April 2002




San Marino: Antonio Lazzaro Volpinari (Socialist) and Giovanni Francesco Ugolini (Christian Democrat) take office as captains-regent.


Somalia: The Rahanwein Resistance Army proclaims a new state called Southwestern Somalia and swears in Hassan Muhammad Nur "Shatigadud" as president for a term of four years.
Switzerland: Ernst Hasler takes office as Landammann of Aargau.



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Brazil: Maria Dalva de Souza Figueiredo becomes governor of Amapá, Otto Roberto Mendonça de Alencar governor of Bahia, Benedito Clayton Veras Alcântara governor of Ceará, and José Reinaldo Carneiro Tavares governor of Maranhão. On April 6 José Rogério Salles becomes governor of Mato Grosso, Antônio Roberto de Sousa Paulino governor of Paraíba, Benedita da Silva governor of Rio de Janeiro, Fernando Antônio de Câmara Freire governor of Rio Grande do Norte, and Francisco Flamarion Portela governor of Roraima.


India: Former Andhra Pradesh chief minister (1982) Bhavanam Venkatram dies.


Portugal: José Manuel Durão Barroso is sworn in as prime minister. António Martins da Cruz becomes foreign minister, Paulo Portas defense minister, Manuela Ferreira Leite finance minister, and António Figueiredo Lopes interior minister.


Comoros: In the runoff on Mohéli, Mohamed Said Fazul is elected president with 56% of the vote against 44% for Mohamed Hassanaly. Turnout is 81.5%.
Costa Rica: In the presidential runoff, Abel Pacheco wins 58% of the vote and Rolando Araya 42%. Turnout is 61%. Pacheco will be sworn in on May 8.
Hungary: In the first round of parliamentary elections, the Socialists win 42.1% of the votes (93 seats) and the governing coalition of Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Party and Hungarian Democratic Forum 41.1% (87). Turnout is 70.5%. Runoffs will be held April 21.
Russia: In presidential elections in Ingushetia, Alikhan Amirkhanov wins 31.5% of the vote, Gen. Murat Zyazikov 19%, Mukharebek Aushev 17.3%, and Interim President Akhmed Malsagov 14%. A runoff is held on April 28, Zyazikov being elected with 53% against 42% for Amirkhanov and 4% against both candidates.


São Tomé and Príncipe: Prime Minister Gabriel Costa's new government is sworn in. Alda Bandeira becomes foreign minister and Victor Tavares Monteiro defense minister; Maria Tebus remains finance minister. Zeferino dos Prazeres is named as new president of the regional government of Príncipe on April 11 and sworn in on April 12.


Laos: Maj.Gen. Soutchay Thammasith is named interior minister.
Yugoslavia: Parliaments of both Serbia and Montenegro ratify an agreement (signed March 14) on a future state to be called Serbia and Montenegro. Four pro-independence members of Montenegro's government, including Foreign Minister Branko Lukovac, announce their resignation for April 10. On April 19 Montenegrin Prime Minister Filip Vujanovic resigns.


Bermuda: Sir John Vereker is sworn in as governor.


Turks and Caicos Islands: Jim Poston is appointed as governor, to take office in November.

Venezuela: President Hugo Chávez is overthrown in a coup. The military leadership says that he was asked to resign and that, in his last official act before signing the resignation, he dismissed Executive Vice-President Diosdado Cabello and all the ministers. Pedro Carmona Estanga becomes president of a transitional government. A decree by the transitional government later in the day designates Carmona as president of Venezuela and reestablishes the name Republic of Venezuela. A new cabinet is appointed with José Rodríguez Iturbe as foreign minister, Leopoldo Martínez as finance minister, Vice-Adm. Héctor Ramírez as defense minister, and Gen. Rafael Damiani as interior minister. In a rapid turn of events, Carmona resigns on April 13 and Cabello assumes power as acting president pending the return of Chávez, which takes place April 14. The old cabinet is reinstated, but on April 18 Jesús Bermúdez is appointed as new finance minister to replace Gen. Francisco Usón, who had resigned on April 11, and on April 28 Defense Minister José Vicente Rangel is named to replace Cabello as vice president.


South Korea: Finance Minister Jin Nyum resigns. On April 14 Jeon Yun Churl is appointed new finance minister.


Comoros: Mohamed Bacar is sworn in as president of Anjouan. In the presidential elections for the Union of Comoros, Col. Azali Assoumani wins more than 80% of the vote. Turnout is 39.1%. However, on April 22 the electoral commission cancels the results; the two opposition candidates, Mahamoud Mradabi and Said Ali Kemal, and most voters of Anjouan, boycotted the vote.
East Timor: Xanana Gusmão wins presidential elections with 82.7% of the vote against 17.3% for his only rival, Francisco Xavier do Amaral. Turnout is 86.3%. Gusmão will take office on May 20, when East Timor will become independent.
Russia: In gubernatorial elections in Lipetsk oblast, incumbent Oleg Korolev is reelected with more than 73% of the vote against 5% for Igor Polosin and 13% voting against all candidates. In Penza oblast, incumbent Vasily Bochkarev is reelected with about 45.5% against 41% for Viktor Ilyukhin.


Canada: Ernie Eves becomes premier of Ontario.


