British Virgin Islands: Former governor (1991-95) Peter Penfold dies.
San Marino: Filippo Tamagnini (Christian Democrat) and Gaetano Troina (Domani Motus Liberi) take office as captains-regent.
Dominica: Sylvanie Burton is sworn in as president.
Indonesia: Akmal Malik is sworn in as acting governor of Kalimantan Timur and Agus Fatoni as acting governor of Sumatera Selatan.
Nigeria: An election petition tribunal invalidates the March 18 election of Abdullahi Sule as governor of Nasarawa and declares David Ombugadu (People's Democratic Party) as governor-elect. Sule says he will appeal.
Russia: Kirill Bychkov is appointed acting prime minister of Sakha. On October 4 he is approved by the local parliament (64-0) and sworn in as prime minister.
Slovakia: President Zuzana Caputová gives Robert Fico a mandate, with a two-week deadline, to negotiate a coalition government. On October 11 an agreement between his Direction-Social Democracy and two other parties (Voice-Social Democracy and the Slovak National Party) is announced (signed on October 16). On October 17 Matús Sutaj Estok is nominated as interior minister and on October 19 Juraj Blanár as foreign minister, Robert Kalinák as defense minister, and Ladislav Kamenický as finance minister. On October 25 Caputová appoints the government.
Vanuatu: Prime Minister Sato Kilman and his supporters boycott a sitting of parliament called to debate a no-confidence motion, forcing an adjournment to October 6 due to the lack of quorum. On that date Kilman is defeated (27-0, his supporters not voting) and Charlot Salwai is elected (29-0) and sworn in as prime minister. On October 9 he announces his cabinet with Matai Seremaiah as foreign minister, John Dahmasing Salong as finance minister, and Rick Tchamako Mahe as internal affairs minister.
Canada: In parliamentary elections in Manitoba, the New Democratic Party wins 45.4% of the vote (34 of 57 seats), the Progressive Conservative Party 41.9% (22), and the Liberal Party 10.8% (1). Turnout is 54.4%. On October 18 Wab Kinew is sworn in as premier.
France: Former president of the Regional Council of Aquitaine (1992-98) Jacques Valade dies.
Spain: King Felipe VI asks Pedro Sánchez to form a government.
Kenya: In a cabinet reshuffle, the prime cabinet secretary, Musalia Mudavadi, is assigned the foreign affairs portfolio.
Mexico: Former governor of Durango (1974-79) Héctor Mayagoitia Domínguez dies.
Mongolia: Battumur Enkhbayar is appointed internal affairs minister.
Côte d'Ivoire: President Alassane Ouattara dissolves the government of Prime Minister Patrick Achi. On October 16 Ouattara appoints Robert Beugré Mambé as prime minister. On October 17 Mambé takes office and a government is named with Kacou Houadja Léon Adom as foreign minister and no change in other key portfolios.
Senegal: President Macky Sall dismisses the government but reappoints Amadou Ba as prime minister. On October 11 the new government is named with Ismaïla Madior Fall as foreign minister, Oumar Youm as armed forces minister, and Sidiki Kaba as interior minister; Amadou Moustapha Ba remains finance minister.
Gabon: The transitional president, Gen. Brice Oligui Nguema, appoints the 98 members of the transitional National Assembly and the 70 members of the transitional Senate.
Jordan: Former prime minister (2005-07, 2011) Marouf al-Bakhit dies.
South Korea: President Yoon Suk Yeol appoints Shin Won Sik as defense minister.
United Arab Emirates: In parliamentary elections (turnout about 44%), 20 independent members are elected. 20 additional members (for a total of 40) will be appointed by the rulers of the seven emirates.
United States: Former governor of Montana (1981-89) Ted Schwinden dies.
Germany: In state elections in Bayern, the Christian Social Union wins 37.0% of the vote (85 of 203 seats), the Free Voters 15.8% (37), the Alternative for Germany (AfD) 14.6% (32), the Greens 14.4% (32), the Social Democratic Party (SPD) 8.4% (17), and the Free Democratic Party (FDP) 3.0% (0); turnout is 73.3%. In Hessen, the Christian Democratic Union wins 34.6% of the vote (52 of 133 seats), the AfD 18.4% (28), the SPD 15.1% (23), the Greens 14.8% (22), the FDP 5.0% (8), the Free Voters 3.5% (0), and the Left 3.1% (0); turnout is 66.0%.
Hungary: Former president (2005-10) László Sólyom dies.
