankara, Turkey), finance minister of Turkey (1975-77). He was also minister of communications (1977-78).

Ergin, Sadullah (b. July 6, 1964, Antakya, Turkey), justice minister of Turkey (2009-11, 2011-13).

Ergin, Sait Naci (b. 1908, Nigde, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. Nov. 1, 1982, Ankara, Turkey), finance minister of Turkey (1971-72).

Ergin, (Hasan) Semi (b. 1913, Gebze, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. Jan. 18, 1996), defense minister of Turkey (1957-58). He was also minister of communications (1959-60).

Erhard, Ludwig (Wilhelm) (b. Feb. 4, 1897, Fürth, Bavaria, Germany - d. May 5, 1977, Bonn, West Germany), chancellor of West Germany (1963-66). After World War II, he was entrusted by the Allied occupation authorities with the reconstruction of industry in the Nürnberg-Fürth area, and successively served as economics adviser in Middle and Upper Franconia, economics minister for Bavaria (1945-46), director of the Advisory Committee for Money and Credit (1947-48), and director of the economic council for the joint Anglo-U.S. occupation zone (1948-49). By the end of 1948 the currency reforms that he had instituted the preceding summer, coupled with the abolition of rationing and of other commercial restrictions, had already somewhat buoyed the prostrate German economy. As economy minister (1949-63) of the new Federal Republic of Germany under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Erhard continued his policies of reconstruction with phenomenal results, achieving what has often been called the German "economic miracle." He had an unbounding faith in his economic ideas which he called "social market economy." It was largely based on a free market, and the opposition taunted him at first with charges that there was nothing very much social about it. In 1957 Erhard was appointed vice-chancellor and was regarded as Adenauer's heir apparent. He succeeded Adenauer in 1963, but the great hopes set in him at the outset of his chancellorship soon evaporated under the impact of domestic confusion and blunders. Although he won the election of 1965, his call for tax increases in response to a slight recession in the summer of 1966 caused the Free Democratic Party to defect, and in December he resigned. In 1967 he was named honorary chairman of the Christian Democratic Union.

Erhards, Roberts, German in full Robert Johann August Erhardt (b. June 9 [May 28, O.S.], 1874, Riga, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Jan. 11, 1942, Berlin, Germany), finance minister of Latvia (1919-20). He was also a member of the State Duma of Russia (1907-12). He was an uncle of the German comedian Heinz Erhardt.

Erhürman, Tufan (b. 1970, Nicosia, Cyprus), prime minister of North Cyprus (2018-19). He was a presidential candidate in 2020.

Eri, Sir (Vincent) Serei (b. Sept. 12, 1936, Moveave village, Papua [now in Gulf province, Papua New Guinea] - d. May 25, 1993, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea), governor-general of Papua New Guinea (1990-91); knighted 1990. Credited with writing the first Papua New Guinean novel, The Crocodile (1970), he was high commissioner to Australia in 1976-79. He founded the People's Action Party in 1986 with Ted Diro, then a member of parliament, who later became deputy prime minister. Eri resigned as governor-general in 1991 after refusing to dismiss Diro, who had been convicted of corruption.

Ériau, Gabriel (Marie Jean) (b. Sept. 15, 1914, Couëron, Loire-Inférieure [now Loire-Atlantique], France - d. Jan. 22, 2008), governor of New Caledonia (1974-78). He was also prefect of the French départements of Basses-Alpes (1954-55), Finistčre (1961-67), Pas-de-Calais (1967-70), and Seine-Maritime (1970-73).

Erich, Rafael (Waldemar) (b. June 10, 1879, Ĺbo [now Turku], Finland - d. Feb. 19, 1946, Helsinki, Finland), prime minister of Finland (1920-21). He was also minister to Switzerland (1926-27), Sweden (1928-36), and Italy (1936-38).

Erichstrup, Jens (b. Nov. 10, 1775, Skien, Bratsberg amt [now Telemark fylke], Norway - d. Aug. 18, 1826, Stavanger, Stavanger amt [now Rogaland fylke], Norway), governor of Stavanger amt (1825-26).

Erickson, John E(dward) (b. March 14, 1863, Stoughton, Wis. - d. May 25, 1946, Helena, Mont.), governor of Montana (1925-33).

Ericson, John (Philip) friherre (b. May 2, 1834, Ĺker, near Trollhättan, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. Sept. 25, 1895, Östersund, Jämtland, Sweden), governor of Jämtland (1882-95). He succeeded as friherre (baron) in 1870.

Ericsson, Lars Eric (b. 1943, Piteĺ, Norrbotten, Sweden), governor of Gävleborg (1992-2002).

Erignac, Claude (Jean Pierre) (b. Dec. 15, 1937, Mende, Lozčre, France - d. [assassinated] Feb. 6, 1998, Ajaccio, Corse-du-Sud, France), French administrator; son of René Erignac. He was prefect of the départements of Meurthe-et-Moselle (1989-93), Yvelines (1993-96), and Corse-du-Sud (1996-98).

Erignac, René (Jean Louis) (b. Sept. 4, 1909, Les Ternes, Cantal, France - d. May 1, 2002), prefect of French Guiana (1960-63). He was also prefect of the départements of Creuse (1963-67), Haute-Saône (1967-70), and Vaucluse (1970-73).

Eriksen, Erik (b. Nov. 20, 1902, Brangstrup, Fyn island, Denmark - d. Oct. 7, 1972, Esbjerg, Denmark), prime minister of Denmark (1950-53). From 1927 he took an active part in the Liberal (Venstre) party's youth organization and was national chairman from 1929 to 1932. He was elected a member of the Folketing (lower chamber) in 1935 and was afterward repeatedly reelected. In 1941 he was elected deputy speaker. In May 1945 he joined the Vilhelm Buhl coalition cabinet as minister of agriculture and fisheries and retained this portfolio in Knud Kristensen's Liberal cabinet (November 1945-November 1947). When Hans Hedtoft's Socialist cabinet was in power (November 1947-October 1950) Eriksen led the Liberal opposition in the Folketing. Following the elections of Sept. 5, 1950, he formed a Liberal-Conservative coalition cabinet. He led a party which had always been a farmers' party but under his leadership began for the first time to seek support in towns. His greatest achievement was the Danish constitutional reform of 1953 in which the upper chamber (Landsting) was abolished, the voting age reduced to 21 years, and female throne succession introduced, paving the way for Queen Margrethe II to succeed to the throne. His political career ended in 1965 when the party rejected his long-held dream of uniting with the Conservatives to form a strong liberal alternative to the Social Democrats. The bride was willing at the time but his own party was not and he resigned as party leader in disappointment. Like many other Scandinavian politicians he favoured Nordic cooperation and from 1964 to 1971 was chairman of the Nordic Association in Denmark. He reemerged on the public scene in 1972 to support the campaign for EEC membership.

Eriksson, (Johan) Bernhard (b. April 19, 1878, Sunnansjö, Grangärde socken, Kopparberg [now Dalarna], Sweden - d. April 18, 1952), governor of Kopparberg (1932-44). He was also Swedish minister of social affairs (1920) and navy (1920) and speaker of the Second Chamber of the Riksdag (1928-32).

Eriksson, Björn (b. Dec. 7, 1945, Stockholm, Sweden), president of the International Criminal Police Organization (1994-96) and governor of Östergötland (1996-2009).

Eriksson, Eva (Hildegard) (b. June 1, 1947, Vara, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden), governor of Värmland (2004-12).

Eriksson, Per-Ola (Anders) (b. Oct. 18, 1946, Nederkalix, Norrbotten, Sweden), governor of Norrbotten (2003-12).

V. Eriksson
Eriksson, Viveka (b. Aug. 18, 1956), lantrĺd of the Ĺland Islands (2007-11).

Erim, (Ismail) Nihat (b. 1912, Kandira, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. July 19, 1980, Istanbul, Turkey), prime minister of Turkey (1971-72). In 1942 he was appointed as legal adviser to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He became a member of parliament in 1945 and served as minister of public works (1948-49) and deputy prime minister (1949-50). A member of the Republican People's Party, he agreed in 1971 to lead a government independent of party loyalties, while the country was under martial law. Erim imposed strict policies of law and order and acceded to U.S. requests to ban poppy cultivation in an attempt to halt the drug traffic. His later identification with right-wing policies may have provided the motive for his assassination. Members of Dev Sol (Revolutionary Left) were sentenced to death for the murder in 1981.

Erisirgil, (Mehmet) Emin, before 1935 Emin Bey (b. 1891, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Feb. 7, 1965, Ankara, Turkey), interior minister of Turkey (1949-50). He was also minister of customs and monopolies (1948-49).

Eristov, Knyaz (Prince) Georgy (Romanovich) (b. Feb. 12, 1812 - d. Nov. 5, 1891, Tiflis, Russia [now Tbilisi, Georgia]), governor-general of Kutaisi (1858-60); grandson of Irakli II.


Erjavec, Karl (Viktor) (b. June 21, 1960, Aiseau, Belgium), defense minister (2004-08, 2018-20) and foreign minister (2012-18) of Slovenia. He was also minister of environment and spatial planning (2008-10).

Erk, Kutlay (b. 1952, Nicosia, Cyprus), foreign minister of North Cyprus (2013). He was also mayor of Nicosia Turkish Municipality (2002-06).

Erkin, Feridun Cemal (b. June 3, 1899, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. June 21, 1980, Istanbul), foreign minister of Turkey (1962-65). He was also ambassador to Italy (1947-48), the United States (1948-55), Spain (1955-57), France (1957-60), and the United Kingdom (1960-62).

Erkkilä, Eeli (Johannes) (b. Nov. 21, 1909, Oulainen, Finland - d. April 1, 1963, Oulainen), interior minister of Finland (1962-63). He was also minister of communications and public works (1962).

Erkko, Juho Eljas (b. June 1, 1895, Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland - d. Feb. 20, 1965, Helsinki), foreign minister of Finland (1938-39). He was also chargé d'affaires in Sweden (1939-40).

Erkmen, Hayrettin (b. April 19, 1915, Giresun, Turkey - d. May 18, 1999, Istanbul, Turkey), foreign minister of Turkey (1979-80). He was also minister of labour (1953-55, 1957-58), commerce (1958-60), and reconstruction and housing (acting, 1959-60).

Erkmen, Nizamettin (b. 1919, Görele, Ottoman Empire [now in Giresun province, Turkey] - d. Oct. 24, 1990, Istanbul, Turkey), a deputy prime minister of Turkey (1973-74).

Erlander, Tage Fritiof (b. June 13, 1901, Ransäter, Sweden - d. June 21, 1985, Huddinge, near Stockholm, Sweden), prime minister of Sweden (1946-69). He was elected to the Lund city council in 1930 and entered national politics in 1933, sitting in the Riksdag's (parliament's) lower chamber (1933-44 and 1949-70) and in its second chamber (1945-48). After working on the Employment Commission in the mid-1930s, he became an assistant at the Ministry of Social Welfare (1937) and its undersecretary of state (1938). He was minister without portfolio (1944) and minister of education (1945), became prime minister and chairman of the Social Democratic Party following the sudden death of Per Albin Hansson in 1946 and remained in both posts until October 1969. He headed a series of coalition governments, but in 1968 his party won an overall majority in the Riksdag's lower house. From 1971 to 1973 he sat in the new single-chamber Riksdag that his government had championed since 1955. Over the course of Erlander's long tenure, Sweden increased its social-welfare legislation with the passage of greater old-age benefits, child allowances, and rent subsidies. His educational reforms included extending compulsory education to nine years and increasing higher-educational opportunities. In foreign policy he promoted Sweden's traditional stance of neutrality; his keeping the country out of NATO resulted in heavy expenditures on defense. Erlander encouraged active participation in the UN, and Sweden was a member of various non-military European institutions.

