Angola: The new cabinet is named, including Assunção dos Anjos as foreign minister; Kundi Paihama remains defense minister and Roberto Leal Monteiro interior minister.
San Marino: Ernesto Benedettini (Christian Democrat) and Assunta Meloni (Popular Alliance) take office as captains-regent.
United Kingdom: In a cabinet reshuffle, John Hutton is appointed defence secretary.
Vanuatu: The parliament rejects (31-20) a no-confidence motion against the new government of Prime Minister Edward Natapei.
Czech Republic: Former prime minister of the Czech Socialist Republic (1970-87) Josef Korcák dies.
Italy: Former interim foreign minister (1994) Leopoldo Elia dies.
Australia: Former acting governor of Victoria (1985-86) Sir John Young dies.
Croatia: The interior minister, Berislav Roncevic, is dismissed and Tomislav Karamarko is named to succeed him. Parliament approves Karamarko on October 10.
Germany: The Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern elects Erwin Sellering as new minister-president.
Gabon: In a cabinet reshuffle, Paul Toungui is appointed foreign minister and Blaise Louembé finance minister.
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon: Former governor (1965-67) Georges Poulet dies.
South Africa: Paul Mashatile is elected and sworn in as premier of Gauteng.
Austria: President Heinz Fischer asks Werner Faymann to form a government.
Malaysia: Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi announces he will step down in March 2009.
Maldives: In presidential elections, incumbent Maumoon Abdul Gayoom (Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party) wins 40.3% of the vote, Mohamed Nasheed (Maldivian Democratic Party) 24.9%, Hassan Saeed (independent) 16.7%, and Qasim Ibrahim (Republican Party) 15.2%; turnout is 85.5%. A runoff is held on October 28 and won by Nasheed with 54.2% against 45.8% for Gayoom; turnout is 86.6%. Nasheed is expected to take office November 11.
Pakistan: Shaukat Tarin is named finance advisor.
Peru: Prime Minister Jorge del Castillo and his cabinet resign. The president accepts the resignations on October 10. On October 11 Yehude Simon is designated as new prime minister. The composition of his cabinet is announced on October 14 with Remigio Hernani Meloni as interior minister, other key portfolios remaining unchanged. The new cabinet is sworn in on the same date.
Congo (Kinshasa): Adolphe Muzito is appointed as prime minister. The new cabinet is announced on October 26, with Alexis Thambwe Mwamba as foreign minister, Charles Mwando Nsimba as defense minister, and Célestin Mbuyu Kabangu as interior minister; Athanase Matenda Kyelu remains finance minister.
Pakistan: Former governor of the North-West Frontier Province (1973-74) Mohammad Aslam Khan Khattak dies.
Afghanistan: Mohammad Hanif Atmar is appointed interior minister in a cabinet reshuffle. He is approved by parliament on October 20.
Austria: The Landeshauptmann of Kärnten, Jörg Haider, dies in a car accident. His deputy Gerhard Dörfler becomes acting Landeshauptmann. Dörfler is elected as Haider's successor with 19 of 36 votes (against 17 for Reinhart Rohr) on October 23 and is sworn in on October 27.
Congo (Kinshasa): Former foreign minister (1965) Cléophas Kamitatu dies.
Lithuania: In parliamentary elections (turnout 48.6%), the Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats wins 19.7% of the vote (18 of 70 proportional-representation seats), the National Revival Party 15.1% (13), Order and Justice 12.7% (11), the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party 11.7% (10), the Labour Party + Youth coalition 9% (8), the Liberals' Movement of the Republic of Lithuania 5.7% (5), and the Liberal and Centre Union 5.3% (5). Of the 71 constituency seats, only 3 are decided in the first round; in the remaining 68 constituencies a second round is held on October 26 (turnout 32.3%). The Homeland Union wins 44 of the total 141 seats, the Social Democrats 26, the National Revival Party 16, Order and Justice 15, the Liberals' Movement 11, Labour + Youth 10, and the Liberal and Centre Union 8. On October 28 Andrius Kubilius is asked to form a government.
Switzerland: Former Landammann of Glarus (1973-78) Hans Meier dies.
Canada: In parliamentary elections, the Conservative Party wins 37.6% of the vote (143 of 308 seats), the Liberal Party 26.2% (77), the New Democratic Party 18.2% (37), the Bloc Québécois 10% (49), the Green Party 6.8% (0), and independents 0.7% (2). Turnout is 59.1%.
Guinea: President Lansana Conté sacks Finance Minister Ousmane Doré and appoints Karamokoba Camara in his place.
