Germany: Johannes Rau takes office as president.
United States: Lawrence Summers is sworn in as treasury secretary.
Kuwait: In parliamentary elections, only 16 of the 50 seats are won by known government supporters while opposition liberals win more than 12 seats. Independent Islamists and traditionalist tribal politicians take a total of 18 seats. On July 13 a new cabinet is formed. Sheikh Ali Al Salim Al Sabah is replaced as finance minister by Sheikh Ahmad Al Abdullah Al Sabah.
Israel: Ehud Barak takes office as prime minister. He also takes the defense portfolio. David Levy becomes foreign minister, Natan Sharansky interior minister, and Avraham Shohat finance minister.
Senegal: Former foreign minister (1960-62, 1962-68) Doudou Thiam dies.
Papua New Guinea: Prime Minister Bill Skate announces his resignation. On July 14 Parliament elects Sir Mekere Morauta as prime minister (99-5). On July 26 he announces his cabinet. Sir Michael Somare becomes foreign minister, Alfred Pogo defense minister, Morauta himself takes the finance and internal affairs portfolios.
Rwanda: President Pasteur Bizimungu dismisses Foreign Minister Amri Sued Ismail. The following day Augustin Iyamuremye becomes foreign minister.
Solomon Islands: John Lapli takes office as governor-general.
Latvia: Vaira Vike-Freiberga is sworn in as president.
Lebanon: Former prime minister (1980-84) Shafiq Wazzan dies.
The Netherlands: Former queen's commissioner of Groningen (1962-70) Cees Fock dies.
Azerbaijan: President Heydar Aliyev sacks Finance Minister Fikret Yusifov, replacing him with Avaz Alekperov.
Bermuda: Former premier (1975-77) Sir John Sharpe dies.
Belgium: Guy Verhofstadt is sworn in as prime minister. Louis Michel becomes foreign minister, André Flahaut defense minister, Didier Reynders finance minister, and Antoine Duquesne interior minister.
Organization of African Unity: Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika is elected chairman.
Zimbabwe: The former governor-general (1957-63) of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Simon Ramsay, Earl of Dalhousie, dies.
Congo (Brazzaville): Former prime minister (1968-69) Alfred Raoul dies.
Latvia: Parliament approves a new cabinet headed by Andris Skele, following the resignation of Prime Minister Vilis Kristopans on July 5. Indulis Berzins becomes foreign minister, Mareks Seglins interior minister, and Edmunds Krastins finance minister.
São Tomé and Príncipe: Paulo Jorge Espirito Santo becomes foreign minister and Emilio Lima interior minister.
Spain: Román Rodríguez Rodríguez is named president of the government of the Canarias autonomous community.
India: Former lieutenant governor of Pondicherry (1995-98) Rajendra Kumari Bajpai dies.
Australia: Former Northern Territory administrator (1989-93) James Muirhead dies.
Czech Republic: Pavel Mertlík is chosen as finance minister, to replace Ivo Svoboda.
Guinea: Former foreign minister (1985-92) Jean Traoré dies.
Spain: Vicente Álvarez Areces becomes president of Asturias autonomous community.
Equatorial Guinea: Santiago Nsobeya Efuman becomes foreign minister and Miguel Abia Biteo Boricó finance minister.
Lesotho: Finance Minister Leketekete Victor Ketso resigns.
Mongolia: The government of Prime Minister Janlavyn Narantsatsralt resigns. Foreign Minister Nyam-Osoryn Tuyaa becomes acting prime minister until July 30, when Parliament elects Rinchinnyamyn Amarjargal as prime minister.
United Kingdom: The Conservatives win a by-election in Eddisbury.
Kyrgyzstan: Sultan Mederov becomes finance minister.
Morocco: King Hassan II dies. Crown Prince Sidi Muhammad becomes King Muhammad VI.
Philippines: Former foreign secretary (1987-92) Raul S. Manglapus dies.
Greece: Former president (1973-74) Phaidon Ghizikis dies.
Canada: In Nova Scotia elections, the Progressive Conservatives led by John Hamm win 29 seats, the New Democrats 12, and the Liberals 11. Turnout is about 68%.
Spain: Francesc Antich i Oliver becomes president of the government of the Baleares autonomous community.
Cook Islands: Joe Williams is sworn in as prime minister.
Japan: Former governor of Kagawa (1986-98) Joichi Hirai dies.