Ermanov, Farkhod (Urazbayevich) (b. April 30, 1958), chairman of the Council of Ministers of Karakalpakstan (2022- ). He was also hokim of Khorezm region (2018-22).

Ermita, Eduardo (Ramos) (b. July 13, 1935, Balayan, Batangas, Philippines), defense secretary of the Philippines (2001 [acting], 2003-04). He was also executive secretary (2004-10).

Ernemann, André (b. Aug. 31, 1923, Antwerp, Belgium), Belgian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1976-81) and ambassador to Austria (1981-86) and Spain (1986-89).

Erniyazov, Musa (Tazhetdinovich) (b. Dec. 20, 1947, Kegeili district, Karakalpak A.S.S.R., Uzbek S.S.R. - d. July 31, 2020, Nukus, Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan), chairman of the parliament of Karakalpakstan (2002-20).

Ernouf, Jean Augustin (Manuel), (from 1816) baron (b. Aug. 29, 1753, Alençon [now in Orne département], France - d. 1827, Paris, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1803-10).

Ernoul, Jean (Edmond) (b. Aug. 5, 1829, Loudun, Vienne, France - d. Sept. 5, 1899, Lussac-les-Églises, Haute-Vienne, France), justice minister of France (1873).

Ernrot, Yohan Kazimir (Gustavovich) (b. Nov. 26, 1833, Nastola, Finland - d. Feb. 5, 1913, Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland), war minister (1880-81) and prime minister and interior minister (1881) of Bulgaria. He was also Russian minister-secretary of state for Finland (1888-91).

Ernst, Antoine Nicolas Joseph (b. March 20, 1796, Aubel, France [now in Ličge province, Belgium] - d. July 10, 1841, Boppard, Prussia [now in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany]), justice minister of Belgium (1834-39).

Ernst Rivera, Hugo (b. July 24, 1888, La Paz, Bolivia - d. 19...), defense minister of Bolivia (1950). He was also mayor of La Paz (1937-38), minister to Germany (1939-40), and minister of commerce and industry (1940).



H.F. Errázuriz
Eroglu, Dervis (b. 1938, Ergazi village, Famagusta district, Cyprus), prime minister (1985-94, 1996-2004, 2009-10) and president (2010-15) of North Cyprus. He was also minister of education and culture (1976-77) and leader of the National Unity Party (1983-2005, 2008-10).

Erp Taalman Kip, Willem Frederik van (b. Dec. 19, 1824, The Hague, Netherlands - d. March 16, 1905, The Hague), acting war minister of the Netherlands (1876, 1876). He was also minister of the navy (1874-77, 1879-83, 1884-85) and colonies (acting, 1883).

Erray, Noureddine (b. March 3, 1970, Tunis, Tunisia), foreign minister of Tunisia (2020). He was also ambassador to Kuwait (2013-15) and Oman (2018-20).

Errázuriz (y Martínez de Aldunate), Fernando de (b. 1777, Santiago, Chile - d. Aug. 16, 1841, Santiago), acting president of Chile (1831). He was also president of the Senate (1833-34).

Errázuriz (Talavera), Francisco Javier, byname Fra Fra (b. May 7, 1942, Santiago, Chile - d. March 4, 2024), Chilean presidential candidate (1989); great-great-grandson of Federico Errázuriz Zańartu.

Errázuriz (Correa), Hernán Felipe (b. Nov. 8, 1945, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (1988-90); grandson of Hernán Correa Roberts; great-great-grandson of Federico Errázuriz Zańartu. He was also minister of mines (1981-82), president of the Central Bank (1983-84), and ambassador to the United States (1984-88).

Errázuriz (Errázuriz), Isidoro (b. April 21, 1835, Santiago, Chile - d. March 12, 1898, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister of Chile (1891, 1892-93). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1877-78), justice and education minister (1891), war and marine minister (1893), and minister to Brazil (1896-98).

Errázuriz Aldunate, Ramón de (b. May 23, 1785, Santiago, Chile - d. Sept. 16, 1875, Santiago), foreign and interior minister of Chile (1831-32); brother of Fernando de Errázuriz.

Errázuriz Echaurren, Federico (b. Nov. 16, 1850, Santiago, Chile - d. July 12, 1901, Valparaíso, Chile), president of Chile (1896-1901); son of Federico Errázuriz Zańartu. He was also minister of war and navy (1890) and justice and education (1894).

Errázuriz Guilisasti, Octavio (b. Dec. 30, 1942, Santiago, Chile), Chilean diplomat. He was ambassador to Ecuador (1985-88), the United States (1989-90), Malaysia (1994-97), China (1997-2000), and the Vatican (2018-22) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2010-14).

Errázuriz Lazcano, Ladislao (b. May 12, 1882, Santiago, Chile - d. Dec. 9, 1941, Llolleo, Chile), war and marine minister of Chile (1920); grandson of Federico Errázuriz Zańartu.

Errázuriz Zańartu, Federico (Marcos del Rosario) (b. April 25, 1825, Santiago, Chile - d. July 20, 1877, Santiago), president of Chile (1871-76). He was also minister of justice, worship, and education (1864-66) and war and navy (1866-68).

Ershad, Hossain Mohammad (b. Feb. 1, 1930, Rangpur district, Bengal, India [now in northern Bangladesh] - d. July 14, 2019, Dhaka, Bangladesh), president of Bangladesh (1983-90). He was commissioned into the Pakistan Army in 1952. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel in 1969. During the Bangladesh war for independence in 1971, he was in Pakistan. He later returned to Bangladesh, where he was taken into the new army as an adjutant general. In 1975 he was made a major general and appointed deputy army chief of staff by Ziaur Rahman, who was then army chief. He was picked by Rahman to succeed him in his post as chief of the army staff when the latter became chief martial law administrator and then president in 1977. Ershad built up some popular goodwill when he stood by Pres. Abdus Sattar and the constitution during the crisis-ridden days that followed the assassination of Rahman in May 1981. But he fell out with the aging Sattar soon after the latter's election in November 1981. The cause of the disagreement was the role of the armed forces. Although he was snubbed by Sattar, who insisted that the armed forces had only one role to play - to look after the defense and security of the country - he waited to strike until the Sattar administration showed signs of cracking up, with the president himself openly admitting that the political and economic situation was verging on collapse. Ershad seized power in a bloodless coup and proclaimed himself chief martial law administrator in March 1982. In 1983 he made himself president. He resigned as chief of army staff in 1986. After nationwide protests he resigned in 1990 and was arrested. He was freed on bail on Jan. 9, 1997, to fight the last of 17 cases of corruption and misuse of power but was sent back to jail on Nov. 20, 2000, to finish a 5-year sentence over a graft charge after he exhausted the appeal process. Released on bail again in 2001, he was elected to parliament in 2008, 2014, and 2018. He was leader of the opposition in 2019. His wife Raushan Ershad (b. 1943) was leader of the opposition in 2014-19.

Erskine, David Montagu Erskine, (2nd) Baron (b. Aug. 12, 1776 - d. March 19, 1855, Butler's Green, Sussex, England), British diplomat; son of Thomas Erskine, Baron Erskine. He was minister to the United States (1806-09), Württemberg (1824-28), and Bavaria (1828-43). He succeeded as baron in 1823.

Erskine, Emmanuel (Alexander) (b. Jan. 19, 1937, Kumasi, Gold Coast [now in Ghana] - d. May 7, 2021), Ghanaian politician. He was army commander (1972, 1973-74), commander of the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (1976-78, 1981-86) and the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (1978-81), and a minor presidential candidate (1992).

Erskine, Sir George (Watkin Eben James) (b. Aug. 23, 1899, Hascombe, Surrey, England - d. Aug. 29, 1965, South Cheriton, Somerset, England), lieutenant governor of Jersey (1958-63); knighted 1950.

Erskine, Henry Napier Bruce (b. Sept. 7, 1831, West Lothian, Scotland - d. Dec. 4, 1893, Worcestershire, England), commissioner of Sind (1879-87).

Erskine, John Cadwallader Erskine, (4th) Baron (b. 1804 - d. March 28, 1882), British resident in Nepal (1850-52); son of David Montagu Erskine, Baron Erskine. He succeeded as baron in 1877.

Erskine, Sir John Francis Ashley, commonly called Lord Erskine (b. April 26, 1895 - d. May 3, 1953, Ickworth, Suffolk, England), governor of Madras (1934-40); knighted 1934.

Erskine, Thomas Erskine, (1st) Baron (b. Jan. 10, 1750, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. Nov. 17, 1823, near Edinburgh), British lord chancellor (1806-07). He was created baron in 1806.

Ersümer, (Mustafa) Cumhur (b. Oct. 29, 1952, Çanakkale, Turkey), a deputy prime minister of Turkey (1999-2000). He was also minister of energy and natural resources (1997-99, 1999-2001).

Ertborn, Florent Joseph ridder van (b. April 1784, Antwerp, Austrian Netherlands [now in Belgium] - d. June 16, 1850, Sint-Joost-ten-Node [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), governor of Utrecht (1828-30). He was also mayor of Antwerp (1817-28).

Ertekün, (Mehmet) Necati Münir (b. 1923 - d. Dec. 25, 2009, Nicosia, Cyprus), foreign and defense minister of North Cyprus (1983-85).

Ertem, Halil (b. 1916, Tokat, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. Dec. 20, 1999), justice minister of Turkey (1987).

Erten, Ali Riza, until Jan. 1, 1935, Ali Riza Bey (b. 1887, Mersin, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. May 14, 1964), justice minister of Turkey (1949).


Ertugruloglu, Tahsin (b. 1953, Nicosia, Cyprus), foreign minister of North Cyprus (1998-2004, 2016-18, 2020-22, 2022- ). He was also leader of the National Unity Party (2006-08), a minor presidential candidate (2010), and transport minister (2015-16).

Erverdi, Selçuk (b. 1927, Erzurum, Turkey - d. April 23, 2014), justice minister of Turkey (1977).

Erwa, Elfatih Mohamed Ahmed (b. May 11, 1950, Khartoum, Sudan), Sudanese official. He was national security adviser (1989-95), minister of state for defense (1995-96), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-2005).

Erzberger, Matthias (b. Sept. 20, 1875, Buttenhausen, Württemberg [now part of Münsingen, Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. [assassinated] Aug. 26, 1921, near Griesbach, Baden [now part of Bad Peterstal-Griesbach, Baden-Württemberg], Germany), vice chancellor (1919) and finance minister (1919-20) of Germany.

Erzer, Hans, byname of Johann Josef Erzer (b. March 8, 1915, Basel, Switzerland - d. Dec. 4, 2009, Solothurn, Switzerland), Landammann of Solothurn (1965, 1969, 1974, 1979).

Es-Saad, Habib Pacha, Arabic Habib Basha al-Sa`d (b. 1867 - d. 1942), prime minister (1928-29) and president (1934-36) of Lebanon.

Esa bin Alwee, Dato' Syed (b. Oct. 23, 1901, Johor Bahru, Johor [now in Malaysia] - d. ...), Malaysian politician. He was speaker of the Dewan Rakyat (1964).

Esaki, Masumi (b. Nov. 23, 1915, Ichinomiya, Aichi, Japan - d. Dec. 11, 1996), home affairs minister of Japan (1972-73). He was also director-general of the Defense Agency (1960, 1971-72) and minister of international trade and industry (1978-79).

Esarcu, Constantin (b. Nov. 5, 1836, Bucharest, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. June 8, 1898, Govora, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1891). He was also diplomatic agent to Italy (1873-76, 1879) and minister to Greece (1879-82).

Esaw, Koffi, foreign minister of Togo (2008-10). He was also ambassador to Ethiopia (2004-08) and justice minister (2013-15).

