Rulers

December 2022

1

China: Zhao Gang is appointed acting governor of Shaanxi.
Congo (Kinshasa): Parliament approves a 37th extension of the state of siege in Ituri and Nord-Kivu, followed by a 38th on December 14; the government adopts a 39th on December 28.
Lebanon: The eighth attempt to elect a president fails when Michel Moawad wins 37 votes, with 52 blank votes. So does the ninth, on December 8 (when Moawad wins 39 votes, with 39 blanks), and the tenth, on December 15 (Moawad 38, blank 37).
Malaysia: Tan Sri Abdul Hamid Pawanteh, former chief minister of Perlis (1986-95), dies.

Jiménez

Jara
Mexico: Teresa Jiménez Esquivel takes office as governor of Aguascalientes and Salomón Jara Cruz as governor of Oaxaca.
Peru: Parliament approves (73-32) a motion to start impeachment proceedings against President Pedro Castillo.
Saint Helena: Sean Burns is sworn in as administrator of Tristan da Cunha.
Slovakia: Interior Minister Roman Mikulec survives another no-confidence vote in parliament (71 votes for the motion, 47 against, 23 abstentions; 76 votes were required).

2


Zambry
Malaysia: Prime Minister Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim announces his cabinet (sworn in December 3) with himself as finance minister, Datuk Seri Zambry Abdul Kadir as foreign minister, Datuk Seri Mohamad Hasan as defense minister, and Datuk Seri Saifuddin Nasution Ismail as home affairs minister. On December 19 a confidence motion in parliament is passed by voice vote.

3

Peru: Defense Minister Daniel Barragán resigns. On December 5 Emilio Bobbio Rosas is sworn in as defense minister.

4

Russia: Magomedali Magomedov, former chairman of the Council of Ministers (1983-87), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1987-90), chairman of the Supreme Council (1990-94), and chairman of the State Council (1994-2006) of Dagestan, dies.

5

Bulgaria: The GERB-SDS coalition, having nominated Nikolay Gabrovski as its candidate for prime minister, is given seven days to try to form a government. On December 12 Gabrovski presents his proposed cabinet with Dragomir Zakov as foreign minister, Atanas Zapryanov as defense minister, Blagorodna Makeva-Naydenova as internal affairs minister, and Marinela Petrova as finance minister. However, on December 14 parliament votes against Gabrovski (125-113).
India: In state elections in Gujarat held December 1 and 5, the Bharatiya Janata Party wins 52.5% of the vote (156 of 182 seats), the Indian National Congress 27.3% (17), and the Aam Aadmi Party 12.9% (5). Chief Minister Bhupendra Patel resigns on December 9 but is again designated chief minister on December 10 (sworn in December 12).
Taiwan: Interior Minister Hsu Kuo-yung resigns. On December 7 Prime Minister Su Tseng-chang accepts the resignation, Hsu's deputy Hua Ching-chun becoming acting interior minister.

Green
United States: Josh Green is sworn in as governor of Hawaii.

6

Dominica: In parliamentary elections (boycotted by the main opposition parties), the Dominica Labour Party wins 82.3% of the vote (19 of 21 elected seats, including 6 unopposed) and independents 16.9% (2). (With 9 appointed and 2 ex-officio members, the total is 32.) On December 7 Roosevelt Skerrit is again sworn in as prime minister. On December 12 his new cabinet is announced, with Vince Henderson as foreign minister and Irving McIntyre as finance minister; Rayburn Blackmoore remains national security minister.
Latvia: The coalition parties complete their nominations for the new government, which is to include Inara Murniece as defense minister, Maris Kucinskis as interior minister, and Arvils Aseradens as finance minister, with Edgars Rinkevics to remain foreign minister. On December 14 parliament confirms the government (54-37).
Lithuania: Former prime minister (1993-96) Adolfas Slezevicius dies.
United States: The runoff in Georgia for the final Senate seat is won by the Democrats, giving them a 51-49 majority.