Guatemala: Former president (1993-96) Ramiro de León Carpio dies.
The Netherlands: Prime Minister Wim Kok's government resigns.


Germany: Georg Milbradt becomes minister-president of Sachsen.
Ghana: Defense Minister Kwame Addo-Kufuor takes over the Interior Ministry until a new minister is appointed.
India: Sikander Bakht is sworn in as governor of Kerala.


Indonesia: Sinyo Harry Sarundajang is sworn in as acting governor of Maluku Utara. He was appointed by Jakarta on March 23; on two previous occasions, the election of a governor by the provincial legislature (Abdul Gafur on July 5, 2001, and Thaib Armaiyn on March 7, 2002) was annulled by the central government.


Italy: Former president of Piemonte (1970-73) Edoardo Calleri di Sala dies.
Madagascar: Pety Rakotoniaina is installed as governor of Fianarantsoa, after the forces supporting President Didier Ratsiraka left the provincial capital.


Chad: In parliamentary elections, President Idriss Déby's Patriotic Salvation Movement wins 110 of 155 seats, the Rally for Democracy and Progress 12, the Federation Action for the Republic 9, the National Rally for Development and Progress 5, the Union for Renewal and Democracy 5, and the National Union for Renewal and Democracy 3. Turnout is 52.8%.
France: In the first round of presidential elections, incumbent Jacques Chirac (Rally for the Republic) wins 19.9% of the vote, Jean-Marie Le Pen (National Front) 16.9%, Prime Minister Lionel Jospin (Socialist) 16.2%, François Bayrou (Union for French Democracy) 6.8%, Arlette Laguiller (Workers' Fight) 5.7%, Jean-Pierre Chevènement (Citizens' Movement) 5.3%, Noël Mamère (Green) 5.3%, Olivier Besancenot (Revolutionary Communist League) 4.2%, Jean Saint-Josse (Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Traditions) 4.2%, Alain Madelin (Liberal Democracy) 3.9%, and Robert Hue (Communist) 3.4%. Turnout is 71.6%. A runoff between Chirac and Le Pen will be held on May 5.
Germany: In elections in Sachsen-Anhalt, the Christian Democratic Union wins 37.3% of the vote (48 of 115 seats), the Party of Democratic Socialism 20.4% (25), the Social Democratic Party 20% (25), the Free Democratic Party 13.3% (17), the Partei Rechtsstaatlicher Offensive 4.5%, and the Greens 2%.
Hungary: The parliamentary election runoffs give the Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Party/Hungarian Democratic Forum coalition a total of 188 seats (164 and 24 respectively) in the 386-seat parliament, the Socialist Party 178, and the Free Democrats 20. Turnout is 71.2%.
Niue: In parliamentary elections, all 20 members of the Legislative Assembly are reelected.


Indonesia: Hudarni Rani is inaugurated as governor of Bangka-Belitung.


Argentina: Economy Minister Jorge Remes Lenicov resigns. Roberto Lavagna is appointed to the post on April 26 and sworn in April 27.
Indonesia: Former governor of Kalimantan Timur (1988-98) Ardans dies.

Switzerland: Charles-Louis Rochat becomes president of the Council of State of Vaud.


Portugal: Former foreign minister (1978) Vítor Sá Machado dies.
Tunisia: Interior Minister Abdallah Kaabi is sacked and replaced with Hédi M'henni.


Mali: In the first round of presidential elections, Amadou Toumani Touré wins 28% of the vote, Soumaïla Cissé 22.7%, and Ibrahim Boubacar Keita 20.7%. Turnout is 38.6%. A runoff between Touré and Cissé will be held on May 12.

Russia: Krasnoyarsk Governor Aleksandr Lebed dies following a helicopter crash. Nikolay Ashlapov becomes acting governor.
Russia: The chairman of the government of Karelia, Sergey Katanandov, is reelected with 53.5% of the vote. According to the new constitution Katanandov will take the title of head of the republic as of May 12.

Switzerland: Bruno Koster is elected as new Regierender Landammann of Appenzell Innerrhoden.


Madagascar: The High Constitutional Court says a recount of the December presidential election shows Marc Ravalomanana was the winner with 51.5% of the vote, while Didier Ratsiraka won 35.9%. Ratsiraka does not recognize this result. While Ravalomanana holds power in Antananarivo and Fianarantsoa, the other provinces remain controlled by governors loyal to Ratsiraka. On April 30 the governor of Antsiranana, Jean-Robert Gara, proclaims his province a "sovereign state, independent in the confederation of Madagascar."
Ukraine: In the Crimea, Borys Deich is elected chairman of parliament and Serhiy Kunitsyn becomes prime minister.


Canada: Former acting premier of the Northwest Territories (1998) Goo Arlooktoo dies.
Faeroe Islands: In parliamentary elections, the Union Party wins 26% of the vote, the Republican Party 23.7%, the Social Democrats 20.9%, the People's Party 20.8%, the Independence Party 4.4%, and the Centre Party 4.2%. Turnout is 91.1%. With 16 of 32 seats, Prime Minister Anfinn Kallsberg's coalition (Republican Party, People's Party, and Independence Party) loses its majority.
Pakistan: President Pervez Musharraf wins 97.7% backing in a referendum extending his rule for five years. Turnout is over 50%.
Vanuatu: Former chief minister (1978-79) Gérard Leymang dies.