Escalante, Edilberto (b. Queniquea, Táchira, Venezuela - d. May 31, 1996, Caracas, Venezuela), governor of Táchira (1960-63) and justice minister of Venezuela (1971-74).

Escalante (Fuentes), José Ángel (b. Oct. 2, 1883, Acomayo, Cusco, Peru - d. Dec. 9, 1965, Lima, Peru), justice and education minister of Peru (1930).

Escalante, Wenceslao (b. Sept. 28, 1852, Santa Fe, Argentina - d. March 22, 1912, Buenos Aires, Argentina), interior minister (1893) and finance minister (1897-98) of Argentina. He was also minister of agriculture (1901-04).

Escalante Hasbún, Rubén Armando (b. Aug. 2, 1979, Ahuachapán, El Salvador), Salvadoran diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2017-19).

Escalante Ugarte, Diógenes (b. Oct. 24, 1879, Queniquea, Táchira, Venezuela - d. Nov. 13, 1964, Miami, Fla.), interior minister of Venezuela (1936). He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1922-35) and minister (1936-39) and ambassador (1939-46) to the United States.

Escaler, Narcisa (de Leon) (b. July 30, 1944, Manila, Philippines), Philippine diplomat. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-94).

Escalier (Villegas), José María (b. July 1862, Sucre, Bolivia - d. Aug. 15, 1934, Buenos Aires, Argentina), foreign minister (1910-11, 1920-21) and member of the Government Junta (1920-21) of Bolivia. He was also chargé d'affaires in Argentina (1930-34).

Escardó (Salazar), Héctor (Florencio) (b. Sept. 20, 1879, Pisco, Peru - d. March 23, 1924, Paris, France), finance minister of Peru (1918-19). He was also minister of development and public works (1917-18).

Escheikh, Abdelhamid, Arabic `Abd al-Hamid al-Shaykh (b. March 10, 1935, Tunis, Tunisia - d. Nov. 4, 1999, Tunis), foreign minister (1988-90) and interior minister (1990-91) of Tunisia. He was also ambassador to Sudan (1981-86), Senegal, Guinea, and Mali (1986-87), Algeria (1988), and France (1991-96) and minister of youth and sports (1988). For his last couple of years, he headed the special committee in charge of organizing the Mediterranean Games scheduled in Tunis for the year 2001.

Escher, Alfred (b. Feb. 20, 1819, Zürich, Switzerland - d. Dec. 6, 1882, Enge [now part of Zürich]), Amtsbürgermeister (1849) and president of the government (1851-52, 1853-55) of Zürich. He was also president of the National Council of Switzerland (1849-50, 1856-57, 1862-63).

Escher, Josef (b. Sept. 17, 1885, Simplon, Switzerland - d. Dec. 9, 1954, Bern, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Valais (1934-35). He was also president of the Conservative People's Party (1946-50), president of the National Council (1948-49), and minister of posts and railways (1950-54) of Switzerland.

Jorge Escobar
Escobar, Jorge (Alberto) (b. 1952, San Juan, San Juan, Argentina), governor of San Juan (1991-92, 1994-99).

Escobar, José Bernardo (b. Oct. 20, 1797, Jocotán, Guatemala - d. 1849, Guatemala City, Guatemala), interim president of Guatemala (1848-49).

Escobar Camargo, Antonio (b. Feb. 19, 1907, Plato, Magdalena, Colombia - d. Jan. 12, 1961, U.S.), justice minister of Colombia (1953-54). He was also president of the Senate (1947), governor of Magdalena (1949-50), and ambassador to Italy (1954-56).

Escobar Cerda, Luis (Arturo) (b. Feb. 10, 1927, Santiago, Chile), finance minister of Chile (1984-85). He was also minister of economy, development, and reconstruction (1961-63).

Escobar de Arzú, Patricia (b. Oct. 3, 1953), Guatemalan politician; widow of Álvaro Arzú Irigoyen. She was a minor presidential candidate in 2011.

Escobar Escobar, Ramón (b. Sept. 5, 1836, Santiago, Chile - d. Nov. 1, 1924, Santiago), justice (and education) minister of Chile (1901, 1906). He was also intendant of Chiloé (1872-74) and president of the Senate (1907-09).

Escobar Méndez, Miguel (b. June 13, 1920, Montería, Córdoba, Colombia - d. Feb. 21, 1992, Bogotá, Colombia), justice minister of Colombia (1970-73). He was also minister of communications (1963-64) and labour (1964-65) and ambassador to the Netherlands (1983-84) and the Vatican (1984-85).

Escobar Navia, Rodrigo (b. 1939, Cali, Colombia - d. Feb. 11, 2002, Bogotá, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1982-83). He was also chargé d'affaires in the United States (1974-75), mayor of Cali (1978-81), and minister of education (1983-84).

Escobar Serrano, Héctor (b. Aug. 14, 1904, Chalatenango, El Salvador - d. ...), finance minister (1944-45) and foreign minister (1945-46, 1962-65) of El Salvador. He was also minister to Honduras (1934-37), Mexico (1937-44), and Cuba (1940-44) and ambassador to Mexico (1946-50), Spain (1951-60), and the Vatican (1952-60).

Escobar Sierra, Hugo (b. June 22, 1927, Plato, Magdalena, Colombia - d. Oct. 9, 2003, Bogotá, Colombia), justice minister of Colombia (1978-80). He was also president of the Senate (1972-74) and ambassador to the Vatican (1980-81).

Escobari Cusicanqui, Jorge (b. Sept. 3, 1919, La Paz, Bolivia - d. June 14, 2000, La Paz), foreign minister of Bolivia (1979). He was also ambassador to Colombia (1959-60, 1963-64), Ecuador (1960-63), Peru (1971-74, 1981-83), and Argentina (1979-81).

Escombe, Harry (b. July 25, 1838, London, England - d. Dec. 27, 1899, Durban, Natal [now KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa]), prime minister of Natal (1897).

Escontría (y Bustamante), Blas (de la Candelaria) (b. Feb. 3, 1847, San Luis Potosí, Mexico - d. Jan. 4, 1906, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of San Luis Potosí (1898-1905); cousin of Carlos Diez Gutiérrez. He was also Mexican minister of development, colonization, and industry (1905-06).

Escovar Salom, Ramón (b. July 23, 1926, Barquisimeto, Venezuela - d. Sept. 9, 2008, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister of Venezuela (1975-77). He was also justice minister (1964-66), ambassador to France (1986-89), attorney general (1989-94), interior minister (1994-96), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-98).

Escudé Ferrero, Francesc (d. July 1996), first syndic of Andorra (1966-72).

Escudero Moscoso, Gonzalo (b. Sept. 28, 1903, Quito, Ecuador - d. Dec. 10, 1971, Brussels, Belgium), foreign minister of Ecuador (1964-65). He was also chargé d'affaires in Argentina (1938), minister to Chile (1941), Uruguay (1942-45), and France (1948-51), and ambassador to Peru (1945-48, 1956), France (1951-52), Argentina (1960-61), Colombia (1963-64), Brazil (1965-66), and Belgium (1971).

Escudero Otárola, Oscar (Manuel) (b. March 22, 1891, San Felipe, Chile - d. Aug. 4, 1957, Santiago, Chile), defense minister of Chile (1943-44). He was also commander-in-chief of the army (1940-43) and ambassador to Paraguay (1945-48).

Esdras, Marcel (b. May 21, 1927, Pointe-Noire, Guadeloupe - d. Nov. 13, 1988, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine, France), president of the Regional Council of Guadeloupe (1981-82).

Esenbel, Melih (b. March 15, 1915, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. July 27, 1995, Istanbul), foreign minister of Turkey (1974-75). He was also ambassador to the United States (1960, 1967-74, 1975-79) and Japan (1963-66).

Eseverry, Helios (b. Feb. 16, 1930, Sierra Chica, Olavarría, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. Sept. 21, 2007, Olavarría), governor of Tierra del Fuego (1987-89). He was also mayor of Olavarría (1983-87, 1991-2007).

Esfandiari, Musa Nuri (b. 1896, Tehran, Persia [now Iran] - d. 1971, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Iran (1947-48). He was also minister to Germany (1940-41) and Iraq (1942-44), agriculture minister (1944), and ambassador to Turkey (1945-47, 1961-63), India (1949-51), and Japan (1955-56).

Esguerra (Plata), Domingo (b. March 28, 1875, Santana de las Lajas, Colombia - d. 1965, Bogotá, Colombia), finance minister (1909) and foreign minister (1947-48) of Colombia. He was also minister to Japan (1934-36) and Brazil (1936-38) and ambassador to Brazil (1938-40), the United Kingdom (1948-50), and Argentina (1950-54).

Esguerra (Ortiz), Nicolás (b. Sept. 10, 1838, Bogotá, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. Dec. 23, 1923, Bogotá), acting foreign and interior minister (1874) and finance minister (1875-76) of Colombia. He was also treasury minister (1874-75) and a presidential candidate (1914).

Esguerra Portocarrero, Juan Carlos (b. 1949, Bogotá, Colombia), defense minister of Colombia (1995-97). He was also ambassador to the United States (1997-98) and justice minister (2011-12).

Eshba, Yefrem (Alekseyevich) (b. March 7 [Feb. 23, O.S.], 1893, Bedia, Sukhumi okrug, Kutaisi province, Russia [now in Abkhazia, Georgia] - d. [executed] April 16, 1939), chairman of the Revolutionary Committee (1921-22) and of the Central Executive Committee (1922) of Abkhazia. He was also people's commissar of justice of the Georgian S.S.R. (1922) and executive secretary of the party committee of Chechen autonomous oblast (1926-27).

Eshkinin, Aleksandr (Fyodorovich) (b. Nov. 29 [Nov. 17, O.S.], 1897, Chodroyal, Kazan province [now in Mari El republic], Russia - d. [executed] Nov. 11, 1937, Yoshkar-Ola, Mari A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Executive Committee of Mari autonomous oblast (1929-31).

Eshkol, Levi, original name Levi Shkolnik (b. Oct. 25, 1895, Oratovo, near Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Feb. 26, 1969, Jerusalem), prime minister of Israel (1963-69). In 1914 he emigrated to Palestine and when the British army entered Palestine during World War I, he enlisted in the 40th Royal Fusiliers of the Jewish Legion, where he began his association with David Ben-Gurion and other future leaders of Israel. Active in Hapoel Hazair, a Zionist labour party which later merged into Mapai, he was a delegate to the founding conference of the Jewish labour federation Histadrut. In 1944 Ben-Gurion appointed him to the high command of the Haganah, the underground Jewish defense force. After Israel's independence in 1948 his family name was Hebraized. He first entered the cabinet as agriculture minister in 1951, and in 1952 became finance minister. His popularity, personal charm, and conciliatory talents were often used by Prime Minister Ben-Gurion to smooth over domestic political troubles, and Eshkol gradually evolved as the number two man in the government. He accepted the prime minister's post in 1963 with reluctance, and followed the basic policies of his illustrious predecessor. However, by making concessions to political rivals which Ben-Gurion had firmly declined to consider, he enraged Ben-Gurion to the point where he publicly declared Eshkol unfit to govern. The outstanding event of his six-year tenure was the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, which ended with Israel ruling over more territory than ever before. The mellow and affable Eshkol appeared so unseemly as a war leader that in the critical days before the 1967 eruption his closest associates compelled him to turn over his defense portfolio to his political archfoe Gen. Moshe Dayan.

Eshmambetova, Zamira (Bakiyevna) (b. Osh, Kirgiz S.S.R.), Kyrgyz diplomat. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-99).

Esin, (Ibrahim) Seyfullah (b. 1902, Salonica, Ottoman Empire [now Thessaloniki, Greece] - d. June 16, 1982), Turkish diplomat. He was minister to Israel (1950-52) and Austria (1952-54), ambassador to the Soviet Union (1954-55), West Germany (1956-57), the United Arab Republic (1960-61), India (1962-65), and Spain (1965-67), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1957-60).