Azerbaijan: In presidential elections, incumbent Ilham Aliyev wins 87.3% of the vote. Turnout is 75.6%. Aliyev subsequently reappoints Artur Rasizade as prime minister (approved by parliament on October 28).
Hungary: Former foreign minister (1983-89) Péter Várkonyi dies.
French Southern and Antarctic Lands: Rollon Mouchel-Blaisot takes office as administrator-superior.
Russia: President Dmitry Medvedev accepts the resignation of the governor of Amur oblast, Nikolay Kolesov; he appoints Oleg Kozhemyako as acting governor and nominates him to succeed Kolesov. On October 20 Kozhemyako is confirmed by the local legislative assembly (21-9) and sworn in.
Swaziland: Sibusiso Barnabas Dlamini is appointed as prime minister. He is sworn in on October 23. His cabinet is announced on October 24, with Lutfo Dlamini as foreign minister and Chief Mgwagwa Gamedze as home affairs minister; Majozi Sithole remains finance minister.
Lithuania: Former chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian S.S.R. (1975-85) Antanas Barkauskas dies.
Czech Republic: In the first round of elections to one-third of the Senate, held October 17-18, only one candidate receives more than 50% of the vote. In the remaining 26 electoral districts a second round is held on October 24-25. Of the 27 seats the Czech Social Democratic Party (CSSD) wins 23, the Civic Democratic Party (ODS) 3, and the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSCM) 1. In regional elections held October 17-18, the CSSD wins in all 13 regions, the ODS finishing second.
India: Former chief minister of Meghalaya (2000-01) E.K. Mawlong dies.
Portugal: In parliamentary elections in the Azores, the Socialist Party wins 51.4% of the vote (30 of 57 seats), the Social Democratic Party 31.1% (18), the Democratic Social Centre-People's Party 8.9% (5), the Left Bloc 3.4% (2), and the Portuguese Communist Party-Ecologist Party The Greens 3.2% (1). Turnout is 46.8%.
Mexico: Former governor of Nayarit (1976-81) Rogelio Flores Curiel dies.
Benin: In a cabinet reshuffle, Jean-Marie Ehouzou is appointed as foreign minister and Armand Zinzindohoué as interior minister.
Czech Republic: Parliament rejects a no-confidence motion against the government of Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek (96 votes for the motion, 97 against, 3 abstentions, 4 members absent; a majority of 101 votes was required for the adoption of the motion).
Georgia: The parliament of separatist South Ossetia approves President Eduard Kokoyty's nominee Aslanbek Bulatsev as prime minister (24-1).
Indonesia: In the gubernatorial runoff in Kalimantan Timur, Awang Faroek Ishak wins 57.9% of the vote and Achmad Amins 42.1%.
Panama: Interior Minister Daniel Delgado Diamante stands aside and the vice minister, Rodrigo Cigarruista, becomes acting minister.
Austria: Former mayor of Wien (1984-94) Helmut Zilk dies.
Israel: Tzipi Livni announces the failure of her attempts to form a government.
Canada: In parliamentary elections in Nunavut (turnout 71.2%), 17 independents (including 2 who were elected by acclamation on September 26) are elected and the elections are postponed in the two remaining seats. The Legislative Assembly will elect the premier in the middle of November.
Georgia: President Mikheil Saakashvili dismisses Prime Minister Lado Gurgenidze and nominates Grigol Mgaloblishvili to succeed him. The new cabinet proposed on October 29 is unchanged in the key positions.
Germany: The Landtag of Bayern elects Horst Seehofer as minister-president.
North Korea: Former foreign minister (1959-70) and premier (1976-77) Pak Song Chol dies.
Moldova: Gheorghe Papuc is appointed interior minister.
Canada: In a cabinet reshuffle, Lawrence Cannon becomes foreign minister.
Croatia: Former chairman of the Executive Council (1971-74) Ivo Perisin dies.
Ethiopia: In a cabinet reshuffle, Siraj Fegesa becomes defense minister.
Russia: President Dmitry Medvedev names Yunus-Bek Yevkurov as acting president of Ingushetia. On October 31 Yevkurov is nominated as president and confirmed by the People's Assembly of the republic (16-1).
Zambia: Presidential elections are won by Acting President Rupiah Banda (Movement for Multiparty Democracy) with 40.6% of the vote, against Michael Sata (Patriotic Front) with 38.6% and Hakainde Hichilema (United Party for National Development) with 20%. Turnout is 45.4%.