Canada: Prime Minister Stephen Harper's government survives a no-confidence motion, which is defeated 144-117.
Finland: Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen survives a no-confidence motion, which is defeated 117-27.
Mexico: José Calzada Rovirosa takes office as governor of Querétaro.
Romania: President Traian Basescu approves the sacking of Interior Minister Dan Nica and names Vasile Blaga as interim interior minister. The Social Democratic ministers thereupon resign from the government. Prime Minister Emil Boc announces that the remaining ministers will temporarily take the duties of their former colleagues; accordingly, Justice Minister Catalin Predoiu takes over on October 2 as interim foreign minister. On October 13 the government falls in a no-confidence vote (254-176). On October 15 Lucian Croitoru is asked to form a new cabinet. He names his cabinet choices on October 23, including Bogdan Aurescu as foreign minister and Emeric Florin Saghi as interior minister, while Mihai Stanisoara is to remain defense minister and Gheorghe Pogea finance minister.
San Marino: Francesco Mussoni (Christian Democrat) and Stefano Palmieri (Popular Alliance) take office as captains-regent.
Senegal: In a cabinet reshuffle, Foreign Minister Cheikh Tidiane Gadio is replaced by Madické Niang.
The Bahamas: Sir Clement T. Maynard, former foreign minister (1984-89, 1990-92), dies.
Niger: President Mamadou Tandja names Ali Badjo Gamatié as prime minister. He is sworn in on October 8.
Russia: Former head of the administration of Penza oblast (1993-98) Anatoly Kovlyagin dies.
Argentina: In the gubernatorial runoff in Corrientes, Ricardo Colombi wins 62.5% of the vote and his cousin Arturo Colombi 37.5%.
Greece: In parliamentary elections, the Panhellenic Socialist Movement wins 43.9% of the vote (160 of 300 seats), New Democracy 33.5% (91), the Communist Party 7.5% (21), the Popular Orthodox Rally 5.6% (15), and the Coalition of the Radical Left 4.6% (13). Turnout is 70.9%. On October 5 Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis resigns and Georgios Papandreou is asked to form a new government. On October 6 Papandreou is sworn in as prime minister and announces his cabinet (sworn in October 7) including himself as foreign minister, Evangelos Venizelos as defense minister, Yiannis Ragousis as interior minister, and Georgios Papakonstantinou as finance minister. On October 19 the government wins a confidence vote in parliament (160-140).
India: Nikhil Kumar is appointed as governor of Nagaland and Kamla Beniwal as governor of Tripura. They are sworn in on October 15.
Mexico: Rodrigo Medina de la Cruz takes office as governor of Nuevo León.
Russia: The president of Ingushetia, Yunus-Bek Yevkurov, dismisses the government of Prime Minister Rashid Gaysanov. Aleksey Vorobyov is appointed as acting prime minister. The parliament approves him as prime minister on October 20.
Madagascar: During negotiations to put an end to the current political crisis, it is agreed that Eugène Mangalaza is to be named prime minister of a unity government. On October 8 the agreement begins to unravel when former president Marc Ravalomanana announces that he will not recognize President Andry Rajoelina. On October 10, Prime Minister Monja Roindefo refuses to resign even though Mangalaza is formally appointed as the new prime minister on the same date. On October 15 the State Council suspends Mangalaza's appointment, but in its final ruling on October 22 it denies Roindefo's requests for an annulment. Meanwhile, due to Mangalaza being abroad Cécile Manorohanta has been appointed acting prime minister.
United States: Mayoral elections in Albuquerque are won by Richard J. Berry with 43.8% of the vote, followed by incumbent Martin Chavez with 35% and Richard M. Romero with 21%.
Poland: The resignation of Deputy Prime Minister and Interior Minister Grzegorz Schetyna is announced. On October 13 Prime Minister Donald Tusk names Jerzy Miller as new interior minister; he is formally appointed by the president on October 14.
Central African Republic: Former governor (1954-57) and high commissioner (1957-58) of Oubangui-Chari Louis Sanmarco (also high commissioner of Gabon 1958-59) dies.
Ukraine: Parliament confirms Petro Poroshenko as foreign minister.
Cayman Islands: Former administrator (1960-63) Jack Rose dies.
Andorra: Former coprince (1971-2003) Joan Martí Alanís dies.
Portugal: President Aníbal Cavaco Silva invites Prime Minister José Sócrates to form a new cabinet. Sócrates announces its composition on October 22 with Augusto Santos Silva as defense minister and no change in the other key porfolios. The new cabinet is sworn in on October 26.
Rwanda: Former foreign minister (1973-79) Aloys Nsekalije dies.
Timor-Leste: The cabinet of Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão survives a no-confidence vote in parliament (26 votes in favour of the motion, 39 against).
India: In parliamentary elections in Arunachal Pradesh, the Indian National Congress (INC) wins 42 of 60 seats, the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) 6, the All India Trinamool Congress 5, and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 3. In Haryana, the INC wins 40 of 90 seats, the Indian National Lok Dal 31, the Haryana Janhit Congress 6, and the BJP 4. In Maharashtra, the INC wins 81 of 288 seats, the NCP 61, the BJP 47, Shiv Sena 45, and the Maharashtra Navnirman Sena 13.
Russia: Former governor of Arkhangelsk oblast (1996-2004) Anatoly Yefremov dies.
Senegal: In a cabinet reshuffle, Abdoulaye Balde is appointed defense minister and Bécaye Diop interior minister.