Eskelund, Karl I(mmanuel Nielsen) (b. Jan. 15, 1890, Stenstrup, Denmark - d. Aug. 25, 1966, Copenhagen, Denmark), Danish diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in New Zealand (1947-50), minister to Czechoslovakia (1951-55), permanent representative to the United Nations (1956-57), and ambassador to Yugoslavia (1958-60).

Eskenazi, Ilko (Mois) (b. May 20, 1949, Varna, Bulgaria - d. [drowned] Sept. 28, 1994, Varna), a deputy prime minister of Bulgaria (1992).

Esono Mica, Primo José (b. Dec. 16, 1940, Bisun Niefang, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea]), Equatorial Guinean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-74).

Espada, (José) Rafael (b. Jan. 14, 1944, Guatemala City, Guatemala), vice president of Guatemala (2008-12); half-brother of Carlos Vielmann. He was a minor presidential candidate in 2023.

Espada Aguirre, José, interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1935, 1935-36). He was also minister of development and communications (1934-35, 1935).

Espada Antezana, Joaquín (b. Aug. 21, 1897, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. Nov. 19?, 1993, Cochabamba), Bolivian minister of finance (1932, 1932-34, 1934, 1940-43), industry (1932, 1932-34, 1934), war and colonization (1932), and interior and justice (1934).

Esparbčs de Lussan, Jean Jacques Pierre d' (b. Dec. 1, 1720, Montauban [now in Tarn-et-Garonne département], France - d. March 13, 1810), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1792).

Esparch (Fernández), Nuria (del Rocío) (b. Jan. 19, 1969, Lima, Peru), defense minister of Peru (2020-21).

Espartero (y Álvarez de Toro), (Joaquín) Baldomero (Fernández), príncipe de Vergara, also called (from 1837) conde de Luchana, vizconde de Banderas, (from 1839) duque de la Victoria, (from 1840) duque de Morella, byname El Pacificador de Espańa (the Peacemaker of Spain) (b. Feb. 27, 1793, Granátula de Calatrava, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain - d. Jan. 8, 1879, Logrońo, La Rioja, Spain), Spanish statesman. He entered the army at age 15 and fought with Spanish forces in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars and in the rebellious Americas. On the death of Fernando VII he showed himself a strong supporter of the queen regent María Cristina and enthusiastically joined the forces opposed to Don Carlos (Carlos María Isidro de Borbón). He was made commander-in-chief and, for his victory over the Carlists at the Battle of Luchana (December 1836), was created conde de Luchana. He became for short periods war minister (1837, 1837-38) and prime minister (1837). Later he opened up the negotiations that led to the Convention of Vergara (1839) and ended the civil war. This success earned Espartero the popular sobriquet "the Peacemaker of Spain" and the title duque de la Victoria. On his return to Madrid (1840) he became again head of the government. María Cristina preferred to resign the regency (October 1840) rather than accept his program of reforms. He was then (May 1841) himself appointed regent by the Cortes (parliament). In 1843 Generals Ramón Narváez and Francisco Serrano rose against him and obliged him to flee to England, where he lived until 1849, when he returned to Spain and lived in retirement at Logrońo. He made his reappearance as prime minister in 1854-56, sharing control of the government with Gen. Leopoldo O'Donnell during the so-called bienio progresista. He retired in 1864. In 1875 King Amadeo awarded him the title príncipe de Vergara, together with the style of royal highness.

Esparza Reyes, J(osé) Refugio (b. Aug. 23, 1921, Villa Juárez, Aguascalientes, Mexico - d. Nov. 12, 2015, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes), governor of Aguascalientes (1974-80).

Esper, Mark T(homas) (b. April 26, 1964, Uniontown, Pa.), U.S. army secretary (2017-19) and defense secretary (2019 [acting], 2019-20).

L. Espersen
Espersen, Lene (Feltmann) (Feltmann is her husband's name) (b. Sept. 26, 1965, Hirtshals, Denmark), justice minister (2001-08) and foreign minister (2010-11) of Denmark. She was also leader of the Conservative People's Party (2008-11) and economy and business minister (2008-10).

Espersen, Ole (Mogens) (b. Dec. 20, 1934, Nylars, Bornholm, Denmark - d. Dec. 4, 2020, Rřnne, Bornholm), justice minister of Denmark (1981-82).

Espiet de Pensens, Jacques d' (d. 1737, France), governor of St. John's Island (1726-32, 1733-37).

Espina (Otero), Alberto (Miguel) (b. Nov. 4, 1956, Santiago, Chile), defense minister of Chile (2018-20); nephew of Miguel Otero Lathrop.

Espina Pinto, Manuel Alfredo, Guatemalan diplomat; son of Gustavo Adolfo Espina Salguero. He was ambassador to the United States (2017-20).

Espina Salguero, Gustavo Adolfo (b. Nov. 26, 1946, Horcones, Jutiapa department, Guatemala), vice president of Guatemala (1991-93). After Pres. Jorge Serrano Elías attempted a "self-coup" in May 1993, both Serrano and Espina were ousted on June 1, the defense minister announcing that Serrano had "abandoned" the presidency and that Espina had resigned. On June 2, with Serrano leaving the country, Espina proclaimed himself president but was prevented from taking office. On June 4, the Court of Constitutionality ruled that Espina was not eligible for the presidency due to his support for Serrano's coup. On June 5, the Congress, which had been dissolved by Serrano, reconvened and officially declared the presidential and vice presidential offices vacant.

Espinar (Aranda), José Domingo (b. 1791, Panama City, New Granada [now in Panama] - d. Sept. 5, 1865, Arica, Peru [now in Chile]), finance minister (1824 [acting], 1835 [Salaverry government]) and acting foreign minister (Salaverry government, 1835) of Peru.

Espinasse, Esprit Charles Marie (b. April 2, 1815, Castelnaudary, Aude, France - d. [killed in battle] June 4, 1859, Magenta, Austria [now in Italy]), interior minister of France (1858).

Espinel (García), Domingo (b. March 27, 1898, Choachi, Cundinamarca, Colombia - d. Feb. 19, 1976, Bogotá, Colombia), war minister of Colombia (1944-45). He was also minister to the Soviet Union (1946).

Espinola, Manoel José, Junior (b. 1841, Bahia province [now state], Brazil - d. Oct. 7, 1912, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Piauí (1870).

Espinosa (Trujillo), Alfonso (José) (b. Aug. 14, 1907, Calabozo, Guárico, Venezuela - d. Dec. 14, 1969, Caracas, Venezuela), finance minister of Venezuela (1945). He was also president of the Central Bank (1958-60).

M.F. Espinosa
Espinosa (Garces), María Fernanda (b. Sept. 7, 1964, Salamanca, Spain), foreign minister (2007, 2017-18) and defense minister (2012-14) of Ecuador. She was also permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-09), coordinating minister of natural and cultural heritage (2009-12), and president of the UN General Assembly (2018-19).

P. Espinosa
Espinosa (Cantellano), Patricia (b. Oct. 21, 1958, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister of Mexico (2006-12). She was ambassador to Germany (2001-02, 2013-16) and Austria (2002-06).

Espinosa (Ramírez), Rodolfo (b. Nov. 11, 1876, Managua, Nicaragua - d. Dec. 1, 1944, Managua), foreign minister (1908) and vice president (1933-36) of Nicaragua. He was also mayor of Managua (1908-09).

Espinosa (Ayala), (Aníbal) Solón (b. Nov. 26, 1929, Quito, Ecuador), defense minister of Ecuador (2005).

Espinosa Cańizares, Cristian (b. June 23, 1961, Quito, Ecuador), Ecuadorian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2020-22).

Espinosa Facio-Lince, Carlos (Adolfo) (b. Sept. 14, 1953, Sincelejo, Sucre, Colombia - d. March 5, 2019, Cartagena, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was president of the Senate (1991-92).

Espinosa San Martín, Juan José (b. June 30, 1918, Madrid, Spain - d. Jan. 14, 1982, Madrid), finance minister of Spain (1965-69).

Espinosa Valderrama, Abdón (b. Nov. 4, 1921, Bucaramanga, Colombia - d. Oct. 20, 2018, Bogotá, Colombia), finance minister of Colombia (1966-70, 1976-77); brother of Augusto Espinosa Valderrama. He was also ambassador to Spain (1978-81).

Espinosa Valderrama, Augusto (b. June 5, 1919, Bucaramanga, Colombia - d. Sept. 27, 1986, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was agriculture minister (1958-59), president of the Senate (1963-64), permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-73), and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1982-84).

Espinosa Villarreal, Óscar (b. Nov. 23, 1953, Mexico City, Mexico), chief of government of the Distrito Federal (1994-97). He was also Mexican minister of tourism (1997-2000).

Espinoza (Cruz), Marisol (b. July 30, 1967, Piura, Peru), first vice president of Peru (2011-16).

Espinoza (Medina), Ricardo W(enceslao) (b. Oct. 3, 1837, Huancabamba, Peru - d. Jan. 23, 1931, Lima, Peru), interior, police, and public works minister of Peru (1874-75, 1895). He was also president of the Supreme Court (1903-04) and mayor of Lima (1919-20).

Espinoza Carrillo, Gerardo (b. July 23, 1926, Talcahuano, Chile - d. Oct. 10, 2001, Santiago, Chile), interior minister of Chile (1973).

Espirito-Santo, Felicissimo do (b. Sept. 17, 1835, Goiás, Goiás, Brazil - d. June 1905), acting president of Goiás (1887, 1888-89).

Espirito Santo, Herminio Francisco do (b. May 9, 1841, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Nov. 11, 1924, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Santa Catarina (1877). He was also president of the Supreme Federal Court of Brazil (1911-24).

Espiritu, Edgardo (B.), finance secretary of the Philippines (1998-2000). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Iceland (2003-09).

Espot M.

Espot Z.
Espot Miró, Xavier (b. Feb. 14, 1953, Escaldes-Engordany, Andorra), foreign minister of Andorra (2009-11). He was also minister of tourism and sports (1992-93), ambassador to France (1994-95), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-09).

Espot Zamora, Xavier (b. Oct. 30, 1979, Escaldes-Engordany, Andorra), minister of social affairs, justice, and interior (2012-19) and head of government (2019-23, 2023- ) of Andorra; son of Xavier Espot Miró.

Espregueira, Manuel Afonso de (b. June 5, 1835, Viana do Castelo, Portugal - d. Dec. 28, 1917, Vila Franca, Viana do Castelo municipality), finance minister of Portugal (1898-1900, 1904-05, 1908-09). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1890, 1898-99).

Espriella (Toral), Ricardo de la (b. Sept. 5, 1934, Panama City, Panama), vice president (1978-82) and president (1982-84) of Panama.

Esquea Guerrero, Emmanuel T(ristán) (b. July 25, 1944, Ciudad Trujillo [now Santo Domingo], Dominican Republic), Dominican Republic diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1978-80).

Manuel Esquivel
Esquivel, Sir Manuel (Amadeo) (b. May 2, 1940, Belize, British Honduras [now Belize City, Belize] - d. Feb. 10, 2022, Belize City), prime minister of Belize (1984-89, 1993-98); knighted 2009. He was also senior advisor to government with ministerial rank (2008-14).

Esquivel Arguedas, Mario A(lberto) (b. July 30, 1916, San José, Costa Rica - d. Dec. 6, 1980, Miami, Fla.), foreign minister of Costa Rica (1953-56); grandson of Aniceto Esquivel Sáenz. He was also ambassador to the United States (1948-50).

