Canada: In parliamentary elections in the Northwest Territories, 19 nonpartisan members are elected (including 3 already acclaimed without opposition on August 30). Premier Bob McLeod did not seek reelection.
Peru: Mercedes Aráoz resigns as vice president and with it from the claimed role of acting president. On October 3 the cabinet of Prime Minister Vicente Zeballos is sworn in with Gustavo Meza-Cuadra as foreign minister, Walter Roger Martos Ruiz as defense minister, and María Antonieta Alva as finance minister; Carlos Morán remains interior minister.
San Marino: Luca Boschi (Civic10) and Mariella Mularoni (Christian Democrat) take office as captains-regent.
Solomon Islands: In a cabinet reshuffle, Anthony Veke becomes minister of national security.
Turkmenistan: Mammetkhan Chakyev is appointed interior minister.
Belgium: Jan Jambon is sworn in as minister-president of Flanders.
Russia: Yury Gotsanyuk is appointed prime minister of Crimea.
Canada: Former premier of Nova Scotia (1978-90) John M. Buchanan dies.
Lesotho: In a cabinet reshuffle, Prime Minister Tom Thabane becomes defense minister and Mokhele Moletsane home affairs minister.
Portugal: Former foreign minister (1980-81, 2005-06) and acting prime minister (1980-81) Diogo Freitas do Amaral dies.
Romania: Prime Minister Viorica Dancila nominates several acting ministers, including Defense Minister Gabriel-Beniamin Les as acting interior minister. President Klaus Johannis rejects the proposals.
United Arab Emirates: In parliamentary elections (turnout 34.8%), 20 nonpartisans are elected. Another 20 members will be appointed by the rulers of the seven emirates.
Kosovo: In parliamentary elections, Vetëvendosje (Self-Determination) wins 25.5% of the vote (31 of 120 seats), the Democratic League of Kosovo 24.8% (30), the Democratic Party of Kosovo 21.2% (25), the coalition of Alliance for the Future of Kosovo and Social Democratic Party of Kosovo 11.6% (14), and the Serb List 6.6% (10). Turnout is 43.2%.
Portugal: In parliamentary elections, the Socialist Party wins 38.2% of the vote (108 of 226 seats), the Social Democratic Party 29.2% (79), the Left Bloc 10.0% (19), the Unitarian Democratic Coalition 6.7% (12), the People's Party 4.4% (5), and People-Animals-Nature 3.5% (4). Turnout is 48.6%. On October 8 President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa asks Prime Minister António Costa to form a new government. On October 15 the cabinet is announced with no change in key positions.
Tunisia: In parliamentary elections, Ennahda wins 52 of 217 seats, Heart of Tunisia 38, Democratic Current 22, the Dignity Coalition 21, the Free Destourian Party 17, the People's Movement 16, and Long Live Tunisia 14. Turnout is 41.7%.
Austria: President Alexander Van der Bellen asks Sebastian Kurz to form a government.
Azerbaijan: Prime Minister Novruz Mammadov resigns. Parliament votes unanimously to approve Ali Asadov as prime minister.
Belgium: King Philippe appoints Geert Bourgeois and Rudy Demotte as préformateurs to pave the way for the formation of a government.
Tonga: King Tupou VI officially appoints Pohiva Tu'i'onetoa as prime minister. On October 10 the new cabinet is officially announced as having been appointed with effect from October 9, including Lord Ma'afu as armed forces minister, Vatau Hui as internal affairs minister, and Tevita Lavemaau as finance minister.
Georgia: The president of Abkhazia, Raul Khadjimba, is sworn in for his new term. On October 10 Prime Minister Valery Bganba resigns; Khadjimba reappoints him on October 14.
Cuba: Miguel Díaz-Canel is elected to the new post of president (of the republic), receiving 579 votes from 580 deputies present. Salvador Valdés Mesa is elected vice president (569 votes).
Romania: Prime Minister Viorica Dancila loses a no-confidence vote which is passed 238-4 in the 465-seat parliament. On October 15 President Klaus Johannis asks Ludovic Orban to form a government.
Sint Maarten: The Council of Ministers appoints Wycliffe Smith as caretaker prime minister.
United States: The acting secretary of homeland security, Kevin McAleenan, resigns.
Austria: In parliamentary elections in Vorarlberg, the Austrian People's Party wins 43.6% of the vote (17 of 36 seats), the Greens 18.8% (7), the Freedom Party 14.0% (5), the Social Democratic Party 9.5% (4), and New Austria 8.5% (3). Turnout is 60.6%.
Poland: In parliamentary elections, Law and Justice wins 43.6% of the vote (235 of 460 seats), the Civic Coalition 27.4% (134), the Democratic Left Alliance 12.6% (49), the Polish People's Party 8.5% (30), and the Confederation Freedom and Independence 6.8% (11). Turnout is 61.7%.
Tunisia: In the presidential runoff, Kaïs Saïed wins 72.7% of the vote and Nabil Karoui 27.3%. Turnout is about 55%.
Gibraltar: In parliamentary elections, the alliance of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party and Gibraltar Liberal Party wins 52.5% of the vote (10 of 17 seats [GSLP 7, GLP 3]), the Gibraltar Social Democrats 25.6% (6), and Together Gibraltar 20.5% (1). Turnout is 70.9%.
United States: Energy Secretary Rick Perry's resignation, effective at the end of the year, is announced. On October 18 President Donald Trump nominates Dan Brouillette to succeed Perry.
United States: Former governor of Michigan (1969-83) William G. Milliken dies.
Finland: In parliamentary elections in the Åland Islands, the Åland Centre wins 27.9% of the vote (9 of 30 seats), the Liberals of Åland 19.6% (6), the Moderates of Åland 13.8% (4), the Independent Rally 13.6% (4), the Social Democrats 9.1% (3), and the Sustainable Initiative 8.3% (2). Turnout is 69.1%.
Indonesia: Joko Widodo is sworn in for his second term as president, with Ma'ruf Amin as vice president.
Switzerland: In parliamentary elections, the Swiss People's Party wins 25.6% of the vote (53 of 200 seats), the Social Democratic Party 16.8% (39), the Free Democratic Party 15.1% (29), the Green Party 13.2% (28), the Christian Democratic People's Party 11.4% (25), the Green Liberal Party 7.8% (16), and the Conservative Democratic Party 2.4% (3). Turnout is 45.1%.
Israel: Benjamin Netanyahu returns his mandate to the president after failing to form a government.
Monaco: Laurent Anselmi takes office as foreign minister.