Botswana: In parliamentary elections, the Botswana Democratic Party wins 45 of 57 seats (about 54% of the vote), the Botswana National Front 6, and the Botswana Congress Party 5. On October 20 Ian Khama is sworn in for another term as president. On October 21 parliament reelects Mompati Merafhe as vice president, and President Khama announces his new cabinet with Kenneth Matambo as finance minister, otherwise unchanged in the key portfolios.
Gabon: Ali Bongo Ondimba is sworn in as president. The same day he reappoints Paul Biyoghé Mba as prime minister, who on October 17 names his cabinet, including Angélique Ngoma as defense minister.
Canada: Greg Selinger is sworn in as premier of Manitoba.
Afghanistan: Following an investigation into fraud in the August 20 presidential election, President Hamid Karzai acknowledges that he fell short of a majority and agrees to a runoff with Abdullah Abdullah on November 7.
Kyrgyzstan: The government of Prime Minister Igor Chudinov resigns. On October 21 Daniyar Usenov is appointed as prime minister. The key ministers are reappointed on October 22 and 26.
Niger: In parliamentary elections, the National Movement of the Development Society wins 76 of 113 seats, the Social Democratic Rally 15, and the Rally for Democracy and Progress 7. Turnout is 51.3%.
Norway: Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg presents his new government, including Grete Faremo as defense minister and Sigbjørn Johnsen as finance minister.
United States: Former governor of Wyoming (1963-67) Clifford P. Hansen dies.
Gibraltar: Governor Sir Robert Fulton departs. Lesley Pallett is acting governor until October 26, when Sir Adrian Johns is sworn in as new governor.
Indonesia: President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono unveils his new cabinet, including Marty Natalegawa as foreign minister, Purnomo Yusgiantoro as defense minister, and Gamawan Fauzi (governor of Sumatera Barat) as home affairs minister; they take office October 22. On October 23 Marlis Rahman is appointed acting governor of Sumatera Barat.
Marshall Islands: President Litokwa Tomeing loses a no-confidence vote in parliament (17-15). Ruben Zackhras is appointed as acting president by the speaker of the parliament, Jurelang Zedkaia. On October 26 the parliament elects Zedkaia as new president by 17 votes against 15 for former president Kessai Note.
Pakistan: Raja Farooq Haider is elected prime minister of Azad Kashmir.
Germany: The new cabinet of Chancellor Angela Merkel is announced, including Guido Westerwelle as foreign minister, Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg as defense minister, Thomas de Maizière as interior minister, and Wolfgang Schäuble as finance minister. On October 28 the cabinet is appointed by the president and sworn in.
Japan: In gubernatorial elections in Miyagi, incumbent Yoshihiro Murai (independent) wins 74.1% of the vote and Yasuo Endo (supported by Democratic Party of Japan, Social Democratic Party, and People's New Party) 20%. Turnout is 46.6%.
Tunisia: In presidential elections, incumbent Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (Constitutional Democratic Rally) wins 89.6% of the vote, Mohamed Bouchiha (Party of People's Unity) 5%, and Ahmed Inoubli (Unionist Democratic Union) 3.8%. In parliamentary elections, the Constitutional Democratic Rally wins 84.6% of the vote (161 of 214 seats), the Movement of Socialist Democrats 4.6% (16), the Party of People's Unity 3.4% (12), the Unionist Democratic Union 2.6% (9), and the Social Liberal Party 2.2% (8). Turnout is 89.4%.
Uruguay: In presidential elections, José Mujica (Broad Front) wins 48.5% of the vote, former president Luis Alberto Lacalle (National Party) 29.2%, and Pedro Bordaberry (Colorado Party) 17%. Turnout is 89.9%. A runoff will be held on November 29. In parliamentary elections, the Broad Front wins 50 of 99 seats in the Chamber of Representatives and 16 of 30 in the Senate, the National Party 30 and 9, and the Colorado Party 17 and 5.
Indonesia: Fadel Muhammad resigns as governor of Gorontalo. Deputy Governor Gusnar Ismail becomes acting governor.
Mongolia: Prime Minister Sanj Bayar announces his resignation. On October 28, the parliament accepts it and First Deputy Prime Minister Norov Altankhuyag becomes acting prime minister. Foreign Minister Sükhbaataryn Batbold is nominated to be the next prime minister; he is approved by parliament on October 29.
Guinea-Bissau: In a cabinet reshuffle, Adelino Mano Quetá is appointed foreign minister, Aristides Ocante da Silva defense minister, and Adja Satú Camará Pinto interior minister.
Iraq: Barham Salih is sworn in as prime minister of the Kurdistan autonomous region.
Mozambique: In presidential elections, incumbent Armando Guebuza (Frelimo) wins 75% of the vote, Afonso Dhlakama (Renamo) 16.4%, and Daviz Simango (Democratic Movement of Mozambique) 8.6%; turnout is 44.6%. In parliamentary elections, Frelimo wins 74.7% of the vote (191 of 250 seats) against 17.7% (51) for Renamo and 3.9% (8) for the Democratic Movement of Mozambique; turnout is 44.4%.
Fiji: It is announced that Acting President Ratu Epeli Nailatikau has been appointed president. He will be sworn in probably in early November.
Guadeloupe: Jean-Luc Fabre is appointed prefect.
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon: Jean-Régis Borius is named prefect.
United States: Former governor of Louisiana (1980-84) David C. Treen dies.
Aruba: Mike Eman is sworn in as prime minister with his government, including Mike Eric de Meza as finance minister.
Germany: The Landtag of Thüringen elects Christine Lieberknecht as minister-president.
Haiti: The Senate votes to remove Prime Minister Michèle Pierre-Louis from office; the resolution is approved by 18 votes in the 29-member body. President René Préval designates Jean-Max Bellerive as prime minister.