Esquivel Ibarra, Ascensión (b. May 10, 1844, Rivas, Nicaragua - d. April 15, 1923, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister (1885-86, 1887-88) and president (1902-06) of Costa Rica. He was also minister to Nicaragua (1885), Guatemala (1886-87), and Colombia (1896) and president of the Supreme Court (1917-20).

Esquivel Sáenz, Aniceto (del Carmen) (b. April 18, 1824, Cartago, Costa Rica - d. Oct. 22, 1898, San José, Costa Rica), interior minister (1860-63, 1866-68), foreign minister (1868-69), and president (1876) of Costa Rica. He was also president of Congress (1886-89, 1891).

Esquivel Yedra, Antonio, a vice premier of Cuba (1981-90). He was also minister of basic industry (1974), chemical industry (1974-80), and light industry (1986-90) and minister without portfolio (1980-81).

Essaafi, M'Hamed (b. May 26, 1930, Kelibia, Tunisia - d. Dec. 24, 2021), Tunisian diplomat. He was ambassador to the United Kingdom (1964-69), the Soviet Union (1970-74), West Germany (1974-76), and Belgium and Luxembourg (1978-79), permanent representative to the United Nations (1980), and UN secretary-general's special representative for humanitarian affairs in Southeast Asia (1980-81).


Essebsi, (Mohamed) Béji (ben Hassouna) Caďd, Arabic (Muhammad) al-Baji (bin Hasuna) Qa´id al-Sabsi (b. Nov. 29, 1926, Sidi Bou Said, Tunisia - d. July 25, 2019, Tunis, Tunisia), interior minister (1965-69), defense minister (1969-70), foreign minister (1981-86), prime minister (2011), and president (2014-19) of Tunisia. He was also ambassador to France (1970-71) and West Germany (1987) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1990-91).

Essen, Antony (Ottovich fon), German Anton von Essen (b. 1863 - d. 1919), governor of Piotrków (1906-10) and acting governor-general of Warsaw (1914, 1914-15).

Essen, Fredrik friherre von (b. July 30, 1831, Hömb socken, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. Oct. 3, 1921, Stockholm, Sweden), finance minister of Sweden (1888-94); grandnephew of Hans Henrik greve von Essen. He was also marshal of the realm (1894-1911).

Essen, Hans Henrik greve von (b. Sept. 26, 1755, Hömb socken, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. July 28, 1824, Uddevalla, Göteborg och Bohus [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden), governor of Stockholm city (1795-97) and governor-general of Norway (1814-16).

Essen, Maksim (Maksimovich), German Heinrich Magnus Wilhelm von Essen (b. Sept. 27, 1796, Malla, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. Sept. 26, 1869, Borkholm, Russia [now Porkuni, Estonia]), governor of Livonia (1847-62); son of Otto Essen.

Essen, Otto (Vasilyevich), German Otto Wilhelm von Essen (b. April 8, 1761, Udenküll, Russia [now Uugla, Estonia] - d. May 28, 1834, Reval, Russia [now Tallinn, Estonia]), governor of Estonia (1832-33).

Essen, Reinhold Wilhelm friherre von (b. 1669 - d. May 3, 1732, Uleĺborg [now Oulu], Finland), governor of Österbotten (1720-32). He was made friherre (baron) in 1719.

Essid, Habib (b. June 1, 1949, Sousse, Tunisia), interior minister (2011) and prime minister (2015-16) of Tunisia.

Essimba Baluwa Bolea, Bienvenu (b. Dec. 8, 1973, Lisala, Zaire [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), governor of Mongala (2016-18).

Essimi Menye, Lazare (b. 1950), finance minister of Cameroon (2007-11). He was also minister of agriculture and rural development (2011-15).

Esso, Laurent (b. Aug. 10, 1942, Douala, Cameroon), defense minister (2001-04) and foreign minister (2004-06) of Cameroon. He has also been minister of justice (1996-2000, 2011- ) and health (2000-01) and secretary-general at the presidency (2006-11).

Essonghe, Jean-Baptiste (b. 1927, Sette Cama, Gabon), Gabonese diplomat. He was ambassador to Tunisia (1974-75) and Spain (1978-83) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1975-76).

Essy, Amara (b. Dec. 20, 1944, Bouaké, Ivory Coast), foreign minister of Côte d'Ivoire (1990-2000), secretary-general of the Organization of African Unity (2001-02), and interim chairman of the Commission of the African Union (2002-03). He was also ambassador to Switzerland (1978-81) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1981-90).

Estabillo, José (Arturo) (b. 1949, Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina), governor of Tierra del Fuego (1992-2000). He was also mayor of Ushuaia (1983-85).

Estaing, (Jean Baptiste) Charles Henri, comte d' (b. Nov. 20, 1729, Ravel, Puy-de-Dôme, France - d. [executed] April 28, 1794, Paris, France), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1764-66).

Estancia, Antonio Dias Coelho e Mello, barăo da (b. June 13, 1822, Colégio, Sergipe, Brazil - d. April 5, 1904, Săo Cristóvăo, Sergipe), acting president of Sergipe (1863, 1864, 1866); son of Domingos Dias Coelho e Mello, barăo de Itaporanga. He was made baron in 1867.

Estanislao, Jesus P. (b. Dec. 14, 1939, Cebu City, Philippines), finance secretary of the Philippines (1990-92).

Estčbe, Frédéric (b. April 3, 1863, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. April 18, 1936, Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France), administrator of Mayotte (1911), lieutenant governor of Oubangui-Chari (1911-13), acting governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1913-14, 1917-18), and governor of Réunion (1920-22).

Estella, Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, (I) marqués de (b. July 24, 1831, Sevilla, Spain - d. May 23, 1921, Madrid, Spain), governor-general of the Philippines (1880-83, 1897-98) and war minister of Spain (1907-09, 1917); brother of Rafael Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte.

Estella, José Antonio Primo de Rivera (y Sáenz de Heredia), (III) marqués de (b. April 24, 1903, Madrid, Spain - d. Nov. 20, 1936, Alicante, Spain), Spanish politician; son of Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, marqués de Estella. He founded the fascist Falange Espańola (1933) and was executed by the Republicans after the outbreak of the civil war.

Estella, Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, (II) marqués de (b. Jan. 8, 1870, Cádiz, Spain - d. March 16, 1930, Paris, France), prime minister (1923-30) and foreign minister (1923-25, 1927-30) of Spain and high commissioner of Spanish Morocco (1924-25); nephew of Rafael Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte and Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, marqués de Estella. He served in Cuba and the Philippines during the Spanish-American War (1898), and in Morocco (1909-13). Military governor of Cádiz (1915-17) and captain-general of Valencia (1920-21), Madrid (1921), and Barcelona (1922-23), he succeeded as marqués de Estella in 1921. In 1923 he led a military coup, dissolving the Cortes (parliament) and establishing a dictatorship, with full approval of King Alfonso XIII. Having founded the Patriotic Union as an official party, he replaced the military dictatorship with a civil one in 1925; both ruled quite moderately. He introduced many measures aimed at economic modernization and administrative reform, and launched an ambitious program of public works. He brought the Moroccan war to an end in 1927, but soon afterwards lost the support of the army, the ruling class, and the king. An uprising in 1929 by the liberals did not succeed, but he finally resigned in January 1930 and died in exile soon afterwards.

Estenssoro, José R., Bolivian politician. He was minister of interior and posts and telegraphs (1921) and finance and industry (1921).

Esterházy, Franjo, Hungarian Ferenc gróf Esterházy de Galántha, byname Quinquin (b. Sept. 19, 1715 - d. Nov. 7, 1785), ban of Croatia (1783-85).

Esterházy de Galántha (et Fraknó), Móric gróf (b. April 27, 1881, Oroszlány, Hungary - d. June 26, 1960, Vienna, Austria), prime minister of Hungary (1917). He was also minister without portfolio (1918) and acting minister of religion and education (1918).

Esterházy de Galántha, Pál Antal herceg (b. March 10, 1786, Vienna, Austria - d. May 21, 1866, Regensburg, Bavaria [Germany]), foreign minister of Hungary (1848). He was also Austrian ambassador to the United Kingdom (1815-42).

Esteva, Jean-Pierre (b. Sept. 14, 1880, Reims, France - d. Jan. 11, 1951, Reims), resident-general of Tunisia (1940-43).

Esteves, Juliăo (Freire) (b. Jan. 27, 1876, Mato Grosso province [now state], Brazil - d. Oct. 22, 1935, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting federal interventor in Distrito Federal (1931).

Estigarribia (Insaurralde), José Félix (b. Feb. 21, 1888, Caraguatay, Paraguay - d. [plane crash] Sept. 7, 1940, Aguai'y, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (1939-40). He was minister to the United States in 1938-39. The general was posthumously promoted to the rank of marshal; the town of Mariscal Estigarribia is named after him.

Estimé, (Léon) Dumarsais (b. April 21, 1900, Verrettes, Haiti - d. July 20, 1953, New York City), president of Haiti (1946-50). He was also minister of education (1937-41).

Estimé, (Léon) Jean Robert (b. Oct. 17, 1941, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1982-85); son of Dumarsais Estimé. He was also ambassador to France (1981-82).

Estrac, Jean-Claude (Gervais Raoul) de l' (b. Feb. 17, 1948, Rose Hill, Mauritius), foreign minister of Mauritius (1982-83, 1990-91). He was also minister of planning and development (1991-92) and industry and industrial technology (1992-94) and secretary-general of the Indian Ocean Commission (2012-16).

Estrada (Félix), Genaro (b. June 2, 1887, Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Mexico - d. Sept. 29, 1937, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister of Mexico (1927-32). He was also ambassador to Spain (1932-34) and minister to Turkey (1933-34) and Portugal (1934).

Estrada, John L(earie) (b. Sept. 27, 1955, Laventille, Trinidad and Tobago), U.S. official. He was ambassador to Trinidad and Tobago (2016-17) and chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission (2021).

Estrada, José María (b. 1802, Granada, Nicaragua - d. Aug. 13, 1856, Ocotal, Nicaragua), acting president of Nicaragua (1855).

J. Estrada
Estrada, Joseph (Marcelo Ejercito), original name Joseph Marcelo Ejercito (b. April 19, 1937, Manila, Philippines), president of the Philippines (1998-2001). When he decided to become an actor, his parents, displeased with his decision to drop out of college, forbade him to use his family name, which forced him to adopt Estrada (Spanish for "street") as a screen name. As he won one acting award after another, people began calling him Erap - for pare spelled backwards, meaning "pal." He entered politics when he ran for mayor of Manila's San Juan town in 1968. He was only proclaimed mayor in 1969, after he won an electoral protest against Braulio Sto. He kept the post until 1986. He was elected senator in 1987 and, in 1992, ran for vice president on the National People's Coalition ticket. Although the party's presidential candidate, Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr., lost the election, Estrada won the vice presidential contest. In 1998 he was elected president in generally peaceful elections. (He also held the interior portfolio in 1998-99.) But he reeled from one controversy after another soon after taking office and in October 2000 a former political ally, provincial governor Luis "Chavit" Singson, stunned the nation with revelations that he had handed Estrada more than 400 million pesos in bribes from illegal gambling syndicates. Impeachment proceedings collapsed after the prosecution walked out in disgust when pro-Estrada senators voted to keep out of the trial bank records which prosecutors said would show the fortune Estrada had been keeping in banks using aliases. On Jan. 20, 2001, at the peak of a "people power" revolt in which hundreds of thousands of Filipinos surged into the streets demanding his head, Estrada left the presidential palace for the last time. In September 2007 he was found guilty of corruption and given a life sentence, but in October he was pardoned by Pres. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. In 2010 he unsuccessfully ran again for president. In 2013-19 he was mayor of Manila.

Estrada (Morales), Juan José (b. Jan. 1, 1872, Managua, Nicaragua - d. July 11, 1967, Managua), provisional president of Nicaragua (1910-11).

