Austria: The Constitutional Court orders a re-run of the May 22 presidential runoff (subsequently set for October 2). President Heinz Fischer's term ends July 8, his functions being taken by the Presidium of the National Council, headed by Doris Bures.
Libya: The Presidential Council dismisses four ministers including Finance Minister Fakhr Muftah Bufernah for not taking up their posts.
Switzerland: Thomas Weber becomes president of the government of Basel-Land, Marcel Schwerzmann president of the government of Luzern, Ueli Amstad Landammann of Nidwalden, Franz Enderli Landammann of Obwalden, and Othmar Reichmuth Landammann of Schwyz.
Australia: In parliamentary elections, the Liberal/National coalition wins 42% of the vote (76 of 150 seats), the Australian Labor Party 34.7% (69), and the Greens 10.2% (1). Turnout is 91%. On July 18 Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull unveils his new ministry, with only minor changes.
France: Former prime minister (1988-91) Michel Rocard dies.
Mexico: Former governor of Jalisco (1977-83) Flavio Romero de Velasco dies.
Trinidad and Tobago: Former prime minister (1991-95, 2001-10) Patrick Manning dies.
Guernsey: The seigneur of Sark, Michael Beaumont, dies. He is succeeded by Maj. Christopher Beaumont.
Syria: The cabinet of Prime Minister Imad Khamis is appointed with Maamoun Hamdan as finance minister, other key ministries being unchanged.
Brazil: Former governor of Minas Gerais (1971-75) Rondon Pacheco dies.
Cayman Islands: Former governor (1974-81) Thomas Russell dies.
Iraq: Interior Minister Muhammad Salem al-Ghabban submits his resignation, handing authority to his deputy, Aqil al-Khazali. Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi accepts the resignation on July 6.
Maldives: Foreign Minister Dunya Maumoon resigns. On July 13 Mohamed Asim is sworn in as foreign minister.
Papua New Guinea: The Provincial Assembly of Hela, in two separate sittings, elects two competing governors, Philip Undialu and Francis Potape, but on July 13 the central government announces that these elections are null and void and that, after investigation, a legitimate governor will be designated at a later date.
Mexico: Former governor of Morelos (1976-82) Armando León Bejarano dies.
Mongolia: Parliament approves Jargaltulga Erdenebat as prime minister (68 votes). On July 22 his cabinet is announced including Tsendiyn Munkh-Orgil as foreign minister, Badmaanyambuu Bat-Erdene as defense minister, Sandag Byambatsogt as internal affairs minister, and Battogtokh Choijilsuren as finance minister, who are ratified by parliament the same day.
Papua New Guinea: Former acting governor-general (2004, 2010) Jeffery Nape dies.
Indonesia: Former governor of Sumatera Barat (1987-97) Hasan Basri Durin dies.
Nauru: In parliamentary elections (in Aiwo postponed to July 11), 19 nonpartisans are elected (6 of them new). On July 13 Baron Waqa is reelected as president, defeating Riddell Akua 16-2. In the cabinet sworn in on July 15, Waqa remains foreign minister, David Adeang finance minister, and Charmaine Scotty home affairs minister.
Western Sahara: Ibrahim Ghali is elected president of the Saharan Arab Democratic Republic (sworn in July 12).
Japan: In gubernatorial elections in Kagoshima, Satoshi Mitazono wins 55.5% of the vote and incumbent Yuichiro Ito 44.5%. Turnout is 56.8%. Mitazono takes office July 28.
Peru: President-elect Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (taking office July 28) names Fernando Zavala as prime minister. On July 15 the cabinet is named including Ricardo Luna as foreign minister, Mariano González as defense minister, Carlos Basombrío as interior minister, and Alfredo Thorne as finance minister.
South Africa: Former administrator of Cape province (1975-79) Lourens Albertus Petrus Anderson Munnik dies.
Switzerland: Former Landammann of Schwyz (2008-10) Georg Hess dies.
Brazil: Former acting governor of Rio de Janeiro (1961-62) Celso Peçanha dies.
India: The Supreme Court orders the restoration of the previous government of Arunachal Pradesh, led by Chief Minister Nabam Tuki. Tuki resigns on July 16, however. On July 17 Pema Khandu is sworn in as chief minister.