7


Boluarte

Angulo

Gervasi

Otárola
Peru: Just hours before a debate on his impeachment, President Pedro Castillo dissolves parliament, calls for new parliamentary elections to be held by September 2023, and announces that he will rule by decree until then. Ignoring the decisions of the president, parliament votes (101-6 with 10 abstentions) to impeach him and replace him with Vice President Dina Boluarte. Many members of the cabinet (including Prime Minister Betssy Chávez, Foreign Minister César Landa, and Finance Minister Kurt Burneo) resign. As Castillo is detained by police, Boluarte is sworn in as president. On December 10 a new cabinet is sworn in, with Pedro Angulo as prime minister, Ana Cecilia Gervasi as foreign minister, Alberto Otárola as defense minister, César Cervantes as interior minister, and Alex Contreras as economy and finance minister. On December 12 Boluarte announces that she will propose to parliament to bring forward the next general elections from April 2026 to April 2024; on December 16 the vote in parliament (49-33 with 25 abstentions) falls short of the required two-thirds majority. On December 18 Boluarte announces the resignation of Prime Minister Angulo. In a new vote on December 20, parliament adopts the proposal to move up the elections (93-30). On December 21 Boluarte swears in Otárola as prime minister, Jorge Chávez as defense minister, and Víctor Rojas Herrera as interior minister; Gervasi and Contreras remain in their posts.
Slovenia: Interior Minister Tatjana Bobnar resigns. Parliament takes note of the resignation on December 14; Public Administration Minister Sanja Ajanovic Hovnik then becomes acting interior minister.
Switzerland: Alain Berset is elected president for 2023 (140 of 181 votes). Viola Amherd is elected vice president (207 of 223 votes). Albert Rösti and Elisabeth Baume-Schneider are elected members of the Federal Council, to succeed Ueli Maurer and Simonetta Sommaruga. On December 8 the new allocation of portfolios is announced with Karin Keller-Sutter becoming finance minister. The changes are effective Jan. 1, 2023.

8

Faeroe Islands: In parliamentary elections, the Social Democratic Party wins 26.6% of the vote (9 of 33 seats), the Union Party 20.0% (7), the People's Party 18.9% (6), Republic 17.7% (6), Progress 7.5% (3), and the Centre Party 6.6% (2). Turnout is 88.0%. On December 22, a new government takes office with Aksel V. Johannesen as prime minister, Høgni Hoydal as foreign minister, Bjarni K. Petersen as internal affairs minister, and Ruth Vang as finance minister.
Ghana: A censure motion to remove Finance Minister Ken Ofori-Atta fails in parliament (136 votes, 183 needed).

Sukhu
India: The chief minister of Himachal Pradesh, Jai Ram Thakur, resigns. On December 10 Sukhwinder Singh Sukhu is designated chief minister (sworn in December 11).

9

Brazil: President-elect Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva announces some members of his cabinet, including Mauro Vieira as foreign minister, José Múcio Monteiro Filho as defense minister, and Fernando Haddad as finance minister.
Cayman Islands: Jane Owen is appointed governor, to take office April 2023.
Indonesia: Muhammad Musa'ad is sworn in as acting governor of the new province of Papua Barat Daya.

Cohen
Israel: President Isaac Herzog gives Benjamin Netanyahu an extension until December 21 to form a new government. On that date Netanyahu informs Herzog that he has successfully formed a government. It is to include Aryeh Deri as interior minister and Bezalel Smotrich as finance minister. On December 28 Yoav Galant is announced as defense minister and on December 29 Eli Cohen as foreign minister; the government is then endorsed by the Knesset (63-54) and sworn in.

11

France: Prime Minister Élisabeth Borne's government survives another no-confidence motion, which receives 78 votes (289 needed), and further motions on December 13, receiving 102 votes, and December 17, receiving 101.
South Korea: Parliament adopts (182-0) a motion requesting the dismissal of Interior Minister Lee Sang Min. On December 12 President Yoon Suk Yeol rejects an immediate dismissal.
United States: Karen Bass is sworn in as mayor of Los Angeles.

12

Angola: Former foreign minister (2008-10) Assunção dos Anjos dies.

13


Aleynik
Belarus: Sergey Aleynik is named foreign minister.

Céspedes
Mexico: The governor of Puebla, Miguel Barbosa Huerta, dies. Ana Lucía Hill becomes acting governor. On December 15 the legislature elects (38-1) Sergio Salomón Céspedes as governor, to serve until Dec. 13, 2024.
South Africa: Parliament rejects a motion to start impeachment proceedings against President Cyril Ramaphosa (214-148).
Suriname: Stanley Raghoebarsing is sworn in as finance minister.
United States: In the mayoral runoff in Austin, Kirk Watson defeats Celia Israel, 50.4%-49.6%.

14

Fiji: In parliamentary elections, FijiFirst wins 42.6% of the vote (26 of 55 seats), the People's Alliance 35.8% (21), the National Federation Party 8.9% (5), and the Social Democratic Liberal Party 5.1% (3). Turnout is 68.3%. On December 24 Sitiveni Rabuka is elected in parliament (defeating incumbent Voreqe Bainimarama by 28 votes to 27) and sworn in as prime minister, with a cabinet including himself as foreign minister, Pio Tikoduadua as home affairs minister, and Biman Prasad as finance minister.

