San Marino: Pietro Berti (Christian Democrat) and Paolo Bollini (Socialist) are installed as captains-regent.
Albania: Pandeli Majko is sworn in as prime minister. Petro Koçi becomes interior minister and Anastas Angjeli finance minister. On October 8 the new government wins a parliamentary confidence vote (104-0; the opposition Democratic Party is boycotting Parliament).
Peru: Foreign Minister Eduardo Ferrero Costa resigns. Fernando de Trazegnies is sworn in as foreign minister on October 12.
Australia: In parliamentary elections, the Labor Party (with 40% of the vote) wins 66 out of 148 seats in the House of Representatives, the Liberal Party (34.1%) 64, and the National Party (5.3%) 16. Pauline Hanson's One Nation (8.4%) and the Australian Democrats (5.1%) win no seats. In the new cabinet sworn in on October 21, John Moore becomes defense minister.
Latvia: In parliamentary elections, former prime minister Andris Skele's People's Party wins 21.2% of the vote (24 of 100 seats), followed by Latvia's Way with 18.1% (21), Fatherland and Freedom with 14.7% (17), Harmony with 14.1% (16), the Social Democrats with 12.8% (14), and the New Party with 7.3% (8). Turnout is 71.9%.
Uruguay: Vice President Hugo Batalla dies. He is to be replaced by Sen. Hugo Fernández Faingold.
Brazil: In presidential elections, incumbent Fernando Henrique Cardoso of the Brazilian Social Democratic Party wins 53.1% of the votes, followed by Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of the Workers' Party with 31.7% and Ciro Gomes of the Popular Socialist Party with 11%.
Switzerland: Former president (1989, 1996) Jean-Pascal Delamuraz dies.
Dominica: Vernon Shaw is installed as president.
Sweden: Anna Lindh is named foreign minister. The new government survives a no-confidence vote on October 8 (186-82 with 74 abstentions).
Israel: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu names Ariel Sharon as foreign minister. He takes office October 13.
Italy: Prime Minister Romano Prodi loses a confidence vote (313-312) and resigns. On October 13 President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro asks him to form a new government. Prodi fails, and on October 16 Massimo D'Alema of the Democratic Party of the Left accepts a mandate from Scalfaro to try to form a government. On October 21 D'Alema is sworn in as prime minister. Carlo Scognamiglio becomes defense minister and Rosa Russo Jervolino interior minister, while Foreign Minister Lamberto Dini and Finance Minister Vincenzo Visco remain in their posts. The new government wins confidence votes in the Chamber of Deputies on October 23 (333-281) and in the Senate on October 27 (188-116).
Mongolia: The ruling Democratic Coalition again nominates Davaadorjiyn Ganbold for prime minister, who was previously rejected six times by the president and is rejected again October 14.
Uruguay: Guillermo Stirling is named interior minister.
United States: Former defense secretary (1968-69) Clark M. Clifford dies.
Azerbaijan: Heydar Aliyev is reelected in presidential elections with 76.1% of the vote; Etibar Mamedov wins 11.6% and Nizami Suleymanov 8.1%. Turnout is 78%.
Croatia: Defense Minister Andrija Hebrang resigns. On October 14 President Franjo Tudjman names Gen. Pavao Miljavac as new defense minister.
India: Sushma Swaraj is sworn in as chief minister of Delhi.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Zivko Radisic replaces Alija Izetbegovic as chairman of the Presidency.
Ukraine: Parliament votes 203-108, with 66 abstentions, to express no-confidence in the government of Prime Minister Valeriy Pustovoitenko, falling short of the 226 votes needed for the motion to pass in the 450-seat Verkhovna Rada. A second attempt later in the day yields even fewer votes in favour of the government's resignation.
Estonia: President Lennart Meri appoints Raul Mälk as foreign minister.
India: Former Tripura chief minister (1993-98) Dasarath Deb dies.
Tonga: Prince 'Ulukalala Lavaka Ata becomes foreign and defense minister.
Kenya: A motion of no-confidence against President Daniel arap Moi's government is defeated (137-67).
Lebanon: Émile Lahoud is elected president. He is to be sworn in November 24.
Maldives: In a referendum, President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom is confirmed with 90.9% of the vote.
Uruguay: Juan Luis Storace becomes defense minister.
Macedonia: In the first round of parliamentary elections, the Democratic Alternative, with 37.7% of the vote according to preliminary results, wins 15 of the 35 seats at stake, while the ruling Social Democrats and their socialist partners get 27.9% and 10 seats. The second round is to be held November 1.
Slovenia: Defense Minister Alojz Krapez resigns.
Wallis and Futuna: Christian Dors is named administrator-superior.
Malawi: Former foreign minister (1994-96) Edward Bwanali dies.
United States: Former governors Burton M. Cross (Maine, 1952-55) and Francis W. Sargent (Massachusetts, 1969-75) die.
Brazil: Former Santa Catarina governor (1991-94) Vilson Pedro Kleinubing dies.
Finland: Prime Minister Paavo Lipponen wins a confidence vote (130-53).
Swaziland: In elections held September 19 and October 24, only nonpartisans are elected.
Israel: A no-confidence vote against Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is defeated (21-8).
Germany: The Bundestag elects Gerhard Schröder (SPD) chancellor and he is sworn in together with his cabinet, which includes Joschka Fischer (Greens) as foreign minister, Rudolf Scharping (SPD) as defense minister, Oskar Lafontaine (SPD) as finance minister, and Otto Schily (SPD) as interior minister. On October 28 Gerhard Glogowski (SPD) succeeds Schröder as minister-president of Niedersachsen.
India: Former governor of Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, and Nagaland (1973-81) and Tripura (1973-80) Lallan Prasad Singh dies.
Latvia: Prime Minister Guntars Krasts fires Defense Minister Talavs Jundzis.
United States: Former secretary of health, education and welfare (1962-65) Anthony J. Celebrezze dies.
Slovakia: Parliament elects Mikulás Dzurinda as prime minister. The new government includes Eduard Kukan as foreign minister, Pavol Kanis as defense minister, Brigita Schmögnerová as finance minister, and Ladislav Pittner as interior minister.