Lebanon: The election of a president fails again for lack of quorum, and is postponed to August 8.
Slovenia: Finance Minister Dusan Mramor resigns. Alenka Smerkolj becomes acting finance minister.
United Kingdom: Prime Minister David Cameron tenders his resignation and Theresa May is appointed prime minister. She appoints Boris Johnson as foreign secretary, Amber Rudd as home secretary, and Philip Hammond as chancellor of the exchequer, who take office July 15; Michael Fallon stays on as defence secretary.
American Samoa: Former governor (1976-77) Frank Barnett dies.
Georgia: The Supreme Council of Ajaria approves Zurab Pataradze as prime minister.
São Tomé and Príncipe: In presidential elections, former prime minister Evaristo Carvalho wins 49.9% of the vote, incumbent Manuel Pinto da Costa 24.8%, and former prime minister Maria das Neves 24.3%. Turnout is 64.3%. A runoff is to be held August 7.
United States: Former governor of Minnesota (1971-76) Wendell R. Anderson dies.
African Union: Having failed to elect a new chairperson of the Commission, the heads of state extend the mandate of the incumbent, Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, to January 2017.
Pakistan: In parliamentary elections in Azad Kashmir, the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) wins 44.1% of the vote (31 of 41 elected seats), the Pakistan People's Party 21% (3), the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf Kashmir 12.6% (2), and the All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference 10.2% (3). On July 31 Raja Farooq Haider is elected (38 votes) and sworn in as prime minister.
Papua New Guinea: Prime Minister Peter O'Neill survives a no-confidence vote in parliament, which is defeated 85-21.
Sweden: Former prime minister (1976-78, 1979-82) Thorbjörn Fälldin dies.
Nepal: Prime Minister K.P. Sharma Oli resigns.
South Sudan: President Salva Kiir dismisses Vice President Riek Machar and appoints Taban Deng Gai in his place. Stephen Dhieu Dau is appointed as finance minister (sworn in July 29).
Vietnam: President Tran Dai Quang is reelected by the National Assembly (485 of 487 votes). On July 26 Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc is also reelected (485 of 489). On July 28 the cabinet is approved, unchanged in key positions.
Georgia: The president of Abkhazia, Raul Khadjimba, relieves Artur Mikvabia of the post of prime minister and names Shamil Adzynba as acting prime minister.
Indonesia: In a cabinet reshuffle, Sri Mulyani Indrawati is named finance minister.
Moldova: Prime Minister Pavel Filip survives a no-confidence vote, which is supported by only 30 members of parliament (51 needed).
The Netherlands: Former prime minister (1967-71) Piet de Jong dies.
Pakistan: The chief minister of Sindh, Syed Qaim Ali Shah, resigns. On July 29 Syed Murad Ali Shah is elected (88-3) and sworn in as chief minister.
Algeria: Former foreign minister (1988-89) Boualem Bessaïh dies.
Benin: Émile Zinsou, former foreign minister (1962-63, 1965-67) and president (1968-69) of Dahomey, dies.
Georgia: Defense Minister Tina Khidasheli resigns.
Russia: The Krymsky federal district is merged into the Yuzhny federal district. Oleg Belaventsev is appointed plenipotentiary of the president in Severo-Kavkazsky federal district, Nikolay Tsukanov in Severo-Zapadny federal district, and Sergey Menyaylo in Sibirsky federal district. Yevgeny Zinichev is appointed in place of Tsukanov as acting governor of Kaliningrad oblast and Dmitry Ovsyannikov in place of Menyaylo as acting governor of Sevastopol. The governor of Kirov oblast, Nikita Belykh, is dismissed and Igor Vasilyev appointed acting governor. The resignation of the governor of Yaroslavl oblast, Sergey Yastrebov, is accepted and Dmitry Mironov appointed as acting governor.
Spain: Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy accepts a mandate from the king to form a new government.
Tunisia: Prime Minister Habib Essid loses a parliamentary confidence vote (118 against, 3 for, 27 abstentions).
Japan: In gubernatorial elections in Tokyo, Yuriko Koike wins 46.7% of the vote, Hiroya Masuda 28.8%, and Shuntaro Torigoe 21.6%. Turnout is 59.7%.