Estrada (Orellana), Mario (Amílcar) (b. June 19, 1960, Monjas, Jalapa, Guatemala), Guatemalan politician. He was director of the Secretariat of Social Development (2000) and a presidential candidate (2007, 2011, 2015). His candidacy in 2019 was revoked after he was arrested in Miami, Fla., and charged in Manhattan federal court with conspiring to import cocaine into the United States and a related weapons offense.

Estrada Cabrera, Manuel (José) (b. Nov. 21, 1857, Quetzaltenango, Guatemala - d. Sept. 24, 1924, Guatemala City, Guatemala), president of Guatemala (1898-1920). He was a Supreme Court judge before being elected to Congress in 1885. He became minister of interior and justice under Pres. José María Reina Barrios from 1892 and took over as president when Reina Barrios was assassinated in 1898. After early sponsorship of public health, education, and agricultural and communications improvements, widespread corruption set in, although there was economic advance, leading to the emergence of a new elite of coffee planters. Germans became dominant in coffee growing. The lands of indigenous people were confiscated and made available to the new elite, who in turn hired the same people to work the coffee plantations. In 1901 Estrada hired the U.S. United Fruit Company to manage the national postal service, and three years later he granted the company a generous concession to construct a railway between Puerto Barrios and Guatemala City. He ruled increasingly as a tyrannical dictator, employing secret police informers and using the army to suppress uprisings and strikes. Immediately after taking over as president, he changed the constitution to end the restriction to single presidential terms, and he was subsequently reelected on four occasions, in rigged contests. Dissatisfaction dramatically increased following his government's apathetic response to earthquakes that struck Guatemala City in late 1917 and early 1918. Church leaders joined the middle sector in forming the Unionist Party, which demanded his resignation. A revolution in 1920, triggered by the murder of an anti-government legislator, attracted broad support. It resulted in the Congress declaring Estrada "mentally incompetent" and forcing him to resign. He died in prison.

Estrada Cajigal, Vicente (b. July 14, 1898, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico - d. June 14, 1973), governor of Morelos (1930-34) and chief of government of the Distrito Federal (1932). He was also Mexican minister to Panama (1936-39), Costa Rica (1937-39), El Salvador (1940-41), and Honduras (1940-41).

S.A. Estrada
Estrada Cajigal Ramírez, Sergio Alberto (b. Aug. 23, 1961, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico), governor of Morelos (2000-06); grandson of Vicente Estrada Cajigal. He was also mayor of Cuernavaca (1990-91, 1997-2000). Accusations that Morelos, a popular weekend retreat for the rich near Mexico City, was a haven for drug smuggling, embarrassed Pres. Vicente Fox, who distanced himself from the governor (both were members of the National Action Party). In October 2004 the state congress voted to remove Estrada from his post on allegations he knowingly appointed a state police chief with ties to drug trafficking. He challenged the decision in the courts, however, and was able to complete his term.

Estrada Palma, Tomás, originally Tomás Duque de Estrada y Palma (b. July 9, 1835, near Bayamo, Cuba - d. Nov. 4, 1908, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba), president of Cuba (1876-77 [insurrection government], 1902-06); son-in-law of José Santos Guardiola. ("Duque de Estrada" was a centuries-old compound family name, not a title of nobility; it is said, however, that in a spirit of republicanism he decided to shed the "Duque" at independence.)

Estrada Reynoso, Enrique (b. Feb. 18, 1890, Mayahua, Zacatecas, Mexico - d. Nov. 11, 1942, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Zacatecas (1916-20) and war minister of Mexico (1920-21); brother of Roque Estrada Reynoso.

Estrada Reynoso, Roque (b. Aug. 16, 1883, Moyahua, Zacatecas, Mexico - d. Nov. 27, 1966), provisional governor of Aguascalientes (1915) and justice minister of Mexico (1915-16). He was also president of the Supreme Court (1952).

Estrada Villa, Armando (b. 1952?), interior minister of Colombia (2000-02).

Estrées, Victor Marie, duc d', marquis de Coeuvres (b. Nov. 30, 1660, Paris, France - d. Dec. 27, 1737, Paris), joint president of the Council of Marine of France (1715-18).

Estrémé, Mateo (b. 1966, Buenos Aires, Argentina), Argentinian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2011-12).

Estrup, Jacob Brřnnum Scavenius (b. April 16, 1825, Sorř, Denmark - d. Dec. 24, 1913, Copenhagen, Denmark), prime minister and finance minister of Denmark (1875-94). In 1854-55 he sat in the Folketing, the lower house of the Rigsdag. In 1864 he entered the Landsting (upper house) and, as a member of the National Landowners' Party, played a prominent part in the revision of the constitution (July 1866), giving landowners extensive power in the Landsting. He then became the leader of a powerful group in the Landsting. As interior minister (1865-69) he made major improvements in the railways and in Esbjerg harbour. The salient feature of Danish politics during subsequent years was the struggle between the two houses, beginning in 1872 when a combination of all the radical parties rejected the budget. In 1875, when Estrup became prime minister, the crisis became acute. The right demanded large appropriations for defense, but the Folketing rejected Estrup's motion on fortifications. From 1885 his government maintained itself in power by letting the king declare provisional budgets. The Liberals considered the measures unconstitutional; Estrup counteracted public unrest with police action and a stricter penal code. Faced with a strong Conservative Party, the Liberal Party broke into factions, and the Conservatives, under Estrup's leadership, controlled the government for nearly two decades. He carried through some social reforms with the help of the moderate Liberals, whose majority also supported the Financial Act of April 1894, the first time a budget was once more regularly adopted by both houses. The act contained grants for temporary military installations but repealed his earlier police and press measures. He resigned in August 1894, remaining a prominent critic of Liberal governments.

Esuene, Helen (Udoka) (b. Nov. 23, 1949), Nigerian politician; widow of Udoakaha Esuene. She was minister of environment (2006-07) and housing (2007).

Esuene, Udoakaha (Jacob) (b. Oct. 17, 1936, Afaha Eket [now in Akwa Ibom state], Nigeria - d. April 8, 1993, Lagos, Nigeria) governor of South-Eastern state (1968-75).

Esztergályos, Ferenc (b. March 4, 1927, Szeged, Hungary - d. July 31, 2002, Budapest, Hungary), Hungarian diplomat. He was minister (1963-64) and ambassador (1964-69) to Sweden, minister (1963-65) and ambassador (1965-67) to Norway, minister (1963-66) and ambassador (1966-69) to Iceland, ambassador the United States (1975-81), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1986-90).

Étcheber, (Salvador) Jean (b. June 22, 1901 - d. Nov. 23, 1967), acting governor of French Sudan (1952-53) and governor of Upper Volta (1953-56).

Etchepareborda, Roberto (b. Dec. 19, 1923, Milan, Italy - d. April 10, 1985, near Washington, D.C.), foreign minister of Argentina (1962) and federal interventor in Buenos Aires (1962). He was also ambassador to India (1962-64).

Ete, Douglas (b. Aug. 4, 1964), deputy prime minister and home affairs minister of the Solomon Islands (2014-15). He was also minister of public service (2010) and forestry and research (2010-11).

Ete, Muhlis (b. Oct. 23, 1904 - d. Feb. 4, 1975), Turkish politician. He was minister of state enterprises (1950-51) and economy and commerce (1951-52, 1962-63).


Eteki (Mboumoua), William (Aurélien) (b. Oct. 20, 1933, Bonadibong [now part of Douala], Cameroon - d. Oct. 26, 2016, Yaoundé, Cameroon), secretary-general of the Organization of African Unity (1974-78) and foreign minister of Cameroon (1984-87). He was also minister of education, youth, and culture (1961-68), special adviser to the president (1971-73, 1978-80), and minister for special duties at the president's office (1980-84).

Etem (Toshkova), Emel (b. March 4, 1958, Isperih, Bulgaria), Bulgarian politician. She was a deputy prime minister and minister of disaster management policy (2005-09).

Etemadi, Mohammad Nur Ahmad (b. Feb. 22, 1921, Kandahar, Afghanistan - d. [executed] August 1979), foreign minister (1965-71) and prime minister (1967-71) of Afghanistan. He was also ambassador to Pakistan (1964-65, 1976-78), Italy (1971-73), and the Soviet Union (1973-76).

Etgen, Fernand (b. March 10, 1957, Ettelbrück, Luxembourg), Luxembourg politician. He was agriculture minister (2013-18) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (2018-23).

Ethell, Donald (Stewart) (b. July 23, 1937, Vancouver, B.C.), lieutenant governor of Alberta (2010-15).

Etiang, Paul (Orono) (b. Aug. 15, 1938, Tororo, Uganda - d. Jan. 1, 2021, Kampala, Uganda), acting foreign minister of Uganda (1973). He was also high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1969-71), minister of transport and communications (1976-78), transport and public works (1978-79), regional cooperation (1988-89), commerce (1989-91), information (1994-96), labour and social services (1996-98), and disaster preparedness and refugees (1998-99), and third deputy prime minister (1996-99).

Etiebet, Donald (Dick) (b. 1934, Ikot Ekpuk [now in Cross River state], Nigeria - d. July 21, 2015, Umuahia, Abia, Nigeria), governor of Cross River (1983).

Étienne, Eugčne (Napoléon) (b. Dec. 15, 1844, Oran, Algeria - d. May 13, 1921, Paris, France), French interior minister (1905) and war minister (1905-06, 1913).

Etier, Paul (b. May 19, 1863, Founex, Vaud, Switzerland - d. Aug. 19, 1919, Saint-Cergue, Vaud), president of the Council of State of Vaud (1907, 1913, 1919).


Etkin, Taner (b. Dec. 10, 1943, Polis, western Cyprus), interior minister (1994-95) and foreign and defense minister (1996-98) of North Cyprus.

Etolin, Adolf (Karlovich), Swedish Arvid Adolf Etholén (b. Jan. 9, 1799 [Dec. 29, 1798, O.S.], Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland - d. March 29 [March 17, O.S.], 1876, Elimäki [now part of Kouvola], Finland), governor of Russian America (1840-45).

Etoungou, Simon Nko'o (b. Feb. 14, 1932, Messok, French Cameroons [now in East province, Cameroon], or Sangmelima, French Cameroons [now in South province, Cameroon] - d. Aug. 12, 2002, Paris, France), foreign minister (1965-66, 1968-70) and finance minister (1966-68) of Cameroon. He was also ambassador to Tunisia (1961-64), Algeria (1964, 1985-88), the Soviet Union (1964-65), the Benelux countries (1971-79), and France (1988-95).

Etpison, Ngiratkel (b. May 3, 1925 - d. Aug. 1, 1997, San Diego, Calif.), president of Palau (1989-92).

Etter, Philipp (b. Dec. 21, 1891, Menzingen, Zug, Switzerland - d. Dec. 23, 1977, Bern, Switzerland), president of Switzerland (1939, 1942, 1947, 1953). He was also Landammann of Zug (1927-28) and interior minister (1934-59).

Ettingen, Avgustin (Aleksandrovich fon), German in full August Georg Friedrich von Oettingen (b. July 5, 1823, Wissust, Livonia, Russia [now Visusti, Estonia] - d. April 7, 1908, Yuryev, Russia [now Tartu, Estonia]), governor of Livonia (1862-68).

Etzel, Franz (b. Aug. 12, 1902, Wesel, Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. May 9, 1970, Wittlaer [now part of Düsseldorf], Nordrhein-Westfalen, West Germany), finance minister of West Germany (1957-61).

Eula, Lorenzo (b. Sept. 17, 1824, Villanova Mondově, Kingdom of Sardinia [now in Piemonte, Italy] - d. July 5, 1893, Resina [now Ercolano, Napoli metropolitan city], Campania, Italy), justice minister of Italy (1893).