Luxembourg: In parliamentary elections, the Christian Social People's Party wins 29.2% of the vote (21 of 60 seats), the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party 18.9% (11), the Democratic Party 18.7% (14), the Alternative Democratic Reform Party 9.3% (5), the Greens 8.6% (4), the Pirate Party 6.7% (3), and the Left 3.9% (2). Turnout is 87.2%. On October 9 the government of Prime Minister Xavier Bettel resigns and Grand Duke Henri asks Luc Frieden to form a government.
Norway: Former governor of Møre og Romsdal (2002-09) Ottar Befring dies.
Canada: Former premier of Prince Edward Island (1981-86) James M. Lee dies.
Iceland: Finance Minister Bjarni Benediktsson resigns. On October 14 Thórdís Kolbrún R. Gylfadóttir is appointed finance minister, exchanging positions with Benediktsson, who becomes foreign minister.
Liberia: In the first round of presidential elections, incumbent George Weah of the Coalition for Democratic Change (CDC) wins 43.8% of the vote and Joseph Boakai (Unity Party) 43.4%. Turnout is 78.8%. A runoff is subsequently scheduled for November 14. In parliamentary elections, the CDC wins 25 of 73 seats in the House of Representatives, the Unity Party 10, and independents 18; in the Senate (14 of 30 seats up for election), the CDC wins 6 seats and independents 6.
Madagascar: The president of the Senate, Herimanana Razafimahefa, says he is ready to be acting head of state, claiming he was acting under pressure when declining the role in September. The government, however, insists on the validity of his renunciation. Razafimahefa is removed as Senate president on October 12. On October 27 the Constitutional Court recognizes the new Senate president, Richard Ravalomanana, as acting president.
Canada: Joan Marie Aylward is appointed as lieutenant governor of Newfoundland and Labrador.
France: Former president of the Regional Council of Basse-Normandie (1986-2004) René Garrec dies.
Gibraltar: In parliamentary elections, the alliance of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party and the Liberal Party wins 49.9% of the vote (9 of 17 seats) and the Gibraltar Social Democrats 48.0% (8). Turnout is 76.4%. On October 13 Fabian Picardo is again sworn in as chief minister. Ministerial portfolios are announced on October 16, with Picardo retaining finance and Joseph Garcia external action.
Angola: Parliament rejects (123-0, main opposition boycotting) a proposal to set up a parliamentary commission to examine a possible impeachment of President João Lourenço.
Congo (Kinshasa): Parliament approves a 58th 15-days extension of the state of siege in Ituri and Nord-Kivu, followed by a 59th on October 28.
New Zealand: In parliamentary elections, the National Party wins 38.1% of the vote (48 of 121 seats), the Labour Party 26.9% (34), the Green Party 11.6% (15), ACT New Zealand 8.6% (11), New Zealand First 6.1% (8), and Te Pati Maori 3.1% (6). Turnout is 78.2%.
United States: In gubernatorial elections in Louisiana, Jeff Landry (Republican) wins 51.6% of the vote and Shawn D. Wilson (Democrat) 25.9%. Turnout is 35.8%.
Ecuador: In the presidential runoff, Daniel Noboa wins 51.8% of the vote and Luisa González 48.2%. Turnout is 82.4%.
Finland: In parliamentary elections in the Åland Islands, Liberals of Åland wins 30.0% of the vote (9 of 30 seats), the Åland Centre 21.2% (7), the Independent Rally 15.3% (5), the Social Democrats 12.8% (4), the Moderate Rally 12.6% (4), and the Sustainable Initiative 5.1% (1). Turnout is 68.3%.
Mexico: Former interim governor of San Luis Potosí (1992-93) Teófilo Torres Corzo dies.
Poland: In parliamentary elections, Law and Justice wins 35.4% of the vote (194 of 460 seats), the Civic Coalition 30.7% (157), Third Way 14.4% (65), the Left 8.6% (26), and the Confederation 7.2% (18). Turnout is 74.4%.
Finland: Former president (1994-2000) Martti Ahtisaari dies.
Georgia: The Constitutional Court decides that President Salome Zurabishvili has violated the constitution and grants the request (see September 18) to hold an impeachment vote against her in parliament. On October 18 the vote fails, with 86 votes for removal (100 needed), 1 against.
Guatemala: Interior Minister David Napoleón Barrientos resigns. On October 17 Byron René Bor Illescas takes office as interior minister.
Norway: In a cabinet reshuffle, Espen Barth Eide is appointed foreign minister.
Sri Lanka: Former governor of Northern province (2008) Victor Perera dies.
Indonesia: Former governor of Sumatera Utara (2008-13) Syamsul Arifin dies.