15

Denmark: Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen presents her new cabinet, with Lars Løkke Rasmussen as foreign minister, Jakob Ellemann-Jensen as defense minister, Sophie Løhde as interior minister, and Nicolai Wammen remaining finance minister.
Senegal: The government of Prime Minister Amadou Ba survives a no-confidence vote (55 votes in favour of the motion; 83 necessary).
Slovakia: The government of Prime Minister Eduard Heger is defeated in a no-confidence vote passed (78-20) in the 150-seat parliament. On December 16 President Zuzana Caputová dismisses the government and calls for early parliamentary elections. On December 23 Caputová removes Finance Minister Igor Matovic and puts Heger in charge of the ministry.
Turks and Caicos Islands: Dileeni Daniel-Selvaratnam is appointed governor, to take office in June 2023.

17

Ireland: Leo Varadkar is elected prime minister (87-62), rotating office with Micheál Martin, who becomes foreign and defence minister, while Michael McGrath becomes finance minister.
Nigeria: Former administrator of Ondo (1978-79) Sunny Tuoyo dies.
Tunisia: In the first round of parliamentary elections, boycotted by most political parties, 21 of 161 seats are filled (including 10 unopposed). Turnout is 8.8%. Runoffs on January 20 will decide 133 seats, while for 7 seats there are no candidates at all.

18

Japan: In gubernatorial elections in Saga, incumbent Yoshinori Yamaguchi wins 89.8% of the vote and Yasutoshi Uemura 10.2%. Turnout is 33.3%.
Nepal: President Bidya Devi Bhandari gives the political parties a week (to December 25) to make a claim for the prime minister's position. On December 25 Bhandari appoints Pushpa Kamal Dahal to head the government for the first half of the five-year term. On December 26 Dahal announces his cabinet with Rabi Lamichhane as home affairs minister and Bishnu Poudel as finance minister (other portfolios to be allocated later) and the government is sworn in.

20

Armenia: Vahe Hovhannisyan is appointed finance minister.

Leroy
France: The president of the Regional Council of Grand Est, Jean Rottner, announces his resignation, effective at the end of the year. Franck Leroy becomes acting president on December 30.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries: Former secretary-general (1988-94) Subroto dies.

21


Zeynalov
Azerbaijan: The chairman of the Supreme Council of Nakhichevan, Vasif Talybov, resigns. Azer Zeynalov becomes acting chairman.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: The Republika Srpska parliament elects the new government of Prime Minister Radovan Viskovic (51-23).

22

Bosnia and Herzegovina: The Presidency appoints Borjana Kristo as prime minister. She is endorsed by parliament (23-15) on December 28.

23

Italy: Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni's government wins a confidence vote in the Chamber of Deputies (221-152).
Pakistan: The governor of Punjab, Baligh Ur Rehman, removes Chief Minister Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi from office with immediate effect, on the ground that Elahi refused to obtain a vote of confidence. The Lahore High Court suspends the order on the same day, however.

Pirc Musar
Slovenia: Natasa Pirc Musar takes office as president.
Togo: Armies Minister Essozimna Marguérite Gnakadé is dismissed and the ministry reattached to the presidency.

24

Italy: Former foreign minister (2002-04, 2008-11) Franco Frattini dies.

25

Japan: In gubernatorial elections in Miyazaki, incumbent Shunji Kono wins 51.5% of the vote and former governor Hideo Higashikokubaru 46.9%. Turnout is 56.7%.

26

Russia: The resignation of the prime minister of Mordovia, Vladimir Sidorov, is accepted. Igor Freydin becomes acting prime minister.

29

Estonia: Former prime minister (1990-92) Edgar Savisaar dies.
Montenegro: Parliament designates (41 votes out of 81 members) Miodrag Lekic as prime minister-designate but President Milo Djukanovic refuses to recognize that designation, citing procedural errors.

30


Qin

Sonexay
China: Qin Gang is appointed foreign minister.
China: Jin Xiangjun is appointed acting governor of Shanxi.
Cook Islands: Former New Zealand representative (1976-78) Terence O'Brien dies.
Laos: Parliament approves Sonexay Siphandone as prime minister (149 of 151 votes).
Slovenia: Former chairman of the Executive Council (1980-84) Janez Zemljaric dies.

Saidov
Uzbekistan: Bakhtiyor Saidov is appointed acting foreign minister and Sherzod Kudbiyev finance minister.

31

Morocco: Former foreign minister (1966-67) Mohamed Cherkaoui dies.
Vatican City: Former pope (2005-13) Benedictus XVI dies.