Eulálio, Kleber (b. Aug. 20, 1954, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil), acting governor of Piauí (2001).

Eulenburg, August Ludwig Traugott Botho Graf zu (b. Oct. 22, 1838, Königsberg, Prussia [now Kaliningrad, Russia] - d. June 16, 1921, Berlin, Germany), Prussian official; brother of Botho Wend August Graf zu Eulenburg; son of cousin of Friedrich Albrecht Graf zu Eulenburg. He was minister of the royal house (1907-18).

Eulenburg, Botho Wend August Graf zu (b. July 31, 1831, Wicken, Prussia [now Klimovka, Kaliningrad oblast, Russia] - d. Nov. 5, 1912, Berlin, Germany), Oberpräsident of Hannover (1873-78) and Hessen-Nassau (1881-92) and minister-president of Prussia (1892-94); son of cousin of Friedrich Albrecht Graf zu Eulenburg. He was also interior minister of Prussia (1878-81, 1892-94).

Eulenburg, Friedrich Albrecht Graf zu (b. June 29, 1815, Königsberg, Prussia [now Kaliningrad, Russia] - d. April 2, 1881, Berlin, Germany), interior minister of Prussia (1862-78). He was also minister to Japan (1860-61), China (1861), and Siam (1861).

Eulenburg und Hertefeld, Philipp (Friedrich Karl Alexander Botho) Fürst zu, Graf von Sandeis (b. Feb. 12, 1847, Königsberg, Prussia [now Kaliningrad, Russia] - d. Sept. 17, 1921, Liebenberg, Prussia [now part of Löwenberger Land, Brandenburg], Germany), German diplomat; nephew of Friedrich Albrecht Graf zu Eulenburg; cousin of Botho Wend August Graf zu Eulenburg and August Ludwig Traugott Botho Graf zu Eulenburg. He was ambassador to Austria-Hungary (1894-1902). He became Fürst (prince) in 1900.

A. Eustace
Eustace, Arnhim (Ulric) (b. 1944), finance (and public service) minister (1998-2001) and prime minister (2000-01) of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. He was leader of the New Democratic Party (2000-16).

Eustace, Sir Joseph Lambert (b. Feb. 28, 1908, Georgetown, Saint Vincent - d. Nov. 2, 1996), governor-general of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1985-88); knighted 1985. He was also minister of education and health (1967-72) and speaker of the House of Assembly (1972-74).

Eustis, James B(iddle) (b. Aug. 21, 1834, New Orleans, La. - d. Sept. 9, 1899, Newport, R.I.), U.S. politician. He was a senator (1877-79, 1885-91) and ambassador to France (1893-97).

Eustis, William (b. June 10, 1753, Cambridge, Massachusetts Bay [now Mass.] - d. Feb. 6, 1825, Boston, Mass.), U.S. secretary of war (1809-13) and governor of Massachusetts (1823-25). He was also minister to the Netherlands (1815-18).

Eutrope, Eugčne Henri Roger (b. March 31, 1881 - d. Feb. 12, 1953), resident-superior of Laos (1934-38).

Evain, Louis Auguste Frédéric, baron (b. Aug. 15, 1775, Angers, France - d. May 25, 1852, Brussels, Belgium), war minister of Belgium (1832-36). He was made a French baron in 1813.

Evangjeli, Pandeli (b. 1859, Korçë, Ottoman Empire [now in Albania] - d. Sept. 14, 1949, Korçë), foreign minister (1921, 1922-24) and prime minister (1921, 1930-35) of Albania.

Evans, Daniel J(ackson) (b. Oct. 16, 1925, Seattle, Wash.), governor of Washington (1965-77).

D. Evans

G. Evans
Evans, Don(ald Louis) (b. July 27, 1946, Houston, Texas), U.S. secretary of commerce (2001-05).

Evans, Edward Walter (b. 1890 - d. Feb. 25, 1985), acting governor of Mauritius (1932-33, 1934, 1936, 1937). He was colonial secretary (1932-39).

Evans, Sir Frederick (b. 1849 - d. Aug. 1, 1939, Chideock, Dorset, England), deputy governor of Lagos (1883-84, 1885-86); knighted 1908.

Evans, Gareth (John) (b. Sept. 5, 1944, Melbourne, Vic.), foreign minister of Australia (1988-96). He was also attorney general (1983-84) and minister of resources and energy (1984-87) and transport and communications (1987-88).

Evans, John (b. March 9, 1814, near Waynesville, Ohio - d. July 3, 1897, Denver, Colo.), governor of Colorado (1862-65).

Evans, John G(ary) (b. Oct. 15, 1863, Cokesbury, S.C. - d. June 26, 1942, Spartanburg, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1894-97).

Evans, John V(ictor, Sr.) (b. Jan. 18, 1925, Malad City, Idaho - d. July 8, 2014, Boise, Idaho), governor of Idaho (1977-87).

Evans, Waldo (A.) (b. Nov. 26, 1869, Indianapolis, Ind. - d. April 15, 1936, Des Moines, Iowa), governor of American Samoa (1920-22) and the U.S. Virgin Islands (1927-31).

Evara, (Aua) Roy (b. July 1, 1947, Baimuru, Papua and New Guinea [now in Gulf province, Papua New Guinea]), home affairs minister of Papua New Guinea (1982-83). He was also minister of primary industry (1978-81), post and telecommunication (1983-85), and agriculture and livestock (1992-94).

Evarts, William M(axwell) (b. Feb. 6, 1818, Boston, Mass. - d. Feb. 28, 1901, New York City), U.S. attorney general (1868-69) and secretary of state (1877-81).

Evatt, Francis Scott, byname Frank Evatt (b. March 14, 1918 - d. Sept. 28, 2003), administrator of Christmas Island (1973-74).

H.V. Evatt
Evatt, Herbert Vere, byname Doc Evatt (b. April 30, 1894, Maitland, N.S.W. - d. Nov. 2, 1965, Canberra, A.C.T.), Australian politician. He was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly for the seat of Balmain in 1925. In 1930 the federal Labor government of James Scullin appointed him as the youngest-ever member of the High Court of Australia. There he served with distinction until 1940, when he resigned to enter federal politics. Elected MP for the Sydney seat of Barton, he became minister for external affairs and attorney-general in the Labor government of John Curtin in 1941. He was an Australian delegate to the San Francisco conference in April 1945 which founded the United Nations, and played a leading role in resolving the Palestine dispute in 1947; in 1948-49 he was president of the General Assembly. In 1946 he became deputy prime minister. When Labor lost office in December 1949 he remained deputy leader of the Labor Party, and was elected leader when Joseph Benedict Chifley died in June 1951. As opposition leader to Robert Menzies's Liberal government he defended civil liberties in the Cold War context, notably in successfully campaigning to defeat a proposal to ban the Communist Party. He led the Labor Party to three successive election defeats in 1954, 1955, and 1958. His judgement grew increasingly erratic and in 1955 he caused a split in his party when he attacked its conservative Catholic wing. There were many plots against his leadership, but such was his prestige in the Labor movement that he survived until February 1960, when ill-health caused him to resign. He was appointed chief justice of New South Wales, but suffered a mental breakdown in 1962 and retired from public life. The Australian Labor Party's Evatt Foundation is named in his honour.

Evdokim, secular name Vasily (Ivanovich) Meshchersky (b. April 13 [April 1, O.S.], 1869, Vladimir province, Russia - d. May 10, 1935, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Russian Orthodox archbishop of the Aleutians and North America (1914-18) and metropolitan of the Renewal Church (1923-25). He was also bishop of Volokolamsk (1904-09) and Kashira (1909-14) and archbishop of Nizhny Novgorod (1918-22).

Evelyn, Edward Arthur (b. June 13, 1904, Saint Christopher - d. July 26, 1974), acting commissioner (1956) and acting administrator (1956) of the British Virgin Islands.

Even, Auguste (Léon Valentin) (b. Aug. 17, 1897 - d. Oct. 28, 1980), acting governor of Chad (1945) and Oubangui-Chari (1948-49, 1950).

Evensen, Lars (Samuel Myhrer) (b. Nov. 12, 1896, Drřbak [now part of Frogn municipality], Akershus, Norway - d. Jan. 19, 1969, Kristiansand, Vest-Agder [now in Agder], Norway), governor of Vest-Agder (1954-66). He was also Norwegian minister of industry (1945-53).

Evensen, Tidemann F(laata) (b. July 11, 1905, Solum, Bratsberg amt [now Telemark fylke], Norway - d. Sept. 16, 1969), governor of Telemark (1959-69).

Everard, Henry (Breedon) (b. Feb. 21, 1897, England - d. Aug. 7, 1980, Zimbabwe), acting president of Rhodesia (1976, 1978, 1979).

Everard, Mathias (b. 17... - d. April 20, 1857, Southsea, England), lieutenant governor of Saint Lucia (1839-41).

Everett, Alexander H(ill) (b. March 19, 1790, Boston, Mass. - d. June 28, 1847, Canton [now Guangzhou], China), U.S. diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in the Netherlands (1818-24), minister to Spain (1825-29), and diplomatic commissioner to China (1846-47).

Everett, Edward (b. April 11, 1794, Dorchester, Mass. - d. Jan. 15, 1865, Boston, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1836-40) and U.S. secretary of state (1852-53); brother of Alexander H. Everett. He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1841-45) and vice presidential nominee of the Constitutional Union Party in 1860.

Everett, James (b. May 1, 1894 - d. Dec. 18, 1967, Dublin, Ireland), justice minister of Ireland (1954-57). He was also leader of the National Labour Party (1944-50) and minister of posts and telegraphs (1948-51).



Everingham, Paul (Anthony Edward) (b. Feb. 4, 1943, Brisbane, Qld.), chief minister of the Northern Territory (1978-84).

Evers, Tony, byname of Anthony Steven Evers (b. Nov. 5, 1951, Plymouth, Wis.), governor of Wisconsin (2019- ).

Evertsz, Juan Miguel Gregorio, byname Juancho Evertsz (b. March 8, 1923, Curaçao [now in Netherlands Antilles] - d. April 30, 2008, Curaçao), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1973-77).

Eves, Ernie, byname of Ernest Larry Eves (b. June 17, 1946, Windsor, Ont.), premier of Ontario (2002-03). As Premier Mike Harris's finance minister, Eves presided over the unprecedented tax and spending cuts that characterized the Progressive Conservative Party's time in power, but after Harris resigned Eves was unable to find his own niche as premier. Voters rejected his right-wing platform in 2003, when he ran on promises of more tax cuts, a ban on teacher strikes, and a pledge to scoop the homeless from the streets.

Evison, John Crouchley Murray (b. 1874 - d. March 13, 1947, Levin, N.Z.), resident commissioner of Niue (1920-22).

Evjenth, Hĺkon (Martin) (b. July 17, 1865, Bodin, Norway - d. Nov. 16, 1934, Bodř, Norway), justice minister of Norway (1928-30). He was also mayor of Bodř (1901, 1916, 1925-28).

Evren, (Ahmet) Kenan (b. July 17, 1917, Alasehir [now in Manisa province], Turkey - d. May 9, 2015, Ankara, Turkey), president of Turkey (1980-89). He joined the army, commanded an artillery regiment during the Korean War, and rose to the rank of general in 1964. Evren was chief of the general staff in 1978-83. He became head of state in a coup in 1980 which ousted the civilian government of Süleyman Demirel during a period of political and economic instability. Civil order was restored by way of the arrest of up to 100,000 suspects, some of whom were tortured. In a 1982 referendum a new constitution was approved, automatically constituting his election for a seven-year term as president. He allowed the restoration of democratic rule in 1983, although the pre-coup parties and major political figures were banned. The military supported Turgut Sunalp and his National Democratic Party, but the election winner was Turgut Özal of the Motherland Party. Evren accepted the outcome and cooperated with Prime Minister Özal. In 2012, after a constitutional amendment ended his immunity from prosecution, he went on trial for his role in leading the 1980 coup. In 2014, at age 96, he was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Evuna Owono Asangono, Alejandro (b. May 23, 1944, Nkumekien-Yebecon, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea]), Equatorial Guinean official. He has been ambassador to Ethiopia (1975) and Spain (1980-81), permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-80), minister at the prime minister's office (1986-89), and a minister of state at the president's office (1990- ).