Chad: Armies Minister Daoud Yaya Brahim resigns. In a government reshuffle on October 21, Dago Yacouba is appointed armies minister.
India: Raghubar Das is appointed as governor of Odisha and Indrasena Reddy Nallu as governor of Tripura. Nallu is sworn in on October 26 and Das on October 31.
Czech Republic: The government of Prime Minister Petr Fiala survives a no-confidence motion in parliament, which receives 85 votes (101 needed).
Australia: Former foreign minister (1983-88) and governor-general (1989-96) Bill Hayden dies.
Christmas Island: In elections to the Shire, 4 nonpartisan members are elected.
Cocos Islands: In elections to the Shire, 4 nonpartisan members are elected.
France: Prime Minister Élisabeth Borne's government survives two more no-confidence motions, which receive 89 and 219 votes respectively (289 needed), and another two on October 30 (223 and 88 votes respectively).
Argentina: In the first round of presidential elections, Sergio Massa (Unión por la Patria) wins 36.7% of the vote, Javier Milei (La Libertad Avanza) 30.0%, and Patricia Bullrich (Juntos por el Cambio) 23.8%. Turnout is 77.7%. Results of gubernatorial elections:
Italy: Maurizio Fugatti (centre-right) is reelected as president of the autonomous province of Trento with 51.8% of the vote, while Francesco Valduga (centre-left) wins 37.5%. Turnout is 58.4%.
- Buenos Aires province: incumbent Axel Kicillof (Unión por la Patria) is elected with 44.9% of the vote, while Néstor Grindetti (Juntos por el Cambio) wins 26.6% and Carolina Piparo (La Libertad Avanza) 24.6%. Turnout is 75.5%.
- Buenos Aires city: Jorge Macri (Juntos por el Cambio) wins 49.6% of the vote, Leandro Santoro (Unión por la Patria) 32.2%, and Ramiro Marra (La Libertad Avanza) 13.9%. Turnout is 67.5%. A runoff is to be held November 19. However, on October 24 Santoro withdraws his candidacy, ceding the election to Macri.
- Catamarca: incumbent Raúl Jalil (Unión por la Patria) wins 54.1% of the vote, José Jalil Colomé (La Libertad Avanza) 23.4%, and Flavio Fama (Juntos por el Cambio) 22.5%. Turnout is 72.7%.
- Entre Ríos: Rogelio Frigerio (Juntos por Entre Ríos) is elected with 41.7% of the vote, while Adán Bahl (Más para Entre Ríos) wins 39.5% and Sebastián Etchevehere (La Libertad Avanza) 18.9%. Turnout is 77.5%.
Switzerland: In parliamentary elections, the Swiss People's Party wins 28.6% of the vote (62 of 200 seats), the Social Democratic Party 18.0% (41), the Centre 14.6% (29), the Liberal-Democratic Party 14.4% (28), the Greens 9.4% (23), and the Green Liberal Party 7.2% (10). Turnout is 46.6%.
China: Gen. Li Shangfu is dismissed as defense minister. Lan Foan is appointed finance minister.
Nauru: President Russ Kun is removed in a no-confidence vote. In a vote for a new president on October 26, Rennier Gadabu and David Adeang tie with 9 votes each. On October 30 Adeang and Delvin Thoma also tie 9-9 before, in another ballot, Adeang is elected 10-8. He also becomes finance minister, while Lionel Aingimea becomes foreign minister and Charmaine Scotty internal affairs minister.
Montenegro: The prime minister-designate, Milojko Spajic, announces his proposed cabinet with Filip Ivanovic as foreign minister, Dragan Krapovic as defense minister, Boris Bogdanovic as interior minister, and Novica Vukovic as finance minister. On October 29, Bogdanovic announces that Danilo Saranovic will replace him as interior minister nominee. Parliament approves the new government (46-19) on October 31.
China: Former governor of Henan (1998-2003) and premier (2013-23) Li Keqiang dies.
Malaysia: The sultan of Johor, Tuanku Ibrahim Ismail ibni al-Marhum Sultan Iskandar, is chosen as the next paramount ruler.
Oman: In parliamentary elections, 90 nonpartisan members are elected. Turnout is 65.1%.
Serbia: The president of the Assembly of Vojvodina, Istvan Pastor, dies.
Germany: The Landtag of Bayern reelects Markus Söder as minister-president (120-76).
Mexico: Former interim governor of Morelos (2000) Jorge Arturo García Rubí dies.
Russia: The governor of Vologda oblast, Oleg Kuvshinnikov, resigns. President Vladimir Putin appoints Georgy Filimonov as acting governor.