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Rulers

This site contains lists of heads of state and heads of government (and, in certain cases, de facto leaders not occupying either of those formal positions) of all countries and territories, going back to about 1700 in most cases. Also included are the subdivisions of various countries (the links are at the bottom of the respective country entries), as well as a selection of international organizations. Recent foreign ministers of all countries are listed separately.

In cases where not even the exact year of the beginning or end of a ruler's term is known, the asterisk (*) is used to indicate dates at which the person is known to have been in office, e.g., *1924 - 1925* means the term began in 1924 or earlier and ended in 1925 or later. All dates are New Style (Gregorian). (f) indicates female rulers. Birth and death years are also provided (b. = born, d. = died, s.a. = see above), but note that the given birth years may be questionable, as different sources often give contradictory information. In cases where it is particularly unclear, the birth year is followed by a question mark (e.g., 1923?) but that does not mean that the year is guaranteed to be correct when there is no question mark. Also, when no death year is given, it should not be taken for granted that the person is indeed still alive.

Countries and territories: Ab-Am - An-Az - Ba-Bo - Br-Bu - Ca-Ce - Ch - Ci-Co - Cr-Cz - D - E - F - Ga-Gi - Go-Gu - H - I - JK - L - Ma - Me-My - Na-Ne - Ni-O - Pa-Pe - Ph-Pu - QR - Sa - Se-So - Sp-Sy - T - U - VW - YZ - Synopsis - Clickable map
International organizations: A-N - O-W -- Foreign ministers: A-D - E-K - L-R - S-Z -- Religious leaders


Chronicle of relevant events since 1996
1996: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
1997: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
1998: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
1999: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2000: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2001: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2002: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2003: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2004: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2005: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2006: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2007: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2008: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2009: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2010: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2011: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2012: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2013: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
2014: January - February - March - April

Index
Aa-Ag - Ah-Al - Am-Aq - Ar-As - At-Az - Ba - Be-Bh - Bi-Bl - Bo - Br-By - Ca-Ce - Ch - Ci-Cl - Co-Cz - Da - De-Dh - Di-Do - Dr-Dz - E - Fa-Fl - Fo-Fy - Ga-Gb - Ge-Gj - Gl-Gq - Gr-Gy - Ha - He-Hn - Ho-Hy - I - J - Ka - Ke-Ki - Kl-Ky - La - Le-Lh - Li-Ll - Lo-Ly - Ma-Mam - Man-Maz - Mb-Me - Mf-Mn - Mo - Mp-Mz - Na-Ne - Ng-Nz - O - Pa - Pe-Ph - Pi-Py - Q - Ra - Re-Ri - Ro-Ry - Sa - Sc-Sf - Sh-Sl - Sm-Ss - St-Sz - Ta-Ti - Tj-Tz - U - V - Wa-We - Wh-Wy - X - Y - Z
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1995-2014 B. Schemmel. Data from this site may be queried and copied on a not-for-profit basis only if the source is accurately credited. All rights are reserved for profit-seeking purposes. This site is designed for purposes of sharing information freely and intended to be a resource for academics and other private users. Unless otherwise specified, the services of this site are for personal and non-commercial use. You may not copy, transmit, transfer, distribute, reproduce, modify, license, display, perform, publish, create derivative works from, or sell any information, software, products, or services derived from this site. Without the advance express written permission of Rulers.org, you may not send, or cause to be sent, any automated queries of any sort to the Rulers.org site, or use the site in any commercial manner.
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