Ewang, Sam(son) (b. Nov. 24, 1952), governor of Ogun (1996-98) and Rivers (1998-99).

Ewans, Sir Martin (Kenneth) (b. Nov. 14, 1928 - d. April 5, 2012), administrator of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1976-78); knighted 1987. He was also British high commissioner to Zimbabwe (1983-85) and Nigeria (1986-88).

Ewart-Biggs, Christopher (Thomas Ewart) (b. Aug. 5, 1921 - d. July 21, 1976, Sandyford, County Dublin, Ireland), British political officer in Qatar (1951-53). In 1976 he became ambassador to Ireland; 12 days after his arrival in Dublin he was killed when his car was blown up by an IRA landmine. His widow was created a life peeress in 1981 (Felicity Jane Ewart-Biggs, Baroness Ewart-Biggs).

R. Ewing
Ewing, Rufus (Washington) (b. 1968, Blue Hills, Providenciales island, Turks and Caicos Islands), premier of the Turks and Caicos Islands (2012-16).

Ewing, Thomas (b. Dec. 28, 1789, West Liberty, Va. [now in W.Va.] - d. Oct. 26, 1871, Lancaster, Ohio), U.S. secretary of the treasury (1841) and the interior (1849-50).

Ewing, William L(ee) D(avidson) (b. Aug. 31, 1795, Paris, Ky. - d. March 25, 1846, Vandalia, Ill.), governor of Illinois (1834).

Ewing Acuńa, Alfredo (Archibaldo) (b. Nov. 22, 1876, Santiago, Chile - d. Jan. 8, 1934, Santiago), war and marine minister of Chile (1924).

Eworo Ndongo, Jesús (b. Evinayong, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea] - d. [killed] 1970), justice minister of Equatorial Guinea (1968-69).

Exarchos, Antonios (b. 1932, Athens, Greece), Greek diplomat. He was ambassador to Iraq (1984-86) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-94).

Exeter, David George Brownlow Cecil, (6th) Marquess of, known before 1956 as Lord Burghley (b. Feb. 9, 1905, Stamford, Lincolnshire, England - d. Oct. 21, 1981, Stamford), governor of Bermuda (1943-45). He was also known as an athlete, winning Olympic gold in the 400-m hurdles in 1928 and silver in the 4x400-m relay in 1932. He succeeded as marquess in 1956.

Exham, Richard (b. 1856? - d. Nov. 10, 1900, Auckland, N.Z.), resident of the Cook Islands (1888-91).

Exon, J(ohn) James, byname Jim Exon (b. Aug. 9, 1921, Geddes, S.D. - d. June 10, 2005, Lincoln, Neb.), governor of Nebraska (1971-79). He started in the Democratic Party as a precinct worker and was chairman of the state party when he made his first bid for public office, winning the governor's seat in 1970, defeating incumbent Republican Norbert Tiemann. His perennial rallying cry as governor was "hold the line" on taxes and he regularly criticized the legislature, sometimes referring to lawmakers as "wild-eyed spenders." He was reelected in 1974 by a landslide and became the first Nebraska governor to serve eight years (the term of office changed from two to four years the year he was elected). In 1978 he rode his popularity to the U.S. Senate, being elected with 68% of the vote. In 1984, however, he came within 25,000 votes of defeat. He won a third term in 1990, fending off rumours he was a heavy drinker. Serving on the Senate Armed Services Committee, Exon helped shape U.S. military policy during the final years of the Cold War. He was also a stalwart defender of the controversial B-2 stealth bomber. He said his proudest achievement was helping to author and secure passage of a spending reduction of $13 billion in 1994. Two years later, his Communication Decency Act was Congress' first attempt at protecting children from Internet pornography. It later was overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court. He did not run for reelection in 1996.

Eyadéma, Gnassingbé (b. Dec. 26, 1937 [other sources say 1935], Pya, northern Togo - d. Feb. 5, 2005, in plane 250 km south of Tunis, Tunisia), president of Togo (1967-2005). Born Étienne Eyadéma Gnassingbé, he enlisted in the French army (1953) as Étienne Eyadéma, his two given names. He recovered the name Gnassingbé only in 1974, when he dropped the "Étienne" as part of a campaign of "authenticity." Gnassingbé became his first name. He served in Indochina, Dahomey (now Benin), Niger, and Algeria (1953-61), and attained the rank of staff sergeant when he returned to Togo in 1962. When Pres. Sylvanus Olympio refused to take 626 Togolese veterans of French wars into Togo's tiny army, a group of them, including Eyadéma, attacked the presidential palace on the night of Jan. 13, 1963, and killed Olympio the following dawn in an otherwise almost bloodless coup. They installed a civilian, Nicolas Grunitzky, as president. Grunitzky appointed Eyadéma to head the army in 1965. On Jan. 13, 1967, Eyadéma went on national radio to say the army had peacefully seized power "with no intention of holding on to it." In April he declared himself president and minister of national defense. He invited past political exiles to return, and in 1969 he set up a new unity party (the Rally of the Togolese People) and became its president. He won a plebiscite in 1972 and one-party presidential elections in 1979 and 1986. His long rule brought a measure of stability to Togo, but economic gains achieved in the 1970s were largely negated in the 1980s by mismanagement and corruption. He won a 1993 poll which was boycotted by the opposition after the candidacy of the late president's son, Gilchrist Olympio, was rejected. Elections in 1998 were the first to threaten his reign. He officially won 52.1% of the vote; Olympio was announced as having come second in the poll, but claimed he actually won. In 2003 Eyadéma's reelection was made possible only after the modification of the constitution, which limited the presidential terms, and after the candidacy of Olympio was again rejected. He was also chairman of the Economic Community of West African States (1977-78, 1980-81, 1999) and of the Organization of African Unity (2000-01).

Eydoux, Pierre (Alfred Henri) (b. Dec. 17, 1921, Marseille, France - d. April 7, 2011, Sanary-sur-Mer, Var, France), prefect of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1977-79).

Eyebe Ayissi, Henri (b. Sept. 24, 1955, Mbellé 2 village, Lekié département, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon]), foreign minister of Cameroon (2007-11). He was also minister of urban planning and housing (1990-92).

Eyeghe Ndong

Eyeghe Ndong, Jean (b. Feb. 12, 1946, Libreville, Gabon), prime minister of Gabon (2006-09); nephew of Léon M'ba.

Eyegue Ntutumu, Miguel (b. May 1933, Chaman, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea] - d. [executed] Sept. 29, 1979, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea), vice president of Equatorial Guinea (1974-75); brother of Ángel Masié Ntutumu; cousin of Francisco Macías Nguema.

Eyi Monsuy Andeme, Isidoro (b. 1949, Mibang Esawong, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea]), Equatorial Guinean politician. He was minister of territorial administration (1986-90) and education, youth, and sports (1990-92) and deputy prime minister (1988-92).

Eyidogan, (Ali) Akif, also spelled Iyidogan (b. 1895, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Dec. 16, 1974), a deputy prime minister of Turkey (1961-62). He was also governor of Zonguldak (1927-30), Gaziantep (1932-35), Sivas (1935, 1939-42), Kars (1935-39), Manisa (1942), and Adana (1942-46).

Eymann, Christoph (b. Jan. 15, 1951, Basel, Switzerland), president of the government of Basel-Stadt (2003-04).

Eyre, Dean Jack (b. May 8, 1914, Westport, New Zealand - d. May 18, 2007, Ottawa, Ont.), defence minister of New Zealand (1957, 1960-66). He was also minister of industries, commerce, and customs (1954-56), social security (1956-57), tourism (1956-57, 1961-66), housing (1957), and police (1957, 1960-63) and high commissioner to Canada (1968-73, 1976-80).

Eyschen, Paul (b. Sept. 9, 1841, Diekirch, Luxembourg - d. Oct. 12, 1915, Luxembourg, Luxembourg), prime minister and foreign minister of Luxembourg (1888-1915). He was also chargé d'affaires in Germany (1875-88) and minister of justice (1876-1915), public works (1892-96), and agriculture (1896-1915).

Eysinga, Jonkheer Frans (Julius Johan) van (b. Dec. 31, 1818, Wommels [now part of Súdwest-Fryslân municipality], Friesland, Netherlands - d. April 16, 1901, Leeuwarden, Friesland), Dutch politician. He was chairman of the First Chamber (1880-88).

G. Eyskens
Eyskens, Gaston (François Marie), (from 1973) burggraaf/vicomte (b. April 1, 1905, Lier, Belgium - d. Jan. 3, 1988, Leuven, Belgium), prime minister of Belgium (1949-50, 1958-61, 1968-73). In 1939 he entered parliament as a member of the Catholic (later Social Christian) Party, serving as minister of finance in 1945 and 1947-49, then being chosen to head a new coalition government. This government fell in 1950 during the controversy over the possible restoration of exiled King Léopold III. Eyskens briefly became economy minister in 1950, but he was recalled as prime minister in 1958. He successfully negotiated an end to a complicated dispute involving the right of students to attend either state or parochial schools without undue financial burdens, but economic problems, coupled with the high cost of the Congo's independence, forced him to institute new austerity measures. He was defeated in the 1961 election but was again finance minister (1965-66) and began a third term as prime minister in 1968. In the early 1970s he lessened tensions between the Flemish-speaking population in the north and the French-speaking Walloons in the south by granting each group cultural autonomy. In 1971 he presided over constitutional reforms that granted greater autonomy to Flanders and Wallonia, but friction resurfaced over the issue of regionalization. Eyskens failed to solve the dispute and resigned in November 1972.

M. Eyskens
Eyskens, Mark, byname of Marc Maria Frans, burggraaf/vicomte Eyskens (b. April 29, 1933, Leuven, Belgium), prime minister (1981) and foreign minister (1989-92) of Belgium; son of Gaston Eyskens. He was also minister of development cooperation (1979-80), finance (1980-81, 1985-88), and economic affairs (1981-85).

Eyüboglu, Orhan (Feruk), also spelled Eyüpoglu (b. 1915, Hopa, Ottoman Empire [now in Artvin province, Turkey] - d. Nov. 30, 1980), a deputy prime minister of Turkey (1977, 1978-79). He was also secretary-general of the Republican People's Party (1973-78) and a minister of state (1974-75).

Eyzaguirre (Guzmán), Nicolás (b. Jan. 3, 1953, Santiago, Chile), finance minister of Chile (2000-06, 2017-18). He was also minister of education (2014-15).

Ezeife, (Pius) Chukwuemeka, byname Okwadike (b. Nov. 20, 1939, Igbo-Ukwu village [now in Anambra state], Nigeria - d. Dec. 14, 2023, Abuja, Nigeria), governor of Anambra (1992-93).

Ezpeleta (Galdeano Dicastillo y Prado), José (Manuel Ignacio Timoteo) de, conde de Ezpeleta de Beire (b. Jan. 24, 1741, Barcelona, Spain - d. Nov. 20, 1823, Pamplona, Spain), governor of Cuba (1785-89) and viceroy of New Granada (1789-97).

Ezzat Pasha, Abdel Aziz, Arabic `Abd al-`Aziz `Izzat Basha (b. June 24, 1869 - d. April 12, 1961), foreign minister of Egypt (1935-36). He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1924-28).