San Marino: Maurizio Rattini (Socialist) and Giancarlo Venturini (Christian Democrat) take office as captains-regent.
Bulgaria: Former prime minister (1990) Andrey Lukanov is assassinated.
Canada: Former Quebec premier (1970-76, 1985-94) Robert Bourassa dies.
Latvia: Finance Minister Aivars Guntis Kreituss submits his resignation. Prime Minister Andris Skele says that he himself will act as finance minister.
United States: Former secretary of labor (1973-75) Peter J. Brennan dies.
Canada: Prime Minister Jean ChrÚtien dismisses Defense Minister David Collenette and replaces him with Douglas Young.
Yemen: Former prime minister (1965, 1971) and foreign minister (1971) of Yemen (Sana) Ahmad Muhammad Numan dies.
India: In state assembly elections in Uttar Pradesh held on September 30, October 3, and October 7, the BJP wins 177 out of 425 seats, the United Front 134, and an alliance between Congress and the Hindu Bahujan Samaj Party 100. Attempts to form a coalition fail, and federal rule over the state is extended.
Kuwait: Parliamentary election. Analysts consider up to 19 of the 50 elected MPs pro-government; Shi`ite and Sunni Muslim fundamentalists and pro-Islamists secure about 14 seats, six seats are held by liberals and the rest is shared between independents and tribal candidates. On October 12 the emir, Sheikh Jabir Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah, reappoints Crown Prince Sheikh Saad Al Abdullah Al Salim Al Sabah as prime minister.
Ecuador: Interior Minister Frank Vargas Pazzos resigns, but President Abdalß Bucaram Ortiz persuades him to stay and confirms him in office on October 11.
Bangladesh: Shahabuddin Ahmed is sworn in as president.
India: Farooq Abdullah is sworn in as chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir.
Canada: Keith Milligan (Liberal) is sworn in as premier of Prince Edward Island.
Ecuador: Former acting president (1947) Carlos Mancheno Cajas dies.
Mauritania: In parliamentary elections (with some of the seats decided in an October 18 runoff), the ruling Democratic and Social Republican Party wins 71 out of 79 seats, Action for Change 1, a small party supporting the president 1, and independents 6. Turnout is about 30% in the capital Nouakchott, and much higher in the north and east. In a cabinet reshuffle on October 24, Defense Minister Abdallahi Ould Abdi is replaced by Mohamed Ould Amar.
New Zealand: In the first parliamentary election under the proportional representation system, the National Party receives 34.1% of the vote (44 seats), Labour 28.3% (37 seats), New Zealand First 13.1% (17 seats), Alliance 10.1% (13 seats), ACT New Zealand 6.2% (8 seats), Christian Coalition 4.4%, Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis 1.4%, United New Zealand 0.9% (1 seat), and other parties 1.5%. Turnout is 88.2%.
Austria: In the country's first elections to the European Parliament, the ÍVP wins 29.6% of the vote (7 seats in the EP), the SPÍ 29.1% (6 seats), the FPÍ 27.6% (6 seats), the Greens 6.8% (1 seat), and the Liberal Forum 4.2% (1 seat). Turnout is 68%. Elections to Vienna's state legislature held on the same day give the SPÍ 39.1% (42 seats), the FPÍ 28% (30 seats), and the ÍVP 15.3% (15 seats); the Greens win 7 seats and the Liberal Forum 6.
Greece: The government of Prime Minister Kostas Simitis wins a parliamentary vote of confidence 161-134.
Thailand: Finance Minister Bodi Chunnananda resigns. The next day he is succeeded by Chaiyawat Wibulswasdi.
South Korea: Kim Dong Shin becomes defense minister.
The Gambia: Military leader Yahya Jammeh is sworn in as civilian president.
Canada: Piers McDonald becomes government leader of Yukon Territory.
Finland: In elections to the country's 16 seats in the European Parliament, the Centre Party wins 24.5% of the vote (4 seats), followed by the Social Democrats with 21.5% (4 seats), the National Coalition Party with 20.2% (4 seats), the Leftist Alliance with 10.5% (2 seats), the Green Party with 7.5% (1 seat), and the Swedish People's Party with 5.7% (1 seat). Turnout is 58.8%.
Ghana: President Jerry Rawlings accepts the resignation of Interior Minister Emmanuel Osei-Owusu.
Japan: In parliamentary elections, the Liberal-Democratic Party wins 239 seats in the 500-member lower house, the New Frontier Party (Shinshinto) 156, the Democratic Party 52, the Communist Party 26, the Social Democratic Party 15, and Sakigake 2. Turnout is a record low 59.7%.
Lithuania: In the first round of parliamentary elections, the Homeland Union of former president Vytautas Landsbergis wins 29% of the vote (35 seats), followed by the Christian Democrats with 10% (11 seats), the Democratic Labour Party with 10% (10 seats), and the Lithuanian Centre Union with 8% (9 seats). Turnout is 55%.
Nicaragua: Presidential elections are won by former Managua mayor Arnoldo Alemßn (Liberal Alliance) with 51% of the vote, compared to 38% for ex-president Daniel Ortega (Sandinista party), 4% for Guillermo Osorno (Nicaraguan Christian Way), and 7% for 20 other candidates. Turnout is 82.3%. The Liberal Alliance wins 42 of the 93 seats in the National Assembly, followed by the Sandinistas with 36, and the Christian Way with 4.
United States: Former Utah governor (1949-57) J. Bracken Lee dies.
Greece: Former regent (1967-72) Georgios Zoitakis dies.
Kenya: Former foreign minister (1987-88) Zachary Onyonka dies.
India: Shankersinh Vaghela becomes chief minister of Gujarat.
Norway: Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland announces her resignation. Thorbj°rn Jagland succeeds her on October 25. Jens Stoltenberg becomes finance minister in Jagland's cabinet; the new justice minister is Anne Holt.
Ethiopia: Defense Minister Tamrat Layne is dismissed. He is replaced by Tafara Walwa.
United Nations: Gladwyn Jebb, Baron Gladwyn, former acting secretary-general (1946), dies.
United States: Former Iowa governor (1963-69) Harold E. Hughes dies.
Malta: The Labour Party led by Alfred Sant wins parliamentary elections with 50.7% of the vote, compared to 47.8% for the Nationalist Party. Turnout is 97%. On October 28 Sant is sworn in as prime minister. His cabinet is sworn in on October 29; it includes George Vella as foreign minister and Lino Spiteri as economy and finance minister.
Bulgaria: Petur Stoyanov of the Union of Democratic Forces wins the first round of presidential elections with 44% of the vote, ahead of Ivan Marazov (Socialist) with 27% and George Ganchev (Bulgarian Business Bloc) with 21.6%. Turnout is 63%.
Qatar: The emir, Sheikh Hamad ibn Khalifa Al Thani, appoints his brother, Sheikh Abdullah ibn Khalifa Al Thani, as prime minister.
Kazakhstan: Gen. Mukhtar Altynbayev is appointed defense minister, replacing Alibek Kasymov.
Tajikistan: Interior Minister Saidamin Gafurov is replaced by Homiddin Sharipov.